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Full text of "73 Magazine (January 1984)"

International Edition 



January 1984 $2.50 
Issue #280 




renada Log 



he EGG: 
Electronic 
Graphics 
Generator 

Page 56 



Heath's SS-9000 

Page 107 



Discover 
Crosslinking 

Page 10 

New! 

Encoded Code: 
The Bottom Line 

Page 46 



I 


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74470' 


65946 



Amateur Radio's 
Technical Journal 



A Wayne Green Publication 



Breakthrough in Boston: 
The Birth of Crosslinking 

VV1UKZ built this box It's small and it 

M ■ ■ ■ _# > 






works The question is whether you're 

W1UKZ 



ready for it 



Grenada Log 

With a body-bag rig and gas from a bike, a 
ham hustled home the news. Here's history 
happening. ... . . . K1XR, N8RK 

Instant Pane Relief 

"5T" This is the only notch filter for windows 
;■— I we've ever seen If you can figure it 
out. you'll beat the feedtine flu. . KC8UD 



Sound Off! 



[y~| Here's the perfect S-meter addon for 



the repeater that has everything The 
higher the beep, the better the signal 

K3JML 

Some Alarming Techniques 

~v~ These burg tar-proof circuits wilt stump 
■ — I second-story men and amaze possible 
thieves— as well as you WA4CCA 

Join the Packet-Radio Revolution — 

Part III 

Don't mess up. Packet protocols and proce- 
dures are all-important says WA7GXD, and 
He's been right so far WA7GXD 

The CW Stationmaster 



v Regeneration turns the worst signal 
- 1 — I into a CW symphony And thaf s not all 



you get when you build this station accessory 

W4RNL 

Top Drawer, Micro-Style 

V\~A Building circuits is ftin r but drawing 
^™ them isn't. Let your Apple do the 
drafting K3LF 

Trade Secrets of Mobile Installation 

Mounting a rig in your car is not as hard 
as it seems Find out how the pros do rt 

K4TVVJ 

Around and Around and Around 

There's got to be a better way to wind 
your coils to specs. Build the Q-meter 



\ 



\ 



i — 



and get the exact inductance you need 

N7 APE 



On the Move with 10 FM! 

JT These modifications for Comtronix and 



Azden rigs will get you on your feet 
in a hurry , , . W7AR 



10 



20 



22 



28 



32 



36 



46 



56 



70 




10 FM— 84 



Thank You for Listening 



3y~] Build this simple speech expander and 
stop shouting. Your DX friends will 



thank you and the QSU will roll in. 



VE1 BZJ 86 



Secrets of N reads 

Nicad batteries will save you money Or will 
they? WB2FYVV 88 

The Edison Effect 

American inventor Thomas Edison is re- 
membered for his array of electrical firsts. 
But lesser known is his invention of the first 
wireless telegraph. WB2MVK 90 



84 



Never Say Die— 6 
73 International— 76 
Corrections— 94 
Social Events — 94 
Ham Help— 95, 

100,101 

Circuits— 96, 115 
Fun! — 97 
RTTY Loop— 97 
Letters— 98 
Dr. Digital— 99 
FCC— 102 



Awards— 104 
DX— 105 
Review— 107 
New Products— 110 
Contests— 111 
Reader 
Service — 114 
Barter 'N 1 Buy— 117 
Satellites— 117 
Dealer 

Directory— 146 
Propagation— 146 




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ICOM is proud to announce 
the most advanced amateur 
transceiver in communications 
histofy. Based on ICOWs 
proven high technology and 
wide dynamic range HF receiver 
designs, the IC-751 is a 
competition grade ham 
receiver, a 100KH2 to 30 MHz 
continuous tuning general 
coverage receiver, and a full 
featured all mode solid state 
horn band transmitter, thai 
covers all fhe new WA&C bands. 
And with the optional internal 
AC power supply, it becomes 
one compact, portable field 
day package. 

Receiver. Utilizing an ICOM 
developed J-FET DBM. ttie IC-751 
has a 105dB dynamic range 
The 7W515MH2 fast IF virtually 
eliminates spurious responses, 
and a high gain 90115MHz 
second IF, with iCOMs PBT 
system, gives the ultimate in 
selectivity A de&p IF notch filter, 
adjustable AGC and noise 
blanker (can be adjusted to 



eliminate the woodpecker), 
audio tone control, plus RIT with 
separate readout provides easy- 
to-adjust. clear reception even 
in the presence of strong QRM or 
high noise levels. A low noise 
receive? preamp provides 
exceptional reception sensitivity 
as required 

Transmitter. The transmitter 
features high reliability 2SC2904 
transistors in a low IMD (-38dB 
100W), full 100% duty cycle 
(internal cooling fan standard), 
12 volt DC design Quiet reiay 
selection of transmitter LPF's, 
transmit audio tone control, 
monitor circuit (to monitor your 
own CW or SSB signal). XfT, and 
a high performance speech 
processor enhance the IC-751 
transmitter's operation For the 
CW operator, semi break -in or 
full OSK is provided for smooth, 
fast break-in keying 

Dual VFO. Dual VFO's 
controlled by a large tuning 
knob provide easy access to 



spilt frequencies used In DX 
operation, Normal tuning rate Is 
In 10Hz increments and 
Increasing the speed of rotation 
of the main tuning knob shifts 
the tuning to 50Hz increments 
automatically. Pushing the 
tuning speed button gives 1KHz 
tuning. Digital outputs are 
available for computer control of 
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functions, ana* for a synthesized 
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12 Memories. Thirty two 
tunable memories are provided 
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frequency, and the CPU is 
backed by an internal lithium 
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maintain the memories for up to 
seven years Scanning of 
frequencies, memories and 
bands are possible from the unit, 
or from the HM12 scanning 
microphone In the Mode S 
mode, only those memories with 
a particular mode are scanned; 
others are bypassed Data may 
be transferred between VFO's, 



from VFO to memories, or from 

memories to VFO. 

Standard Features. All of 

the above features pi us FM unit 
high shape factor F144A, 455 Khz 
SSB filter full function metering, 
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grade HF base transceiver. 

Options. External frequency 
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CWN: FL52A, FL53A, 
FL32. R63 

AM: FL33 




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77DX $5450 $3775 

78 $3495 $2480 

374 A $2595 $1860 

76 A $1985 $1440 

76PA $2395 $1695 

76CA $2695 $1930 

PRICES 
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and select two of the following 
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1)VS-1 Voice Synthesizer. 

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2) TU-4C sub-audible 

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3) MA-4000 Duo-band 
Mobile Antenna. $44.95 value 



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Plus 3 BONUS ITEMS 

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3) YK-88C-1 FILTER 

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TS-430S TR-7950 



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SALE $799 

W-36 

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KT-34A 
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KT-34XA 
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PFIFCES ARE FOB CALIF. 

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PLEASE INQUIRE 



6-3016 REG. $23995 
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B-1016 REG, $27995 
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B-108 REG. $179,95 
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B-23S REG. $89.95 
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B-101Q REG. $31995 
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North . . . south < . , east. . . west 

Bob Ferrero.WSR J 
Jim Rafferty, N6RJ 

other well known hams 
g i ve you co u rteo us. 
personalized 
service. 



ON MOST ITEMS THAT CAN BE SHIPPED UPS BROWN, 
THERE ARE SOME EXCEPTIONS IN ALPHA. TRI-EX AND KLM 



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5 miles south on 101 from SF Airport 



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73 Magazine * January, 1984 3 



■^BMi 




1984 
CALLBOOKS 



Order today! 

NEW 1984 

RADIO AMATEUR CALLBOOKS 



Known throughout the world for accuracy, 
the 1934 Callbooks are a better value than 
ever before. The U.S. Call book contains 
over 430,000 listings; the Foreign Call book 
has over 400,000. More than 75,000 changes 
have been made [n each edition since last 
year. Special features Include call changes, 
Silent Keys, census of amateur licenses, 
world-wide QSL bureaus, International 
postal rates, prefixes of the world, and much 
more. You can't beat this values Order your 
1984 Callbooks now for earliest delivery. 

Each Shipping Total 

DU.5. Callbook $19.95 $3.05 $23.00 

o Foreign Callback 18.95 3.05 22.00 

Order both books at the same time for 
$41.95 including shipping within the USA* 

Order from your dealer or directly from the 
publisher. Foreign residents add $4.55 for 

shipping. Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. 

- 

Keep your 1984 Callbooks up to date. 

The U.S. and Foreign Supplements contain 
aH activity for the previous three months 
including new licenses. Available from the 
publisher in sets of three (March 1, June 1, 
and September 1) for only $12.00 per set 
including shipping. Specify U.S. or Foreign 
Supplements when ordering, Illinois 
residents add 5% sales tax. Offer void after 
November 1, 19S4. 



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925 Sherwood Dr., Box 247 

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Tel: (312)234-6600 




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The LJM2RK decode* kit convert* your receiver into ■ 
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control for activating speaker* or olher device*. 

INPUT: Audio from transceiver scanner, etC- 
OOTPUT: SPST jN O ) relay. 

FEATURES: Single or dual tones adjustable over the ift 
digil Toucn Tone range * Adjustable response time * 
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latching with different single tone reset OFF * Operates 
on 12VDC • Interlacing ol multiple boards lor muHi-digil 
sequential activation and reset. 

APPLICATIONS Call -up system* Repeater or commer- 
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For information and to order write: 



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204 Sunrise Orlv*. Madron, IN 47250 ^ 2G5 



FILTER CASCADING 



The most cos t-ef fective way to improve the selectivity oT 
any receiver — old or new— Is to Improve its IF filtering* A 
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cent channel QflM— a necessity in today's crowded 
bands. 

CONSIDER THESE KIT FEATURES 

* Easy installation— 30 minute average. 

* No drilling or switching; simple alignment. 

• 16 poles of filtering yield; 

Filter Straps Factof as high as 1.19. 
Ultimate Rejection belter than tOOdB. 
Works wonders on SSB; improves CW. 

• Compensates for Filter insertion loss, 

■ Complete instruct tons, clear diagrams. 

• Includes Filter and all needed parts. 

■ Fits all models of Series— any letter, 

* All Filter* 8-pOle— Guaranteed One Year. 

SPECIFY KFT WANTED WHEN ORDERING 

YAESU FT101 SS0, FT101ZD f 7S; FT107 S80; FT901/2, S70, 
FR101 $60 {filter only*. KENWOOD TS520/R5S9 S7S, 
TS820 S75: TS€30793O,R320 ft 70 (Two Fillers t HEATH 
$81 04 A S65. 

Shipping S3 {Air 15} Owriais S1 0, FL Sales T»a 5%. 

In addition to the above. FOX TANGO stocks a wide line 
of $60 SSB, CW, and AM 6-pole filters lor Yaesu, Ken 
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filters made to order. Send specs for quote. 

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INFO 



Manuscripts 

Contributions in the form ot manu- 
scripts with drawings and/or photo 
gf aphs are welcome and win be con- 
sidered for possible publication We 
can assume no responsibility for loss 
or damage to any material Ptease 
enclose a stamped, self addressed 
envelope with each submission Pay- 
ment for the use ot any unsolicited 
material will be made upon accep- 
tance. All contributions should be di- 
rected to the 73 editorial offices. 
"How to Write for 73' guidelines are 
available upon request. 

Editorial Offices: 

Pine Street 

Peterborough NH 03458 

Phone: 603^924 9471 

Advertising Offices: 

Elm Si reel 

Peterborough NH 03436 

Phone 603-924-7138 

Circulation Offices: 

Elm Street 

Pderboroufih NH 03458 

Phone: 60392*9471 

Subscription Rates 

In the United States and Possessions 
One Year (12 issuesi $2500 
Two Years (24 issues) (30.00 
Three Years (36 issues) $53.00 

Elsewhere: 

Canada and Mexico— 127 ,97/1 year 
only. U.S. funds- Foreign surface 

mall— £44.97/1 year oniy r US 'unds 
drawn on US bank Foreign air 
man — please inquire. 

To subscribe, 

renew or change 

an address: 

Write to 73, Subscription Depart ment, 
PO Box 931. Farmingdale NY 11737. 
For renewals and changes of address, 
include the address label from your 
most recent issue of 73 For gift sub- 
scriptions, include your name and ad- 
dress as well as those ot gift reci- 
pients. 

Subscription 
problem or 

question: 

Write to 73. Subscription Department. 
PO Boi 931, Farmingdale NY 11737. 
Please include an address label 

73: Amateur Raftos T^cftmcAt Journal 
rtSSN G745OftQ)0 is published rnoniniy 
by Wayne Green. Inc.. 00 Pine Street, 
Peterborough NH 03456 Second class 
postage paid at Peterborough NH 03456 
and at additional mailing offices Entire 
contents copyright 1983, Wayne 
Green, Inc. All rights reserved. No part ot 
this publication may be reprinted or 
otherwise reproduced wilhout written 
permission from the publisher. Micro- 
film Edition— Univer any Microfilm, Ann 
Arbor Ml 46 106. Posl master Send ad- 
dress changes to 73, Subscription Ser- 
vices. PO Box 931, Farmingdale 
NY 11737. Nationally dismbuted by In- 
ternational Circulation Distributors 



4 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



The Bearcat DX1000 

makes tuning in London 
as easy as dialing a phone. 




Direct access keyboard tuning 
brings a new level of simplicity 
to shortwave radio. With the 
Bearcat* DX 1000, dialing in the 
BBC in London is as easy as 
dialing a telephone. And you can 
switch from the BBC to Peruvian 
Huayno music from Radio Andina 
instantly. Without bandswitching. 

Featuring the innovative 
microprocessor digital technology 
made famous by Bearcat scanner 
radios, the DX 1000 covers 10 kHz 
to 30 MHz continuously, with PLL 
synthesized accuracy But as 
easy as it is to tune, it has all 
the features even the most 
sophisticated "DXer" could want. 
1 memory channels let you 
store favorite stations for instant 
recall— or for faster "band- 



nn n 
u iu 



MHz 



scanning" during key openings. 
The digital dis- 
play measures 
frequencies to 
1 kHz, or at the 
touch of a but- 
ton, doubles as 
a two time zone, 24-hour digital 
quartz clock. A built-in timer 
wakes you to your favorite 
shortwave station. Or, it can be 
programmed to activate 
peripheral equipment like a tape 
recorder to record up to ten 
different broadcasts— any 
frequency, any mode — while you 
are asleep or at work. 

The DX 1000 also includes 
independent selectivity selection 
to help you separate high- 
powered stations on adjacent 



frequencies. Plus a noise blanking 
system that stops Russian 
pulse radar interference, 

There's never been an 
easier way to hear what the 
world has to say. With the 
Bearcat DX 1000 shortwave 

radio, you have direct access to 

the world. 

For the name of your 

nearest retailer dial toll-free , . . 

1-800-SCANNER. 



Frequency Range: 10 kHz to 30 MHz continu- 
ously. Tuning: Direct keyboard enlry, selectable 
3 or 24 kHz per revolution knob tuning, or manual 
step Junmg in selectable 1 -99 kHz steps Sensi- 
tivity: 10 //V AM, 5 //V CW/SSB/FM. 1.6-30 
MHz Image and IF Refection: 70 dB or more 
Memory: 10 frequency capacity Frequency 
Stability: Better ihan 100 Hz after warm-up, 
Mode*: AM/LSB/U5B/CW/FM, AGC: Seteci- 
e nasi -Slow release times Filter Band widths: 
2 7 kHz 6 kHz and 12 kHz. Filter Selection 
Independent of Mode, 




1000 

shortwave radio. 
Direct Access To The World. 




rWnftrnrDKIQOO 

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* Copyright 1983. Masco Corporation of Indiana 



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Electro* Company 

Division of Masco Corp oJ Indiana 

300 East County Line Road 
Curnbarland, Indiana 46229 



W2HSD/1 

NEVER SAY DIE 

editorial t>y Wayne Green 




WELL, 1984 IS HERE 

It hasn't turned out much like 
Orweirs book, thankfully. Ac- 
tually, these should be great 
days for hams. After all, here we 
are right in the early stages of 
the electronic revolution—some 
thing amateur radio helped in a 
great measure to get started. The 
revolution has taken some 
twists, so only those hams with a 
flexible attitude have managed 
to keep up with what is going on. 



Indeed, I find that I have to 
spend a good deal of my time 
just trying to keep up with the 
onrush of technology. This 
means talking with people, read- 
ing several hundred technical 
magazines a month as well as a 
few books, and getting to 
shows— a lot of shows. They are 
worthwhile for me because I can 
see the gear, ask questions, and 
learn more in a short time. 

Okay, you may want to know 



HELP WANTED 

73 is currently seeking a TECHNICAL/INTERNATIONAL EDITOR The position 
requires excellent written and oral common (cat ions skirts, as well as a General- 
class or higher Mckel, Experience with microcomputers woutd be a help. Re- 
sponsibilities include participating In manuscript review, organizing and imple- 
menting special projects, and supervising our staff of foreign correspondents. 

We offer a competitive salary and benefits package and excellent, informal 
working conditions. As you may Know. Peterborough is located 75 mites from 
Boston In the beautiful Monad nock region of New Hampshire— a state wllh no 
sales or Income tax, 

Of course, we are an equal opportunity employer, I! you are a non-smoker in- 
terested In this position, pleaae forward your resume and salary requirements 
to: Jack Burnett, Executive Editor, 73; Amateur Radio's Technical Journal, Peter- 
borough NH 03458. 




OSL OF THE MONTH 

This month's flashy winner, submitted by Jim Houston 2S6BUR, surely brightens up 
nam-shack watts around the wortd. 

To enter your OSL card in 73* s OSL of the Month contest, put it in an envelope with your 
choice of a book from 73' s Radio Bookshop and mail it to 73. Pine Street, Petertorouoh 
NH 03453, Attn OSL of the Month Entries not in envelopes or without a book choice will 
not be eligible 

6 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



what the bottom line is of all this 
activity on my part. HI tell 
you. . take it easy. First, as far 
as amateur radio goes, you may 
suspect that all is not well. This 
is heyday time for the gloom and 
doomers. with ARRL member- 
ship dropping like a brick, more 
and more dealers going bank- 
rupt, more of our American man- 
ufacturers becoming invisible, 
and the sunspots diminishing. 

I prefer to look on the bright 
side. Here we have a new 
OSCAR up there begging for 
use. We have several new 
modes of communication beg- 
ging for activity such as packet 
radio, crossband repeaters, orv 
thecal r bulletin boards— stuff 
like that. With low-cost com- 
puters and chips, experimenters 
have never had it so good. We 
can build circuits in an evening 
that would have filled several 
relay racks a few years ago— so 
let's have at it. You build T em 
and I'll publish 'em— okay? 

You might like to know that 
we're seeing some progress 
with some of my other ideas. I'd 
like to prove what can be done in 
high-powered education— turn- 
ing out high-tech kids with a 
strong business education. If 
you think about it, you'll realize 
that this would be 3 way to give 
them a super start in a career 
And there is some progress with 
my idea for getting ham clubs 
started in every high school in 
the country. Despite the obvious 
need for technical people, I've 
run into more resistance with 
this idea than I expected. 

Now, in case you're inter- 
ested In an overview of tech- 

Continued on page 1 16 



STAFF 



EDITOR/PUBLISHER 
Wayne Green W2NSDJ i 

ASST OMTOtVPOttlSHEB 
JetfDeTrayWti&BTH 

EXECUTIVE EDITOR 
Jonn C Burnett 



MANAGING E d, TO r 
Susan Phiibrtct 

ASST MANAGING EDITOR 

StCv* JeurtHf 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 
Nancy Noyd 

fecial f*r**im 

ASSOCIATES 

HobeT Ba*** WB2GFE 

John Btm^m Kt&f 

Qiti Qow! KE7C 
C>«J Hittu VP*M|_ 

Aw? L J anMm WB8JLG 

Df Wan: L«*i*y WA3AJR 

j m Nelson 

B*n Paslerfu* WrASfTF 

Pel** 5t»* *20*w 

Robert S*-r 5 ** AFJW 



N*nc r SaiTnyi 

ASST TO THE PHODUCTIO** 

DIRECTOR 

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ADVERTISING GRAPHICS 

MANAGER 

Scott W Pndtv ■ 

DESIGN DIRECTOR 
Christine Destretritir* 

PRODUCTION 
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Pamela Braaiey 

liftda Drwn 

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hpnnerh 5uln> 

rhcreia Vtfrviila 

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PHOTOGRAPHY 

Thomas VillpnGuve 
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TYPESETTING 

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Dariane Bailey 

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Lynn Haines 

Cyntfiia Leloyrneau 

Debtjte NutMifl 

Lmdy Pafmisano 

H«xdi H Trwvnaa 

Sue wei let 



VICE PRESIOENTrGENERAL MANAGER 
EteOra We! hemp* 

VICE PRESIDENT*: ON TROLLER 
Roger j Murphy 

ASSISTANT 

TO THE PRESIDENT 

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ACCOUNTING MANAGER 

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RETAIL AND NEWSSTAND 
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ADVERTISING 

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Jifflfrj. RftXU Mgr 

Nancy Ciampa. Ass: Mgr 

Rftfti K*rtn3ft KA1GAV 

C-»*Jyl M^^skr 




ACCESSORIES 



MC-55 



(SP/6P) 



60-6 m 2 KW SWR/PEP- POWER Meter 

Jp to 3 separate directional couplers may be connected. 

OneSWC-3 is supplied.) Optional couplers: 

SWC-2 (2-m/70-em, 200 W) & SWC 3 fl60 ^6~m, 2 KW]. 



Mobile Microphone (Spin or 
6 -pin) 

700 Q ElectreL Condenser Mic. 
with flexible boom, and separate 
STAND-BY box built in UP/DOWN 
switch and 5 minute Time-Oui- 
Tlmer, 



IWIC-85 



f 




Multi -Function Desk Top Micro- 
phone (8 -pin) 

700 Q Unidirectional Electret Con 
denser Mic. HuilHn mie-ajtip with 
output and tone control, meter* 
XCVR selector and UP/DOWN 
switch. Optional rnlc cables: 
PG-4D (4-pin) , PG-4E (6-pin) & 
PG-4F (8-pin). 





flicro Headphones (13 Q) 

Jltra light weight and portable 
?ar-fHting headphones supplied 
vith two audio adaptor plugs. 







s 







# \9 ^ S 



n 



m 



m 




00 kHz 250 MHz Dip Meter 

Jl solid-state and built-in battery. 





i 




DeskTop UP/DOWN Microphone 
(8-pln] 

700 Q Uni directional Elect re I. Con- 
denser Mie. with "FLEX* type. 
boom. Built-in mie-amp and UP/ 
DOWN switch. Optional mie plug 
adaptors: MJ-84 (8p-4p) & MJ-86 
(8p-6ph 



MA-4000 

2-m/70-cm Dual Band 
Mobile Antenna 

5/8 A for 2-m and slacked 5/8 A 
for 70-erm Duplexer is supplied. 





Phone Patch (FCC Part 68 
registered) 



Mill 

High Quality External Mobile 
Speaker 




160~15-ra 2 KW PEP/i KW DC 
Input Linear Amplifier 

Pair of EIMAC 3-500Z lubes and 
excellent ]MD characteristics. Per- 
fecl safety protection with blower 
turn-o 1 f d e 1 ay £ I r cu it. 



Station Monitor/High- 
Performance Os cOtoscope 

Pan-dlsplav capability with 
optional BS-8 (for TS830S/820S/ 
180S) or BS-5 (for TS 520 series) 
Tr a n sm i 1 1 e d wa vef o rm s a n d/ ( > r 
receiving signal waveform moni- 
tor. Built-in 2 -tone generator. 



KENWOOD 

TRIO-KENWOOD COMMUNICATIONS 

1111 West Walnut. Compton, California 90220 




SW-1 OOA/B 

At 160-m - 2-m. B; 2-ni- 70-cm, 
150 W SWR/POWER/VOLT Meter 

Compact design witli separate 
coupler, ideal for mobile use. 
Built-in 0-20 V voltmeter. 



MICROPHONES: 

• MC-60A Deluxe desk top micro- 
phone with UP/DOWN switch. 
(8-pin) Pre-amplifier. 500, 900 9, 

• MC-60N4 Deluxe desk top 
microphone (pre-amp. not 
included). [4-pin) 50 k/500 Q 

• MC-50 Desk top microphone, 
50 k/500 Q (4-pin) 

• JMC-48 16-key autopatch UP/ 
DQWN microphone. (Spin) 

■ MC-46 16-key autopatch UP/ 
DOWN microphone. (6-pin) 

■ MC-42S Hand microphone with 
UP/DOWN switch, [8-pin) 

• MC-35S Noise-cancelling hand 
microphone, 50 k Q (4-pin) 

• MC-30S Noise-cancelling hand 
microphone, 500 Q (4 -pin) 

MICROPHONE CABLES: 

• PG-4A/4B/4C For MC-60A, 
60N4. PG-4At4-pin)/4B(6 pin)/' 
4C(8^pin) 

• PG-4D/4E/4F For MC-85. PG-4D 
[4-pm)/4E{6-pm)/4F(8-pinl 

MICROPHONE PLUG 
ADAPTORS: 

• M J -48 [4 -pin mic to 8 -pin 
XCVR) 

■ MJ 84 (8-pin to 4-pin] 

• MJ-86 (8-pin to 6-pin) 

HEADPHONES; 

• HS-6 Lightweight headphones 

• HS-5 Deluxe headphones 

• HS-4 Standard headphones 

GENERAJL PURPOSE AC POWER 
SUPPLIES: 

• KPS-7A 13.8 VDC, 7,5A 
intermittent 

• KPS-12 13.8 VDC t 12 A 
intermittent 

• KPS-21 13.8 VDC> 21 A 
intermittent 

ANTENNAS; 

• RA-3 2-m 3/8 A Telescoping 
antenna with BNC connector 

■ RA-5 2-m 1/4 A /70-cm 5/8 X 
Telescoping dual -hand antenna 
with BNC connector 

Other accessories: 

• RD-20 Dummy load. 50 Q« 

DC 500 MHz, 50 W intermittent 

• SP-40 Compact external mobile 
speaker 

• AL-2 Lightning & static protec- 
tor, 50 Q 1 KW output 

• PG-3A DC line noise filter for 
mohile 

SERVICE MANUALS; 

• Available for most transceiver 
receivers, and major accessories. 

NOTE: Prices and specifications 
of all Trio -Ken wood products 
are subject to change without 
prior notice or obligation. 



r 



i r 1 - 







r-^T 



— — i 



- 




Blueprint for Success 



THE INTERFACE 




ffc Kantronics The Interface 

RTTY-CW-UP TcnriinaMJnit 



t i-i-i mm rrn 



cw off £1 

RTTY On ^J— L, 



JiLliL 



lc Kantronics 



Interface ]f_ 



MARK 



NULL 



SPACE 



" 









OUTPUT SHIFT AMT=M POWER 




V 



THE INTERFACE H 



Kantronics 



TITLE: THE INTERFACE - INTERFACE J ( PROPOSAL 



the interface Is the original 

Kantronics terminal unit that 
broke through the barrier of 
multi-computer compatibility. 
THE INTERFACE Is an amateur mo- 
dem for transceiver-to-computer 
communication. With THE INTER- 
FACE and Hamsoft or Ham text for 
your computer you can send and 
receive Morse Code, Radiotele- 
type, and ASCII, THE INTERFACE is 
also compatible with our new 
software for AMTOR communica- 
tion, AMTORSOFT, THE INTERFACE 

is our most popular unit combin- 
ing active filtering, easy tuning, 
six-computer compatibility, and 
low price for an unbeatable pack- 
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suggested Retail . , . *i 39.95 



;,-'■( ■ 



H^™* 



INTERFACE ) [ is the new Kantronics 
transceiver-to-computer interface. 
INTERFACE II features a new highly 
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TERFACE 1 rs ability to dig out signals 
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X-Y scope outputs and dual inter- 
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tions make INTERFACE J I compatible 
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Step up to state of the art In 
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With INTERFACE ] I 

Suggested Retail ,.-.;. *269.95 



For more information see your Kantronics dealer, or contact: 
Kantronics 1202 E. 25rd Street Lawrence, KS 66044 



u+py t*i . 




MORSE 

TRANSMIT S __ 
RECEIVE SPEED 



00:00:C 



333E 



ENJOY YOUR MEAL AND 
WELL TALK TO YOU 
REAL SOON . . . 73'S . . . 

WA5RCU 



WEATHER HERE IS WARM TODAY 
WITH LOTS OF SUN. . .XYL SAYS 
TIME FOR DINNER SO 73'S W0XI 



Kantronics has led the amateur community in software 
and total computer communications systems with our 
original program, HAMSOFT. With five-computer compat- 
ibility and reasonable prices HAMSOFT has become the in- 
dustry standard, HAMSOFT Includes split screen display, 
type ahead buffer, message ports, and complete key- 
board control for Morse Code, Radioteletype, and ASCII 
communications, with the interface or interface n, 
HAMSOFT can make any of five computers a complete 
amateur communications terminal. All programs are on a 
ROM board, except the Apple diskette. 

VIC-20 - $49.95, ATARI - $49-95, APPLE - $29.95, 
TRS-80C - $59.95, TI-99/4A - $99.95 



HAMTEXT is our advanced CW/RTTY/ASCII program 
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HAMTEXT gives you the ability to store incoming mes- 
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from tape or disk, and use your computer to its fullest 
potential. Features like Diddle, Time Transmission, Text 
Transmission, Printer outputs, and Word Wraparound, 
make HAMTEXT the program for the serious amateur 
HAMTEXT was created with input from our users as 
guidelines, and with total use of the computer in mind. 
Suggested Retail $99.95 



KANTRONICS AMTORSOFT 
COPYRIGHT 29 JUNE 1983 

CHOOSE 
S (AMTOR SLAVE) 
M (AMTOR MASTER) 
L (AMTOR LISTENER) 
P (PROGRAM OPTIONS) 
T (T/R OPTIONS) 



00:00:0 
PROGRAM OPTIONS 

A. RETURN TO BASIC 

B. EDIT MESSAGE PORTS 

C. SAVE MESSAGE PORTS 

D. LOAD MESSAGE PORTS 

E. SET XMIT BUFF SIZE 

F. EDIT HOLDING BUFFER 

G. SAVE HOLDING BUFFER 
H. LOAD HOLDING BUFFER 

I. SET TIME 



On January 27th r 1983, amtor, Amateur RadioTele- 
type over Radio, became a legal mode for the amateur 
service. AMTOR is an essentially error-free radiotele- 
type form of communication. AMTORSOFT, Kantron- 
ics 1 newest software package, gives your computer the 
ability to become an AMTOR communications terminal 
when used with The interface or interface 3 L AMTOR- 
SOFT is currently available for the Apple, VIC-20 r and 
COM-64 computers. AMTORSOFT brings you the newest 
in computer-amateur communications at an afford- 
able price. 
Suggested Retail *89,95 




For more information see your Kantronics dealer, or contact: 
Kantronics 1202 E. 23rd Street Lawrence, KS 66044 



i 



Breakthrough in Boston: 
The Birth of Crosslinking 

W1UKZ built this box. It's small and it works. 
The question is whether you're ready for it 



David P. Allen W1UKZ 
19 Damon Road 
Scituate MA 02066 



A sage once said that a 
new idea is simply a re- 
arrangement of old facts. 
This is certainly the case 
with crosslinking: All of the 
ingredients are well known 
and no new technology is in- 
volved. But the effect of 
putting them all together in 
a new operating mode has 
proven to be extraordinarily 
exciting to all who have par- 



ticipated. Let me explain 
just what crosslinking is. 

Fig. 1 shows diagrammath 
cally how crosslinking 
works. The basic idea is for 
an individual amateur to 
configure his low-band and 
two-meter rigs so that three 
operating conditions can be 
maintained: 

1) When the amateur keys 
his microphone, he trans- 
mits simultaneously on both 
a low-band frequency and a 
two-meter frequency. One 
microphone keys both rigs. 

2) When the amateur lis- 
tens, he pushes a button 
which feeds the audio out- 




put of whichever band he is 
momentarily listening to in- 
to the microphone input of 
the other transmitter and 

keys that transmitter. 

3) When listening to a sta- 
tion on the other band, he 
pushes a button and re- 
verses that process. He may 
interrupt this back-and-forth 
flow at any time simply by 
keying his microphone. 

If this all sounds like a 
manually-operated repeater, 
you are almost right; howev- 
er, there are some very im- 
portant differences. A little 
background will help to ex- 
plain how this new operat- 
ing technique emerged. 

Background 

For the past five years, I 
have had the pleasure of 




conducting the East Coast 
Apple Net on forty meters. 
Every Saturday morning we 
gather af 9 am eastern time 
on 72 60 JcHz to c hat about 
computers in general and 
Apple computers in particu- 
lar This has proven to be a 
very popluar net since so 
many hams are also com- 
puter enthusiasts. Because 
of the general popularity of 
computers, I have known 
for a long time that we have 
a 'lurking/' voiceless audi- 
ence of people who have an 
abiding computer interest 
but no amateur license. 
There are also many li- 
censed amateurs who do 
not have low-band privi- 
leges. 

"Why not/' thought I, 
"conduct the net on both 40 




2 htr 

RPTR 




LOW BAND 
RI G 



Photo A, Front view of the logic box, 
10 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



Fig. t. Diagram of how eross/jnfc/ng works. 



meters and 2 meters and 
thereby enable a wider par- 
ticipation in the net?" There 
did not seem to be any tech- 
nical reason standing in the 
way of this evolution. Cross- 
band operating is as old as 
amateur radio itself, and I 
had all the hardware (al- 
most) necessary to try it. Just 
one experiment with holding 
microphone to loudspeaker 
showed two things: (1) It had 
great possibilities, and (2) a 
missing black box was need- 
ed to make it work properly. 

That was the generating 
force tor the "logic box," 
shown in Fig. 2. More about 
that later There was anoth- 
er consideration which 
might offer a much greater 
handicap to carrying out 
this idea It's called 'FCC 
rules and regulations." Ama- 
teur Extra class licensees 
would have no problem 
with any conceivable per- 
mutation of operating fre- 
quencies, but how about 
lower-class licensees? If it 
were illegal for a Technician 
to join the net on two meters 
and have his voice heard on 
forty meters, then I was just 
spinning my wheels with fur- 
ther conjecture on this idea. 
It obviously was time to go 
to the horse's mouth. 

Conversation with the ad- 
ministrators of amateur op- 
erations at the FCC in Wash- 
ington completely dissolved 
any apprehensions I had 
about the proposed operat- 
ing procedure. All amateur 
participants would be li- 
censed for the frequencies 
upon which they were trans- 
mitting and over which they 
had control. All conversa- 
tion relayed by my facilities 
was clearly covered in the 
definition of what I was li- 
censed to transmit I was not 
proposing a repeater-type 
operation, which would be 
both illegal on the low 
bands and which would al- 
low lower-grade licensees to 
control emissions on fre- 
quencies for which they 
were not licensed. Surprise, 
surprise! No bureacratic 
groundbreaking was in- 
volved! I was, in fact sent 



on my way with an encour- 
aging endorsement for try- 
ing out a new operating 
technique. Who says the bu- 
reaucracy is never adminis- 
tered with good judgment 
and understanding] 

So, the decks were 
cleared for action. But there 
was still the problem of how 
to oversee the net and to 
control the flow of transmis- 
sions. The three points de- 
fined above seemed to de- 
scribe all the elements of 
the technique that I was 
looking for. I wanted to be 
able to switch the audio to 
flow in either direction from 
one band to another at any 
time. I felt that a little mo 
mentary toggle switch 
would allow me to perform 
that function best And I 
wanted to be able to break 
into the transmission pat- 
tern at any time with my 
voice, so my microphone 
switch should override what- 
ever mode was going on 
One other corollary mode 
comes about from pushing 
the mike button. When I 
finish talking, both rigs 
default to the listening 
mode so that I can monitor 
both bands at any time. 

Hardware 

The circuit necessary to 
control both rigs turned out 
to be a little more compli- 
cated than I had thought. 
Fig, 2 shows the result, 
which I have called the logic 
box. Three relays are in- 
volved, one for each band 
control plus a third relay for 
my microphone keying and 
to provide latching for the 
other two relays- Since the 
logic of the operating called 
for a momentary switch clo- 
sure to open rather than 
close the ground circuit of 
the latched-up relays (a log- 
ic negative), I inserted a sim- 
ple transistor switch to in- 
vert the mechanical switch 
logic. Thus, either latched- 
up relay RY1 or RY2 can be 
dropped by operating the 
transistor switch through 
SX1 or by removing the 
latching voltage by closing 
the push-to-talk switch on 




Photo fl. Rear view of the logic box. 



the microphone and drop- 
ping RY3. 

The LEDs were put in to 
remind me of my last offi- 
cial act and clearly remind 
me of what the current 
transmission flow was Re- 
lays were used because the 
widespread variation of key- 
ing methods for the current 
crop of transceivers is enor- 
mous. Varying polarities and 
voltages are made totally ir- 
relevant by the good old re- 
lay. I can use the logic box 
with any transceiver I can 
lay my hands on. 

Photos A and B show the 
front and back of the logic 
box. The inside is a typical 
prototype mess (so I won't 
let you in), but it all works ex- 
actly as planned. I decided 
to use the "standard" four- 
pin microphone connector 
used by so many transceiver 
manufacturers and readily 
available at Radio Shack. 
The speaker audio is bridged 
from the transceiver at the 
auxiliary audio-output jack 



and fed into the logic box 
through the mini-jack con- 
nector. Power for the relays 
is provided by any 9-12-volt 
calculator-type power sup- 
ply that can furnish on the 
order of 200 milliamperes. 

I was concerned about 
the varying levels of audio 
among the microphone and 
loudspeaker outputs, This 
turned out to be a reason- 
able concern My first at- 
tempt was just to "brute- 
force" the audio through 
and see what happened It 
worked, but not well. Here's 
what I had to do. 

No ordinary microphone 
seems to be up to the task of 
feeding two rigs at once. The 
main problem is the widely 
varying input impedances of 
various transceivers plus the 
generally low output of 
most microphones. The so- 
lution for me was an ampli- 
fied Astatic D-104 micro- 
phone. The power amplifier 
in this microphone turns the 
mike signal into a relatively 







Photo C The mini-jack connector. 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 11 



LOW BAND RIG 

Ktt MIC $FHA 



£ MTR fliQ 
HD 

HET MIC $*«» 



IflO 1 AS TAT It OIU4. AMpLinO>i 

a 




Fig. 2. Schematic of the W1UKZ logic box. 



low-impedance output with 
some power behind it. Since 
the impedance of the micro- 
phone amplifier is lower 
than erther transceiver mike- 
input impedance, there is 
plenty of audio available for 
each. Most two-meter trans- 
ceivers have very efficient 
age circuits in their mike-in- 
put circuits so I did not have 
to monitor that signal input 
The low-band rig I am using 
(an Atlas 2T0X) gives me me- 
ter monitoring of the audio 
input and a gain control to 
manually adjust it 

Experience proved that 
the audio levels needed just 
a little more balancing, I 
wanted to be able to set the 
loudspeaker levels for each 
rig for comfortable listening 
and to have that be about 
right for the mike inputs In 
my case, this meant padding 
down the audio from the 
transceivers rather heavily. I 
cobbled up some loss-pad 
cables, consisting of my 
standard fourpin micro- 
phone connectors and 
mounting the male end, nor- 
mally living as a chassis- 
mount configuration, on the 
plastic cap of a discarded 
35mm film container. [See 
Photo C) Inside the contain- 
er is a 560kOhm resistor in 
series with the hot audio 
lead, providing the neces- 

12 73 Magazine ■ January/1984 



sary padding. Holes for the 
cable and connector take 
about ten seconds to make 
with a Princess soldering 
iron! Of course, I could easi- 
ly have inserted the padding 
resistors inside the logic box r 
but this would have limited 
the universal nature of cou- 
pling the box to my rig con- 
figuration. For me, putting 
the pads in their own junc- 
tion cables was best 

One other hardware con- 
sideration doesn't appear on 
the diagram. My next box 
will have a simple switch to 
disable the keying lead to ei- 
ther rig. This will make it un- 
necessary to disconnect the 
2-meter input when I want 
to key only the low-band rig 
Since I am using SSB on low 
bands, switching off the sig- 
nal to the low-band rig is as 
simple as turning down the 
mike gain control. That fa- 
cility is not available on two- 
meter transceivers. 

One other hardware con- 
sideration should be men- 
tioned. I discovered that al- 
most all commercially-avail- 
able two-meter transceivers 
have an unpublished duty- 
cycle specification, In my 
case, with the Kenwood 
TR-780G, it is three minutes 
of transmitting followed by 
one minute of listening. To 
transgress on that specifica- 



tion is to run your rig very 
hot— hot enough to do dam- 
age to the final transistor 
stage. This is true even at 
low-power options. In cross- 
link operations, transmis- 
sions longer than three min- 
utes are commonplace, so a 
fan was in order. A cooling 
fan directed at the heat sink 
of the two-meter rig totally 
solved this problem, All 
those RTTY enthusiasts 
should note this potential 
problem since two-meter 
RTTY operating will certain- 
ly run into the same condi- 
tion. 

Operating Experience 

So, how does it work? On 
the net operations it was an 

instant success. The net im- 
mediately acquired a hand- 
ful of stations not previously 
heard from In addition, 
many comments from other 
hams who, although not in- 
clined to join the net by an- 
nouncing their presence, 
found it very convenient to 
be able to go about their 
Saturday morning chores 
while carrying around a han- 
die-talkie to monitor the 
proceedings of the net. Of 
course if they were so in- 
clined, they could break in 
at any point to make their 
comments heard, 

The real excitement for 



this operating mode has 
come from an unexpected 
direction. Since I had the ca- 
pability, I decided to ex- 
plore the advantage of 
crosslinking for less formal 
purposes than net opera 
tion. Instant success! 

The procedure used has 
been to find an under-used 
repeater and call "CQ DX " 
Of course, this conventional 
invitation goes out over 
both the low-band and two- 
meter frequencies. Some 
puzzlement is expressed by 
two-meter listeners who 
hear "CQ DX 20" and sus- 
pect the contents of my cof- 
fee cup. An understanding 
quickly ensues, however, 
and before you know it, 
there is a round table under 
way on the two-meter repeat- 
er involving one or more DX 
stations. The excitement 
generated by this technique 
was wholly unexpected. 

The first comments came 
with wild enthusiasm from 
Technicians who sudden K 
found themselves able to ex- 
perience the pleasure of DX 
operations for the first time. 
With this occasional taste of 
upgrading experience, they 
proceed with redoubled en- 
thusiasm on the path of li- 
cense upgrading. But Gener- 
al, Advanced, and Extra 
class licensees have been 
equally vociferous in their 
endorsements As explained 
to me, there is something 
really neat in being able to 
walk on the beach with a 
handie-talkie and chat with 
a Russian amateur near 
Moscow! The two-meter 
mobilers, on the way home 
through dismal traffic con- 
ditions, also are excited 
about working on their 
DXCC while engaged in stop- 
and-go traffic. 

And the DX stations! 
Well, they stand in line just 
waiting for an opportunity 
to join the crosslink, Opera- 
tionally, I have tried to en- 
courage more than one DX 
station at a time, if the DX 
stations can hear each oth- 
er, so that the benefits of 
two-meter round-table con- 
versation may be employed. 




And you can see it — in color — again and again 
when you own the N2NY Ham MasterTapes. 



Ever see a cap discharge in slow motion? You will on 
Ham MasterTapes. Ham MasterTapes can perform the 
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Final ly f a step-by-step course in Ham Radio Theory 
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teaching technique expertly produced by New York's 
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D Video Graphics highlight important details. 

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Quantity 


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Description 


Radio Shack # 


2 


RY1, RY2 


4PDT relay, 12 Vdc 


275-214 


1 


RY3 


SPOT relay, 12Vdc 


275-243 


2 


Q1,Q2 


NPN transistor 


276-1617 


1 


sxi 


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27S637 


3 


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Indicating LEDs 




3 


R1, R2, R3 


680-Ohm resistor, 1/4 W 




2 


R4, R5 


10kOhm resistor, 1/4 W 




2 


C1,C2 


10-uF, 15-WV capacitor 




3 




Microphone socket 


274-002 


2 




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274*001 


3 


D1 p D2, D3 


Diode 


276*1620 


1 




16-pin DIP socket {tot RY3) 




2 


Socket, RY1, 


2 Relay socket 


275-221 


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12-V-dc power supply 


273-1652 


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Power-supply jack 


274-1549 


2 




Audio jack, 1/8 ,+ 


274-253 



A typical drive-time round 
table recently found sta- 
tions in Northern Ireland, 

England, Holland, Italy, Cor- 
sica, and Central Nigeria in a 
round table with five or six 
two-meter mobile stations 
on their way home from 
work! Another time found a 
one-Watt mobile station in 
Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, talking with a station 
(ON0) in the Aland Islands 
off the coast of Finland His 
route was via a two-meter 
repeater in New Hampshire 
to my station on the south 
shore area in Boston, over to 
Europe. Not bad for one 
Watt! 

The permutations of this 
technique are probably al- 
ready cycling through your 
mind. The band combina- 
tions obviously are not lim- 
ited between just 20 meters 
and two meters. And rag- 
chews don't have to involve 
only DX stations. How many 
different ways can you think 
of which might have lots 



and lots of good amateur ra- 
dio fun involved, while at 
the same time challenging 

us to develop new hardware 
and operating techniques? 
How about different operat- 
ing modes from just voice 
transmissions? A mixture, 
maybe 

New Techniques 
and Considerations 

Here are some things I 
have teamed already and 
some things that are as yet 
unresolved: 

• Two-meter and DX-band 
operating procedures differ 
markedly. Two-meter opera- 
tors use a speech-shorthand 
technique which needs mod- 
ification when DX stations, 
some with limited English 
capability (and with some 
QRM and QSB problems 
thrown in), get added to the 
two-meter round table. DX 
stations seem very, very in- 
terested in the everyday ex- 
periences commonly dis- 
cussed on two meters but 




cors^tfs^i^r^io^T-iar^js 



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Sun. thru Thurs 




rarely mentioned in DX con- 
versations Two-meter oper- 
ators need to be clear in 
identifying their stations, us- 
ing phonetics for their call- 
signs when necessary. 

• Depending upon the skill 
of the operator at the host 
crossl inking station, rapid 
c on ve rs ation a I gam bits , com- 
mon to two meters, can 
be employed. I think this 
type of exchange should be 
encouraged, but time will 
tell. 

• Crosslink operators must 
be very careful not to allow 
transmission by unlicensed 
persons to enter the cross- 
link when stations in coun- 
tries not supporting third- 
party traffic are involved. 
Since this is a brand new op- 
erating world for many 
Technician licensees, they 
are often unlikely to remem- 
ber third-party proscriptions. 

• All crosslink operators 
should keep very complete 
logs. This is not required by 
any FCC rule or regulation; it 
is simply to be able to recon 
struct what went on for pur- 
poses of QSLing and other 
record keeping. How the 
rest of the world views the 
establishment of DX records 
for recognized purposes is 
yet to be established, At 
least one ham has started his 
own path toward DXCC via 
crosslinking. 

• Amazingly enough, this 

technique both serves to 
conserve frequencies on the 
crowded low bands and pro- 
vides new opportunities to 
develop greater employ- 
ment of lesser-used bands, 
such as six meters. Clearly, 
six DX stations and six two- 
meter stations employing 
only one low-band frequen- 
cy and two two-meter fre- 
quencies is band conserva- 
tion. If the VHF frequency 
were on six meters, then the 
other part of the new equa- 
tion would also be true, 

• All is not just sweetness 
and light when new oper- 
ating conditions appear 
Those stations who like 
two-meter-repeater opera- 
tion the way it is may object 



strenuously to a new idea 
which invades their other- 
wise untrammeled domain 
Crosslink operators can ex- 
pect to be invited off some 
repeaters. Crosslinking can 
use up a lot of repeater time, 
and those areas where re- 
peaters are in short supply 
can anticipate even greater 
discussion about how re- 
peaters should be em- 
ployed. Maybe repeaters 
will need to be established 
primarily for crosslinking 
Crosslinking on direct VH(- 
frequencies needs to be de- 
veloped, 

• In the same vein, the cor- 
dial atmosphere which nor- 
mally exists on repeaters 
during drive time needs to 
be conserved, When a cross- 
linking control station con- 
nects with a low-band sta- 
tion who wishes to crosslink, 
what happens? If there are 
stations on the repeater 
waiting to chat r all well and 
good. But suppose that two- 
meter connections have not 
yet been established? What 
then? The crosslink control 
station needs to assess care- 
fully how courteously to en- 
ter a two-meter repeater 
with a DX station tagging 
along. Sometimes, two-me- 
ter stations just don't want 
"foreign" stations to enter 
their discussions and are not 
prepared to modify their 
technique to accommodate 
language and listening diffi- 
culties. How to establish a 
new operating protocol for 
this new ham radio tech- 
nique needs to be discussed. 
Crosslinking, I suspect 
may become one of the 
most exciting operating 
techniques to be adopted 
since the entrance of single 
sideband. It comes with 
great opportunities and a 
variety of operating proce- 
dures yet to be developed It 
does not require any new 
hardware developments. You 
can begin crosslinking as 
soon as you return from 
your focal Radio Shack store 
with less than $20 worth of 
parts If that doesn't make 
this idea pretty exciting, I 
don't know what wilMB 



14 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



Pocket Size Radio, Perfect for Christmas. 



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The TR-720 contains the latest 
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tures include 3 memory channels, 720 
COM and 200 XAV channel < >peration T 
twist -off rechargeable battery pack t and 
mul ti -function LED to indicate receive 
signal or low battery. A full set of stand* 
ard accessories including rechargeable 
battery, AC and DC chargers, case, flex 
antenna, and earphone pul you straight 
on the air. Optional accessories are 
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The TR-720 increases the operating 
safety of balloons, sailplanes, and ul- 
tralights by providing communication 
with ground crews or ATC. It allows 
receipt of IFR clearances prior to 
engine start and is tndispensible tor 
search and rescue, forest fire fighting, 



or law enforcement to coordinate air- 
craft operations. Sport aircraft, home- 
builts, or experimental planes (even 
those without electrical svstems) can 
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comes from having an emergency 
hack-up transceiver. 

The TR-720 comes with a full 1 year 
warranty with guaranteed 72 hour 
turnaround and is available for im- 
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your local Avionics Dealer or FBO. 

The TR-720. rugged, reliable com- 
munications in the palm of your hand. 



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Send and receive computerized RTTY/ASCH/ 
CW with nearly any personal computer (VIC-20. 
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{Including 170, 425, 850 Hz) and any speed (5-100 
WPM RTTY/CW. 300 baud ASCII). Sharp B pole 
active filter for CW and 170 Hz shift. Sends 170, 
850 Hz shift. Normal /Reverse switch eliminates 
retuning. Automatic noise llmiter. Kantronics 
compatible socket plus exclusive general purpose 
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adapter, MFJ-1312, $9.95. 

RX NOISE 
BRIDGE 

Maximize 

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performance! $59.95 mfj-2028 

Tells whether to shorten or lengthen antenna for 
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New Features: Individually calibrated resistance 
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ANTENNA i 

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Covers 0,3-30 MHz. Telescoping antenna- 
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On-off bypass controls. 
6x2x6 in , Uses 9V 
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POLICE/FIRE/WEATHER 
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Converter mounts between 
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MFJ/BENCHER KEYER 
COMBO 

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$99.95 

The best of 
all CW worlds- 

a deluxe MFJ Keyer in a compacfTonfiguration 
that fits right on the Bencher iambic paddle! 
MFJ Keyer - small in size, big in features. Curtis 
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volume and speed controls {8-50 WPM). Built- 
in dot-dash memories. Speaker, sidetone, and 
push button selection of semi-automatic/tune 
or automatic modes. Solid state keying. Bencher 
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optional adapter, MFJ-1305 P $9.95. 

VHF SWR/WATTMETER 

Low ce&t mfj-812 $29*95 

VHF SWR/ 

Wattmeter! 
Read SWR 
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and forward/ 

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at 2 meters. Has 30 and 300 watts scales. Also 

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50 ohm non-inductive resistor. Safety vent. 
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24/12 HOUR CLOCK/ ID TIMER 

MFJ-103 

Switch to 24 
hour GMT or 
12 hour format! 

Battery backup 

maintains time during power outage. ID timer 
alerts every 9 minutes after reset. Switchable 
seconds readout. Elapsed timer. Just start clock 
from zero and note time of event up to 24 hours. 
Bright blue .6" digits. Alarm with snooze 
function, Synchronizable with WVW. Lock 
function prevents mis-setting. Power out, alarm 
on indicators Black. 5x2x3 in. 110 VAC, 60 Hz. 

DUALTUNABLESSB/CW 

FILTER MFJ-752B $89.95 



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Dual filters give unmatched performance! 
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Auxiliary filter gives 70 db notch, 40 Hz peak. 
Both filters tune from 300 to 3000 Hz with 
variable bandwidth from 40 Hz to nearly fiat. 
Constant output as bandwidth Is varied; linear 
frequency control. Switchable noise limiter for 
impulse noise. Simulated stereo sound tor CW 
lets ears and mind reject QRM. Inputs for 2 rigs. 
Plugs into phone jack. Two watts for speaker. 
Off bypasses filter. 9-18 VPC or 110 VAC with 
optional adapter, MFJ-1312, $9.95 



ORDER ANY PRODUCT FROM MFJ AND TRY IT- NO 

OBLIGATION. IF NOT DELIGHTED, RETURN WITH- 
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Box 494, MIsiJulppl State, MS 39762 



TO ORDER OR FOR YOUR NEAREST 
DEALER, CALL TOLL-FREE 

800-647-1800, Call 601 -323 -5B69 
in Miss, and outside continental USA 
Telex 53-4590 MFJ ST KV 




16 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



MFJ RTTY / ASCII / CW 
COMPUTER INTERFACE 

Lets you send and receive computerized RTTY /ASCI I /CW. Copies all 
shifts and all speeds. Copies on both mark and space. Sharp 8 Pole active 
filter for 170 Hz shift and CW. Plugs between your rig and VIC-20, Apple, 
TRS-80C, Atari, TI-99, Commodore 64 or most other personal computers. 
Uses MFJ, Kantronics software and most other RTTY/CW software. 




ftfj 



* 



■TTY 



O 



PWH 



PHASE 
LOCK 



DATA 




* * 




NORM 



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MFJ RTTY CW 
COMPUTER INTERFACE 



MOOEL Mf J-1J2I 



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MFJ Software plus MFJ Interface 



for VIC-20 or Commodore 64 

i Software cartridge alone. $49 35. 

Ordor MFJ-1250(or VIC^D 
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95 



Powerful RTTY/ASCU/CW software for V9C-2Q, Commodore 64. 
Dev&ioped by MFJ. Cartridge plugs info expansion port. 

Features spiff screen display, type ahead buffer, message ports, 
RTTY/ASCU/CW send and receive p/us much more. 

Includes cable to interface MFJ- 1224 to VIC-20 or Commodore 54. 



This new MFJ-1224 RTTY/ASCII/CW Computer 
Interface lets you c use your personal computer as a 
computerized full featured RTTY/ASCII/CW station 
for sending and receiving. 

It plugs between your rig and your VIC-20. Apple, 
TRS-8QC. Atari, TI-99, Commodore K and most 
other personal computers. 

Powerful MFJ software available for VIC^O (MFJ- 
1250, $49.95) and Commodore 64 (MFJ^1251 , $49.95). 
Features split screen display, type ahead buffer, 
message ports, RTTY/ASCU/CW send and receive 
plus more. 

Uses Kantronics software for Apple. TRS-80C, 
Atari. THB as well as VIC-20 and Commodore 64. 

You can also use most other RTTY/CW software 
with nearly any personal computer. 

A 2 LED tuning Indicator system makes tuning 
fast, easy and positive, You can distinguish between 
RTTY/CW without even hearing it. 

Once tuned in, the Interface allows you to copy any 
shift (170, 425, 850 Hz and all shifts between and be- 
yond) and any speed (5 to 100 WPM on RTTY/CW 
and up to 300 baud on ASCII). 

Copies on both mark and space, not mark only or 
space only. This greatly improves copy under adverse 

conditions. 
A sharp 8 pole active fitter for 170 Hz shift and CW 

atlows good copy under crowded, fading and weak 
signal conditions. 

An automatic noise limiter helps suppress static 
crashes for better copy. 



A Normal/Reverse switch eliminates retunmg 
white stepping thru various RTTY speeds and shifts. 

The demodulator wilt even maintain copy on a 
slightly drifting signal. 

A + 250 VDC loop output is available to drive your 
RTTY machine. Has convenient speaker output jack, 

Phase continuous AFSK transmitter tones are 
generated by a clean, stable Exar 2206 function gen- 
erator Standard space tones of 2125 Hz and mark 
tones of 2295 and 2975 Hz are generated- A set of 
microphone lines is provided for AFSK out, AFSK 
ground, PTT out and PTT ground. 

FSK keying is provided for transceivers with FSK. 

High voltage grid block and direct outputs are 
provided tor CW keying of your transmitter A CW 
transmit LED provides visual indication of CW trans- 
mission. There is also an external hand key or 
electronic keyer input jack. 

In addition to the Kantronics compatible socket, an 
exclusive general purpose socket allows interlacing to 
nearly any personal computer with most appropriate 
software. The following TTL compatible lines are 
available: RTTY demod out. CW demod out, CW-ID 
input, +5 VDC, ground. All signal lines are buffered 
and can be inverted using an internal DIP switch. 

For example, you can use Galfo software with 
Apple computers. RAK software with VIC-20's, or 
Clay Abrams software with TRS-80C. N4EU software 
with TRS-80 It!, IV. Some computers with some soft- 
ware may require some external components. 

DC voltages are IC regulated to provide stable 



ORDER ANY PRODUCT FROM MFJ AND TRY IT- MO 
OBLIGATION IF NOT DELIGHTED, RETURN WITH- 
IN 30 DAYS FOR PROMPT REFUND (LESS SHIPPING) 

• One year unconditional guarantee * Made in USA, 

• Add HOG each shipping/handling • Call or writ* 
for free catalog, ovtr 100 product! 




MFJ ENTERPRISES .INC, 
Box 494, Mississippi State. MS 39762 





MFJ-1224 

AFSK tones and RTT Y/ASCI I /CW reception. 

Aluminum cabinet Brushed aluminum front panel 
8x1 %x6 inches. Uses 12-15 VDC or 110 VAC with op- 
tional adapter. MFJ-1312. $9,95. 

MFJ-1223, S29.95. RS-232 adapter for MFJ-1224. 

RTTY/ASCII/CW Receive Only 
SWL Computer Interface 

•*...#•*• ■• • u ** 

— -=— — ' '-» V^ MFJ-1225 

Use your personal computer to receive commercial. 

military and amateur RTTY/ASCII/CW traffic. 
The MFJ-1225 automatically copies ail shifts (850. 

425. 170 Hz shift and afl others) and all speeds, 
It plugs between your receiver and VIC-20. Apple, 

TRS-80C, Atari. TI-99, Commodore 64 and most other 

personal computers. 

Use MFJ-1250 ($49.95) software cartridge for 
VIC-20 or MFJ-1251 ($49.95) software cartridge for 
Commodore 64, Use Kantronics software for Apple, 
TRS-&0C, Atari and Tl 99. 

An automatic noise limiter helps suppress static 
crashes for better copy, wtiile a simple 2 LED tuning 
indicator system makes tuning fast, easy and positive. 

In addition to the Kantronics compatible socket, a 
general purpose socket provides RTTY out. RTTY in- 
verted out CW out. CW inverted out, ground and 
+5VDG for interfacing to nearly any personal 
computer with most appropriate software. 

Audio in. speaker out jacks. 4 T /?x1 VSx4 W Jn. 12-15 
VDC or 110 VAC with adapter, MFJ-1312. $9.95, 



TO ORDER OR FOR YOUR NEAREST 

DEALER, CALL TOLL-FREE 

800-647-1800. call xr 

601-323-5869 in Mississippi and out- m 
side continental U.S.A. Telex 53-4590. 








**Sm Ltsf of Advertts&r$ on page Ti4 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 17 



HUSTLER 

DELIVERS 
RELIABLE . 

ALL BAND HF / 
PERFORMANCE 



Hustler's new 6-BTV six- 
band trap vertical fixed 
station antenna offers 
all band operation 
with unmatched con- 
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offers 1Q 15, 20, 3CX 
40, and 75/80 meter 
coverage with ex- 
cellent bandwidth 
and low VSWR. Its 
durable heavy 
gauge aluminum 
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forms and stain- 
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Jong reliability. 

Thirty 
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are also 
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Don't miss our 30 meter excitement. 

HUSTLER - 
STILL THE STANDARD OF PERFORMANCE. 



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*EX-241 Marker unit .. 20,00 

*EX-242 FMunit.... 39 00 

*EX-243 Electronic keyer unit 50.00 

*FL-45 500 Hz CW filter (1st IF),..... 59 50 

*FL-54 270 Hz CW filter (ht IF) 47.50 

*FL-52A 500 Hz CW filter (2nd IF),.. 96.50 89" 

*FL-53A 250 Hi CW filter (2nd IF).,. 96.50 89" 

*FL-44A SSB filter (2nd IF) 159.00 144" 

SM-5 Electret desk microphone 39.00 

HM-1Q Mobile scan microphone 39,50 

MB-12 Mobile mount, 1950 

^Options aho far IC-745 fisted below 

IC-730 8- band 200w PEP Xcvr w/mic ... $829.00 599" 
FL-30 SSB filter (passband tuning)... 59.50 

Fl 44/ A SSB filter (2nd IF) 159,00 144" 

Fl-45 50G Hz CW filter. .... 59.50 

EM95 Marker unit,, , 3900 

EX-202 LDA interface; 730/2KL/AH-1 27.50 

EX- 203 150 Ht CW audio filter. 39 00 

EX-205 Transporter switching unit,,. 29 00 

SM-5 Electret desk microphone 39.00 

HM-10 Mobile scan microphone 39.50 

MB-5 Mobile mount 19 50 

IG-720A 9-band Xcvr/.i 30 MHr tor $1349 00 899" 

FL 32 500 Hz CW filter 59.50 

FL-34 5.2 KHz AM filter 49,50 

MB-5 Mobile mount... .. 19,50 

IC-7072 transceive interlace, R-70., 112.50 

IC-745 9 band xcvr/. 1-30 MHz rcvr.... $999.00 899" 

P5-35 Internal power supply 160,00 144 s5 

CF5-455K5 2.8 KHz wide SSB filter TBA 

SM-6 Desk microphone ,......» 39.00 

HM-12 Hand microphone ,.,.,,. 39 50 

See iQ-740 list above for other options (■*) 



Options - continued 

EX-310 Voice synthesizer (1C-751) 

SP-3 External speaker 

Speaker /phone patch (specify radio) 

BC-IOA Memory back-up 

EX-2 Relay box w/marker 

AT- 100 lOOw Bband automatic ant 
AT- 500 500w 9-band automatic ant 
MT100 Manual antenna tuner.... 
AH-1 5-band mobile ant w/tuner . 
PS-30 20A systems power supply,. 

GC-4 World clock.,/. 

HF Linear amplifier 
IC-2KL 160-15m/WARC solid state I 
VHF/UHF Mutti-modes 
IC-251A* 2m FM/SSB/CWxcvr... 



■ ¥ * m ■ 



■a m . . ■ p J. i 



tuner 
tuner 



Regular 

39.95 

49 50 

139.00 

8 50 

34.00 
349 00 
449.00 
249.00 
289.00 
259.95 

99,95 



SALE 



129 95 



314* 5 
399*5 
224" 
25^ 
233^ 
94** 



inear 1795,00 1299 



* 



$50 Factory Rebate 



$749.00 549 9 > 

until gone! 



m 

699 

799 

99 



IC-551D 80w 6m Xcvr . $699 

PS-20 20A switching ps/spkr.„ 229 

EX-106 FM adaptor. 125 

BC-10A Memory back-up 8 

SM-2 Electret desk microphone 39 

IC-451A 430-440 SSB/FM/CW Xcvr/ps 899 

IC-451A/High 440 450 MH* Xcvr/ps 899 
AG-1 lBdbpreamp, IC-451A/45A. 

IC-271A 2m, 25w xcvr 

IC-471A 430-450 MHz. lOw xcvr 

PS-25 Internal power supply 

EX-310 Voice synthesizer 39. 

HM-12 Hand microphone.., 39. 

SMS Electret desk microphons 39. 

VHF/UHF FM 

IC-25A 2m, 25w, up-dn-ttp mic. grn ledsS359. 

IC-25H as above, but 45 watts 389, 

JC-45A 440 FM xcvr. lOw. TTP mic... 

BU-1 Memory back up 

IC-22U lOw 2m FM non-digital Xcvr... 

EX- 199 Remote frequency selector . 
RP-3010 440 MHz repeater 



399 

38. 

299 

999 



00 599« 

00 199" 

00 112' 5 

50 

00 

00 769" 

00 769" 

00 79* 5 

00 629 95 

QG719 55 

00 89 95 

95 

50 

00 

00 319" 

00 349" 

00 359" 

50 

00 249" 

00 

00 899" 




rcvr$ 



i H ■ I ' 



IC-751 9-band xcwr/.l-30 MHz 

PS-35 Internal power supply . 

FL-52A 500 Hz CW filter 

FL-53A 250 Hz CW filter 

FL-33 AM filter 

SM-6 Desk microphone .... 

HM-12 Hand microphone 

External frequency controller 

High stability reference crystal... 
Options: 720/730/740/745/751 
PS- 15 External 20A power supply.. 

EX-144 Adaptor; CF-l/PS-15 .... 

CF-1 Cooling fan for PS 15 
PS-20 20A switching ps w/speaker .... 

CM Adaptor; HF radio to PS-20.... 

CF-1 Cooling fan for PS-20 .,.. 



, r , _ .. . _ . 



139900 

160.00 

96.50 

96.50 

31.50 

39,00 

39.50 

TBA 

TBA 

Regular 

$149.00 

6.50 

45.00 

229.00 

10,00 

45.00 



1229 

144" 

89 fS 

89" 



SALE 
134* 5 



199 



R c . 



ATTENTION CLUBS, GROUPS, etc. 
UHF Transceiver/Repeater SPECIAL! 

Get together and buy [10) ICOM IC-45A f sat 
one time at the Low AES Sale Price and get 
the RP-3Q1Q Repeater at 50% off List Price. 



VHF/UHF multi-modes: 

IC-290H 25w 2m SSB/FM Xcvr, FTP mic 

IC-560 lOw 6m SSB/FM/CW Xcvr 

IC-490A lOw 430-440 SSB/FM/CW Xcvr 

VHF/UHF Portables: 

IC-505 3/10w 6m port. SSB/CW Xcvr 

BP4G Infernal nicad battery pack... 

Du'iD f\\j cnargsr . . . . . . . . . * * . * . . . . . . * . * 

EX-248 FMumt. .v, 

LC-10 Leather case . 

IC-402 432 portage SSB xcvr 

SP-4 Remote speaker 

IC-3PS Power supply for portables 

IC-20L 2m amp, lOw PEP or FM. ....... 

IC-30L 432 amp, lOw PEP/FM 

1.2 CHz equipment 

IC-120 lw 1.2 GHz FM xcvr , 

RP-1210 lOw 1.2 GHz repeater.. 

Cabinet for RP 1210 or RP-3010 



$549.00 
489.00 
649.00 

449.00 
79.50 
1250 

49,50 

34,95 
389.00 
24.95 
95 00 
98.00 
105.00 

$499,00 

TBA 

249.00 



489" 
439" 
579" 

399" 



299" 

89 95 
89" 
94 95 



449 



y r - 




Hand-held transceivers: 
New Deluxe Model - Full keyboard entry; 
Sea nn mg; 1 memories; offset memories; 
I odd offsets; 32 PL tones: batt. backup. 
£M I LCD display, 3W w/std. BP-3 pack or 5W 
w/new opt. pack. Uses IC-2A accessories. 

Deluxe Models Regular SALE 

IC-02A for 2 meters $ 319,00 289" 
IC MAT withDTMF... 349 00 314 95 

Standard Models Regular SALE 

IC-2A for 2 meters 239.50 214" 

IC-2AT with TTP 269 50 219" 

IC-3A for 220 MHz... 269 95 234" 
IC-3AT with TTP '. 299.95 239" 

IC-4A for 440 MHz.,. 26995 234" 

IC-4AT with TTP 299 95 239" 

A ccessories for Hand-he Ids : Regu I a r 

BC-25U Extra 15-hour m\\ charger.... $10.00 

BC-30 1/ 15-hour drop-in charger for BP-2/3/5 69.00 

BP-2* 450 ma, 7.2v lw ext. time battery 39 50 

BP^3 Extra std. 250ma 8.4v L5w battery 29 50 

BP-4 Alkaline battery case,, 12.50 

BP-5* 450 ma r 10.8v 2 3w hi-power battery..... 49.50 
* BC-30 required ro charge BP-2 St BP-5 

FA-2 Extra 2m flexible antenna. 10 00 

CA-2 Telescoping 1/4-wave 2m antenna 10.00 

CA-5 5/8-wave telescoping 2m antenna 18.95 

CA-3 Extra 220 flexible antenna... 9.12 

CA-4 Extra 440 flexible antenna... , 9.12 

CP-1 Cigarette lighter receptacle chgr for BP-3 .... 9,50 

DC-1 OC operation module,.... 17 50 

HM-9 Speaker/microphone ,.., 34.50 

LC-2A Leather case without TTP cutout.. 34.95 

LC-2AT Leather case with TTP cutout , 34.95 

ML^l 2m 2.3/10w KTamp. (Reg. $89j .. SALE 79.95 
ML 25 2m 20w HT amp. (Reg. $199.50) SALE 179.95 

3A-TTN 16-button TTP front for 2A/3A/4A 39.50 

CommSpec SS-32M 32 tone encoder 29.95 

IC-IK12 12 Ch Marine hand-held ..... SPECIAL 269.95 




Shortwave receiver Regular SALE 

R-70 IQQKHz 3QMHz digital receiver ... $749.00 599" 

'til 12/31/83 - purchase H-70 and receive certificate 
for free 6C-4 World Clock ($ 99" Value) from ICOM. 

38.00 

112.50 

159.00 144" 

48.50 

49.50 

9 95 

19.50 



EX-257 FM unit 

IC-7072 Transceive interface, 720A 

FL-44/A SSB filter (2nd IF) 

FL-63 250 Hz CW filter (1st IF) ...... 

SP-3 External speaker 

EX-299 (CK-70) 12V option 

MB-12 Mobile mount.. 





HOURS: Mori, thru FrL 9-5:30; Sat 9-3 

Milwaukee WATS line L- 800- 558-0411 answered 
evenings until 8:00 pm, Monday thru Thursday. 

Please use WATS line for Placing Orders. 

For other information, etc. please use Regular line. 



Order Toll Free: 1-800-558-0411 



In Wisconsin (outside Milwaukee Metro Arms) 

1-800-242-51 95 



;Ii] KiUJJt 



4828 W. Fond du Lac Avenue; Milwaukee, Wl 53216 - Phone (414) 442-4200 



inc. 



AES BRANCH STORES 



WICKLIFFE, Ohio 44092 

23940 Euclid Avenue 

Phone (216) 585-7388 

Ohio WATS 1-800 362-0290 

^o' de 1-800-321-3594 



ORLANDO, Fla* 32803 

621 Commonwealth Ave. 

Phone (305) 394-3238 

Fla WATS 1-800-432-9424 

Outside i ortrt oil iftr 



CLEARWATER, Fla. 33575 LAS VEGAS, Nev. 89106 



1898 Drew Street 

Phone (813)461-4267 

No (n-State WATS 



S 1-800-327-1917 No Nationwide WATS ggg 



1072 U. Rancho Drive 

Phone (702)647-3114 

No In-State WATS 

SSililT 1-800-634-6227 



Associate Store 

CHICAGO, Illinois 60630 

ERICKS0N COMMUNICATIONS 

5456 N. Milwaukee Avenue 

Phone (312) 631-5181 

S s e 1-800-621-5802 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 19 



Grenada Log 

With a body-bag rig and gas from a bike, a ham 
hustled home the news. Here's history happening. 



Bob Cunningham K1KR 
PO Box 214 
Fitzwiftiam NH 03447 



Tim Daniel N8RK 
PO Box 4S5 
Peterborough NH 03458 



"A 



n invasion on 20 me- 
ters?" Those were 
the words Steve Mendolsohn 
WA2DHF heard with disbe- 
lief when he answered the 
telephone at a little after six 
on the morning of Tuesday. 
October 25th, 1983, Over 
2000 miles away on the is- 
land of Grenada, Mark Bara- 
tella KA20RK had been up 
for three hours, making ham 
radio history. Operating 
from his second-floor room 
at the Grand Anse campus 
of Saint George's Medical 
School, Mark had become 
an essential link between 
the island and the rest of the 
free world. 

This was how and where it 
began: The social and politi- 
cal events leading up to the 
rescue mission on Grenada 
are well known. In the days 
prior to October 25th, ham 
radio played an important 
but not a primary role. That 
all changed, however, when 
Mark was summoned by 
medical school administra- 
tors. With phone service 
nonexistent the telex dead, 
and the extremely unusual 

20 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



sound of aircraft circling 
overhead, Mark swung into 
action, 

His ham gear, which had 
been dismantled and hidden 
after the days-old coup, was 
retrieved from its hiding 
place — a body bag in the 
school's anatomy lab. Five 
minutes later KA20RK/J37 
was calling CQ on 20 me- 
ters. No response. . the 
band was dead Thankful for 
having a five-band trap di- 
pole, Mark made a quick 
change to 40 meters. Tuning 
across the quiet band, he 
happened onto an early 
morning QSO between an 
operator in Texas and a K4 
in Georgia. 

"Break . . Emergency . . . 
Break!" Naturally, the re- 
action was skeptical, By 
now Mark was hearing anti- 
aircraft fire in the distance. 
After confusion about third- 
party agreements was laid 
to rest and rt was established 
that this was a true emergen- 
cy—not a late-night boot- 
legger—the K4 telephoned 
Dr. Steve Lomazow N2DRA, 
Mark's QSL manager- 



Due to the conversations 
of preceding weeks, Dr Lo- 
mazow was more than 
aware that such a phone call 
might happen. The 40-meter 
frequency, however, caught 
him by surprise. Enlisting the 
help of his wife and son, Dr. 
Lomazow soon had a dipoie 
connected to his rig, hastily 
set up near the dining room 
phone. 

The predawn path be- 
tween New Jersey and Gre- 
nada was a good one, but to 
ensure top-quality signals, 
Dr. Lomazow enlisted the 
aid of KC2PK, whose direc- 
tional antenna and one- 
thousand-Watt transmitter 
were put on the air. There 
was little hesitation. . . 
KC2PK's daughter was on 
the island. 

Mark told Dr. Lomazow 
that there were rumors of an 
invasion and asked him if he 
could confirm it. N2DRA's 
phone calls to CBS, NBC r 
and ABC turned up nothing. 
(By now conditions on 40 
meters were deteriorating. 
The group moved to 20 me- 
ters where they set up shop 
on 14.250 MHz.) However, 
tipped off to the fact that 
something was happening in 
the Caribbean, the networks 
began to investigate. 



Enter Steve Mendolsohn 
WA2DHR His first reaction 
to the awakening phone call 
from his office, CBS Net- 
work Operations, was, "Your 
average invasion does not 
take place on 20 meters!" 
But after tuning in 14.250, 
Steve quickly changed his 
mind. 

During KA20RK/J37's trans- 
missions, listeners now 
could not mistake the dis- 
tinct sound of small-arms 
fire and jet aircraft. Accord- 
ing to Steve, "It was begin- 
ning to sound like there was 
someone who was not just 
down vacationing for a DX 
contest!" As the word got 
out, hams who were close to 
the media were besieged 
with phone calls, For exam- 
ple, Steve logged 46 such in- 
quiries. 

As it grew light outside, in 
Grenada, one of Mark's fel- 
low students used his pre- 
vious military experience to 
monitor the activity around 
them. From this rooftop 
crow's nest, he began to 
identify the ships just off the 
beach and the aircraft 
overhead as belonging to 
the USA. Even though they 
were in imminent danger, 
Mark and the students were 
fascinated by the technical 



expertise of the military in 
action. 

To augment the informa- 
tion that they were receiving 
from official sources, the 
press desperately wanted to 
speak with someone on the 
island. With the phone and 
all other forms of communi- 
cations dead, again, the only 
alternative was ham radio 
Mark was inundated with 
orvthe-air requests from the 
international, national, and 
local US media and amateur 
operators who were assist- 
ing the media. He refused all 
interviews, going so far as to 
deny Dan Rather any com- 
ments, (After Mark returned 
home, he met Mr. Rather and 
explained the situation and 
how ham radio functions.) 
What Mark did was to re- 
port nothing but facts, He 
told only of events that he 
could see himself or were 
reported to him firsthand 
from spotters on the roof 

Shortly after Mark started 
operating his Swan 500, the 
area lost commercial pow- 



er—not an unusual event on 
a small Caribbean island Pre- 
pared for this, the school 
had a diesel-powered gener- 
ator on standby. Risking 
nearby gunfire, a few stu- 
dents made their way across 
campus to the generator. 
They fueled it f checked the 
oil, and started it It had oil 
but there wasn't any in re- 
serve and it was running 
low. It ran for almost 18 
hours before freezing up. As 
a last resort, they had a 
small Honda generator of 
about 500 Watts capacity. 
Mark put the new generator 
out on the balcony and 
started it up. After reducing 
his power, he started to 
transmit Every time he 
keyed the mike, the under- 
powered generator groaned. 
However, it did the job; on- 
the-air signal reports were 
unchanged They had enough 
gasoline to operate this 
power supply for an addi- 
tional 5 to 10 hours. 

It was actually needed, 
however, for only 3 more 



hours, At that time: "Its 
Now! Get Down! . . . Get 
Down Now!" Those were 
the words one of Mark's 
friends used when he was in- 
structed to get him from his 
second-floor "shack." The 
Rangers were there and it 
was time to evacuate. Mark 
pulled the plug and headed 
downstairs. The rescue heli- 
copters were arriving at the 
beach, four and five at a 
time. A line of Rangers 
pushed the students down 
the beach and into the 
awaiting choppers. Mark 
wished that he still had his 
rig operating, as mortar 
fire was coming in and the 
helicopters were firing their 
cannons back to protect the 
students. Over 200 people 
were evacuated in about 1 5 
minutes. 

After a short flight to the 
recently-secured airport, the 
group had a few hours to 
collect their thoughts before 
being flown by jet to Barba- 
dos. On Barbados, Mark was 
able to phone home. After 



reassuring his family, top- 
most on his mind was letting 
the amateur-radio fraternity 
know that they were all safe. 
Another quick plane ride to 
South Carolina, and the 
ordeal was over. 

Mark's overall impression 
of the entire operation was 
reassuring. Amateur radio 
proved itself again. Yes, 
there was malicious interfer- 
ence. There was also inter- 
ference which was the result 
of some well-intentioned but 
nonetheless frivolous trans- 
missions. 

Licensed since his late 
teens, Mark epitomized the 
important role that young 
people can play in amateur 
radio. For KA20RK/J37, 
WA2DHF, N2DRA, KC2PK, 
and countless others, the 
day 20 meters was invaded 
will not be forgotten soon. 

The authors would like to 
thank WA6ITF, N2WS, 
WA2DHF, N2DRA, and last 
but not least KA20RK for 
help in researching this 
story. ■ 



AMATEUR TELEVISION 




ATV TRANSMITTER/CONVERTER 

Jt>oyy delivered 
TC-1 plus 




• OVER 10 WATTS PEP OUTPUT. Crystal controlled continuous 
duty transmitter. Specify 439.25, 434.0, 426.25 standard or other 
70 cm frequency. 2 freq. option add $26. 

• BASE, MOBILE, or PORTABLE. Use the builtin AC supply or 
external 13.8 vda Do parades, Marathons, etc. 

• TWO VIDEO AND AUDIO INPUTS for camera, TVRO, VCR or 
computer Wide bandwidth for broadcast qualify color video and 
computer graphics. Standard broadcast subcarrier sound which ts 
heard thru the TV speaker 

• RECEIVE ON YOUR STANDARD "TV SET tuned to channel 3 or 4. 
Sensitive varicap tuned TVC-2Ldownconverter covers simplex and 
repeater freq. over the whole 420-450 mHz 70 cm amateur band 

• ATTRACTIVE 1 0.5 x 3 x 9 CABINET. 



FCC & NASA OKs SHUTTLE VIDEO 

Want a chance at seeing W5LFL live as he works 2 meters? 

Its been great hearing the audio on the various repeaters, but 
now, if you hold a technician class or higher license, and have a 
TVRO capable of receiving Satcom IR transponder 13. you can 
repeat the space shuttle video to your fellow hams using our TC-1 
plus Just connect the composite video and line audio from the 
Satellite receiver to the video and audio inputs of the TC-1. 
Depending on your antenna, coverage wiJI be typicalry the same as 
2 meter simplex. Local area hams can receive with just one of our 
70 CM downconverters and an antenna. 

ATV 70 cm DOWNCONVERTERS 

For those who want to see the repeated shuttle video, and other 
ATV action before they commit to a complete station, theTVC-4 is 
for you. The TVC-4 contains the TV02 module mounted in a 
cabinet with AC supply ready to go. Tunes 420 to 450 mHz. Just 
connect70cmantennaandyourTVsettunedtoch3or4 ... $89 
delivered 
TVC-4L hotter preamp for fringe areas . . 599 delivered 

TVC-2 wired and tested module, Rea 12 vda MRF901 "preamp 
st age. Varicap tuned 42 0-450 mHz. A low cost start at ..... $49. 

TVC-2L hotter NE64535 preamp stage $59 delivered. 

TVC-2G GaAsFet preamp stage. Antenna mounting .*. $79 

CALL OR WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG Or more Information on 
ATV antennas, transmit modules, cam ems. and much, much more. 
See chapter 14 pg 30-32 1983 ARRL Handbook 

TERMS; Visa. Mastercard or cash only UPS CODs by telephone or mail 
Postal money orders and telephone orders usually shipped within 2 days. All 
other checks must clear before shipment Transm ittmg equipment soki only 
to licensed amateurs. 



{21 3) 447-4565 m-f 8am-6pm pst. 

P.C. ELECTRONICS 

Tom W60RG Maryann WB6VSS 






2522 Paxson Lane 
Arcadia CA 91006 






73 Magazine • January, 1984 21 



Instant Pane Relief 

This is the only notch filter for windows we've ever seen. 
If you can figure it out, youll beat the feedline flu. 



Gary L Eldridge KC8UD 
3219 Mirimar Street 
Kettering OH 4 ^409 



Qiftt* 60Aft&< 



Feeding any number of 
coax cables through a 
window from the ham 
shack to the antenna farm 



1HNER BCARD 




is sometimes a problem 
when the window has to be 
kept open a slight amount 
to allow clearance for 
them. Not only does rain 



£ ^r Wholes 

GRILLED 
THRGUSM 
BOTH BG&flDS 



SLOTS CUT III 
OPP-0SITC OJflECTIOHS 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 




blow in at times, but during 
the winter a tremendous 
amount of heat can be lost 
through such gaping gaps — 
not to mention insect inva- 
sions in the summer. 

Some have taken it so far 
as to make a permanent in- 
stallation, such as drilling 
holes in the side of the 
house, running the cables 
out snd then filling the 
holes with a weather-resis- 
tive material. That's good 
for home owners only. 

An easier and much fess 




22 



Tools needed, and finished hoards. 
73 Magazine * January. 19S4 



Inserting connector through outer board. 



£\ 




^ 




^ 



For the best buys in town call: 
212925 7000 

Los Precios Mas Bajos en Nueva 
York . , . 



KITTY SAYS: WE ARE NOW OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK, 

Saturday & Sunday 10 to 5 PM 

Monday- Friday 9 to 6:30 PM Thurs. to 8 PM 
Come to Barry's for the best buys in town. For 
Orders Only Please Call: 800-221-2683 



Barry gives irte best in Commercial 5 Ham Gear 
So- to One end All- A Happy and Healthy New 
Yeefl 



We are now an Authorized 




ICOM 




IC-R70, IC-751, IC-730, IC 745, IC-25A/H, IC-37A 
IC-45A, IC-271A, IC 2KL T IC-471A, IC 290H. IC-120 



mn©y 



FT-ONE, FT-980, FT-102. FT-7? r FT707, FT-230R FT757GX 
FT-726R, FT-720RU, FT^QR, FRG-7700, FT-203R 



KENWOOD 



YAESU 
FT208R 
FT70BR 
FTCM9Q3 



Dealer 



Irockwelucollins 

KWM-380 

VoCom/Mirage 
Tokyo Hy- Power 
Amplifiers & 
5/eXHTGain 
Antennas JN STOCK 




ICOM 

IC2AT 
IC3AT 
IC4AT 
IC0AT 



Land Mobile HfT 

Midland 
Wilson Mini Com II 

Yueiu FTC-2203, FM703 
icom ICM12 (Marine) 

Tempo 1**1 






KANTRONICS 

Field Day 2, Mini-Reader, 

Interface, Software & 

Code Tapes 



EIMAC 
3-500Z 
572B, 6JS6C 
12BV7A& 

4- 400 A 



Computer Interfaces 
Stocked: MFJ. 1224 
AEA CP-1 t Kantronics 
Big Ham Clock/Ham Tags 




DRAKE TR-5, TR-7A, R7A T L-7. 1*15. Earth 
Satellite Receiver ESR-24, THETA 9000E & 500, 
EARTH SATELLITE STATION ESS-2250 




SMART PATCH 
l ES Sample* Autopatch &tr> SA Will Paicti FM 
Transceiver To Your Telephone Great Fo* 
Teie^none Calls From Mobile To Base Sim pile 
To Use S3 19 95 



SANTEC 
ST222/UP 

ST-142/UP 

ST442/UP 

NEW IMPROVED 

MURCH Model 
UT2000B 




MFJ Models 

BOO, fl40B,«4iC,« 8510 



AEA 144 MHz 
AEA 440 M Hz 

ANTENNAS 




BIRD 
/attmeters & 
Elements 
In Stock 




Repeaters in Stock: 
Spectrum SCR 1000, 4000. & 77 
ICOM IC-RP 3010 (440 MHz) 
ICOM IC-RP 1210(1 2 GHz) 



HAM MasterTapes— 
Beta or VHS Tapes 



Complete Butternut Antenna 
Inventory In Stock! 



ROBOT 450C-M0C-1 200C 
Color Mod Kits ■ 



Long range Wireless 
Telephone for an pod 
In stock 



BENCHER PAD0LES& 
Vibroplex Keys In Stock!* 



New TEN-TEC 
2591 HT, Corsair In Stock 

DENTRON IS BACK IN STOCK! 



DIGITAL 

FREQUENCY 

COUNTER 

Trionya 

Model TR 1000 
0-600 MHz 
Dignnai Model 
S10 50 Hi tGHf 





Tri E* Towers 



-i 



y Gain Towers 
Antennas. 

nd ftolof i 
will pe snipped direct 
lo you FREE of snipping cost 



MAIL ALL ORDERS TO 



RY ELECTRONICS CORP.. 512 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, N Y 10012. 



New York City's 



LARGEST STOCKING HAM DEALER 
COMPLETE REPAIR LAB ON PREMISES 



ii 



Aqul Se Habla Espanol" 



BARRY INTERNATIONAL TELEX 12-7670 

TOP TRADES GIVEN ON USED EQUIPMENT 
STORE HOURS: Monday-Friday 9 to 6:30 PM 
Parking Lot Across the Street 
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See &st Qt Attverttzefs on page f m 



73 Magazine • January* 1984 23 




Guiding lines through inner board. 



defacing method is to cut a 
board the same width as the 
window and close the win- 
dow as far as possible down 
onto the board to make a 
tight fit. When a cable 
needs to reach outside the 
shack, a hole is simply 
drilled in the board and the 
cable is brought through. 

With this method, I have 
found that at most every 
time I want to run a cable 
out the window the cable I 
have chosen to use incon- 
veniently has connectors 
on both ends, Since a tight 
fit and a good seal requires 
that the hole in the board 
should be only large enough 
for the cable itself, that 
means that the connector 
has to be cut off before the 
cable can be inserted into 
the hole or removed from it. 

However, by looking at 
the illustrations you should 
have no trouble in under- 
standing the method I have 
found which facilitates a 



weather-tight seal and easy 
insertion or removal of any 
size cable without having to 
remove the connectors. 

The method employs two 
boards cut to the width of 
the window The boards are 
sandwiched together and 
the window is closed down 
onto the boards Each time 
a new feedline must be 
brought through, just drill a 
hole in the center of the two 
boards and cut slots from 
the holes to one edge of 
each board. The slots are 
cut in opposite directions in 
the two boards so that the 
board which faces the out- 
side has its slot going down 
and the board facing inside 
has its slots going up. 

The slots in the outside 
board should be cut in a 
wedge shape so that when 
the inside board is moved 
out of the way, the con nee* 
tors on the cables can pass 
through the wider end of the 
slots without having to 




Lines in; window weather proofed. 



remove the outer board at 
all This way you can seal 
the outer board by caulking 
it or using duct tape and 
thus the board never has to 
be removed. This requires 
several holes and slots to be 
pre-cut in the outer board 
before it is fixed in place. 

When any cable is re- 
moved, the small hole that is 
left behind can be filled eas- 



ily with a small dab of putty, 
a piece of wood dowel, or 
cloth. 

This method works well 
not only for coaxial feed- 
lines but for twin-line as well 
since the wood helps keep 
the twin-line away from any 
metal window framing 
which might have some ef- 
fect on the impedance of 
the feedline. ■ 



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(91 4) 947-1 554-1 555 ^^-^ ^ 1fA 10923 

24 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



MICROWAVE COMPONENTS 



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The "AIRWAVES" that is, thru the Mierolog AIR-1, a 
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compared. Convenient plug-in jacks make connec- 
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inexpensive. And Mierolog know-how makes it best! 

There's nothing left out with the AIR-1. "HARD- 
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space RTTY DEMOD pfus single tone CW detector. 
"SOFTWARE' 1 in onboard ROM has: split screen, 
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controlled receive data storage, WRU, SELCAL 
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RTTY, 60 to 132 wpm T CW to 150 wpm, 1 10/300 ASCII 
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your property ft will cost less and have wider bandwidth s All 
Barfcee & Williamson dipaies ore made from fugged #ld 
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otherwise noted, all antennas will handle the legal power limit. 
Tlrese dipofes may be installed as inverted *V's" or horizontally. 
The tunable trap antennas are adjusted to any part of a band 
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Model AS-80 

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20 m 



Tunable trap antennq with low 
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all modes 



AS160 S 8950 



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Resonant with low SWR on 40, 
20, somewhat higher SWR on 
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Tunable trap antenna with tow 
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on SSB, CW; 500 W input on AM. 
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ATB0 S 79,50 



AS-30 $ 99 50 



370-13 5 65.00 



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A5^20 $ 7550 



Add-on kit to convert an 80 m 
dipole to 160 m Loading cotis and 
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Add-on kits to pfovkJe 30 m or 
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ORBIT is the Official Journal for the 
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26 73 Magazine * January, 1984 







Without doubt LR-1 is the repeater value leader! Compare its 
outstanding performance with any repeater ~ then look at 
its price, LR-1 features include individual die-cast shielding 
of receiver and transmitter plus a separately shielded 
6-stage receiver prefflter for peak performance in 
harsh RF environments • Front panel metering 
all vital functions • CW identifier • Symmetri 
hard limiting for clean natural audio • Low 
power MOS control logic • Even the 
cabinet is included — just plug in and go! 



LINKING? The LR-1 is also available with 
control circuitry for Link Transceiver 
operation. Now link repeater sites with the 
Flexible control capability you've always 
wanted. 



HIGH POWER? Our PA-75 power amplifier is the 
champion! Ruggedly built to give years of dependable 
operation in continuous duty repeater service. 





Mark 3C repeaters and controllers have no 
equal in performance. Both units feature 
auto patch, reverse autopatch, autodial. 1 3 
Morse messages and a total of 39 func- 
tions. Both feature microprocessor control 
and both have been proven in the field from icy 
Alaska to tropical Brazil. A Mark 3C supercontroller 
can make any repeater a super performer. The Mark 
3CR repeater is in a class by itself. It combines superbly 
designed RF circuitry in one handsome package. It is 
without doubt the world's most advanced repeater! 



CALL OR WRITE FOR FULL DETAILS 

MICRO CONTROL SPECIALTIES 

23 Elm Park • Groveland, Massachusetts 1834 • Telephone (6 I 7) 372-3442 



See i*st 0f Adve* Users on page 114 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 27 



Cart A, KolImKitML 
120 J Gem in t Street 

Vanticoke PA fstu 



Sound Off! 



Here's the perfect S-meter add-on for the repeater that 
has everything. The higher the beep, the better the signal. 



Think you've seen every 
kind of attachment to a 
repeater that theiv is' How 
about this one — an audible 
S-meter? If you're wonder- 
ing about why in the world 
you would need an audible 
S meter on your repeater, 
think about all the times 
that you wanted to compare 
rigs, optimize antenna direc- 
tion or location, or just 
know how well vmi weir 
making the repeater from a 
particular mobile Location. 
If your luck was like mine, 
you found that no one was 
around at that time, or, it 



they were, they couldn't 
stay while you fiddled 
around with your rotator or 
carried the antenna back 
and forth across the roof a 
bunch of times, And even if 
they did stick around, didn't 
you ever wonder how the\ 
could determine by ear 
whether you were 70% or 
80% full quieting? 

Well, this little circuit will 
solve all those problems for 
you. Now you can make any 
of those tests all by yourself 
and know for sure whether 
that last change you made 
helped or hurt you even if 



Photo by Mike Banish K3SAE 




I > # i # i ■ * 

■ ■ 

■ ■■ 

M ft * 

■ ft ■ « -i ■ m 



Circuit board. 
28 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



no one's around Generally, 
what it does is sample the 
first limiter voltage, amplify 

it, and feed it to a voltage- 
controlled oscillator which 
returns a beep proportional 
to your signal strength The 
higher the beep, the stronger 
you are (up to full quieting) 
I've got mine on WR3AGU 
1 47.81 /,21 at Mehoopany, 
Pennsylvania, and its been 
working great for about a 
year It's set up to give a 
continuously variable tone 
beep between 2 uV and 1 
uV The tone frequenc\ 
range is 800 Hz for 2 uV and 
about 2800 Hi for 1.0 uV. 

All the other junk you see 
in the schematic diagram 
does things like delay the 
beep to give your receiver 
time to recover after trans 
mil, set up a sample-and- 
hold circuit to hold the limit- 
er voltage momentarily 
when you let up on the 
mike, and discharge that 
voltage after the beep is out- 
put, etc More on that later 
in the circuit description. 
Depending on where you 
hook it up on your repeater, 
it can serve a dual purpose 
of indicating timer reset and 
signal strength 

The circuit isn't very com- 
plex and it shouldn't be hard 



for anyone with the time 
and initiative to design a PC 
board tnr it 

Circuit Description 

IC1 is a dual op amp with 
a very high input imped- 
ance This is necessary so as 
to not load down the nr>t 
limiter stage to which it will 
be connected. The gain of 
the stage is variable and is 
adjusted by the 1-meg-dc 
amp gam control. Mor^ 
about this adjustment later 
The output of this IC is fed 
through D1 to the second 
half of ICI. D1 ensures that 
I he 2,2-uF tantalum capaci- 
tor is not disc barged when 
the output of ICI a goes low- 
er than the voltage on the 
2.2-uF c apacitor 

These components form a 

sample-and-hold circuit 
which holds the voltage de- 
veloped by ICI a for a short 
time when the input signal 
disappears ICI b serves as a 
voltage follower impedance 
transformer Its high input 
impedance does not load 
down the 2.2-uF capacitor 
and its relatively low output 
impedance feeds the 
MC4024 vco The MC4024 is 
a voltage-controlled oscilla- 
tor The audio output fre- 
quency of this chip is deter- 






'ROM RPTR 
ICVR FfftST 
LlUlTEft 



FROM 

RPTH 
SQUELCH 




R15 

2 ? K 



TO 
-> REPEATER 

AUDJO 



*5V 



RIG 

3 3* 



fll7 



COR 
f+5V ON RCVJ 



3 3K 




PZ 



K 



* 1 

m 



ice 

' LM3046 



+ \V* 



t 



■■77 



CU 
100 pF 



/ft 




5V REGULATOR 



— • 





-C12 


1? 


_ 1 


>v 



TO ALU 
POINTS 




03 

M4001 



04 a\ T 

■H4Q0I L 

-* W — t — ■*** — t 

■■'0* TiomF ^ Sltf 

ZENER 

/h th fh 



TO 4LL 
POINTS 



fig. / Schematic. 



mined by the voltage at its 
input With the values 
shown, output frequencies 
between 800 and 2800 Hz 
will be generated when pin 5 
is high 

The repeater COR is con- 
nected to the anode of D2. 
The COR must go above 2,0 
volts on receive and remain 
below 1.0 volt when idle. 
The standard 0-volt low and 
5.0-volt high is ideal When a 
signal is received, IC2{set up 
as a retriggerable monosta- 
bfe) is reset and its output 
is held high while a trans- 
mission is being received. 
When the received carrier 
disappears, IC2 then times 
out (how much later is deter- 
mined by the 1-meg pot and 
the 1-uF capacitor) and out- 
put pin 3 goes low. This de- 
lay is to ensure that you 
release your mike button. 
Instead of an immediate re- 
turn beep, a delay is intro- 
duced which allows time for 
receiver recovery. 

When IC2 goes low, it trig- 



gers IC3 which is set up as a 
monostable When pm 3 of 
IC3 goes hi^h, it biases on 
the It section of the LM3046 
transistor array, bringing pin 
5 of the MC4024 vco low for 
a finite time allowing it to 
output a beep. After IC3 
times out, its output pin 3 
goes low, shutting off the 
vco and triggering IC4, 
When IC4 is triggered, its pin 
3 goes high and biases on 
the A section of the transis- 
tor array. This discharges the 
2.2-uF tantalum and readies 
it for receipt and storage of 
the next voltage level. 

The other three sections 
of the LM3046 transistor ar- 
ray are used, together with 
their respective LEDs, as log- 
ic monitors to indicate the 
status of the three timers. 
All five sections may. of 
course, be replaced by five 
discrete transistor devices if 
you wish. 

The fourth 555 is used in 
the astable mode to convert 
+ 12 volts dc to a low-cur- 



rent — 5-volt supply needed 
for the proper operation of 

IC1. The 7805 is a thrfee-ter- 
minal device used to regu- 
late the +12 volts supplied 
to + 5 volts needed for IC1 
and other portions of this 
circuit 

Adjustment 

There are only three ad- 
justments to be concerned 
with. The one-meg pot asso- 
ciated with IC2 is adjusted 
to provide the amount of de- 
lay you would like after the 
carrier disappears before 
the beep is heard The prop- 
er amount of time is what 
sounds best to you. Adjust- 
ment is best done while in 
actual operation. 

The one-meg-dc amp gain 
associated with Ida takes a 
bit more to adjust. If you 
have access to a Cushman 
or other service monitor 
with a calibrated output, 
things are much easier. 

With a service monitor; (1 ) 
Remove the LM3046 from 



its socket (you did use a 
socket, didn't you?}- Short 
pins 5 and 3 of the socket 
with a thin jumper wire to 
perm ii nen t I y e n a b I e the 
MC4024. [2) Disconnect one 
end of the 2.2-uF capacitor, 
(3) Set the dc amp gain to 
minimum resistance (4) Key 
up the repeater and adjust 
the 20k -level pot in the out- 
put of the vco to about 
3 kHz deviation. (5} Apply a 
signal to the receiver which 
is just enough to break 
squelch. Adjust the dc amp 
gain slowly until a slight rise 
in tone pitch is noticed This 
causes IC1 a to output the dc 
level at this point which is 
needed to begin controlling 
the vco. Any larger sigriril 
will be further amplified and 
applied through ICtb to the 
vco, resulting in a higher 
tone from the vco. The 
stronger the signal, the high- 
er pitched the tone. 

Without a service moni- 
tor: (1 ) Perform steps 1 , 2, 3, 
and 4 above, (2) Have some- 

73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 29 



one with a very weak signal 
transmit, Adjust the dc amp 
gain as described in step ^ 
above 

The Input Stage 

tCla's input is connected 
to your repeater's first I im it- 



er stage. The voltage at this 
point will most probably In- 
crease with an increase in 
signal strength in this case, 
the non4nverting stage con- 
figuration is used It it is nec- 
essary to connect to a point 
in your first limiter where 



the voltage decreases with 
increasing signal, then use 
the inverting configuration 
shown 

The audible S-meter has 
proven to be a worthwhile 
addition to the 8121 repeat- 
er (VVR3ACU) and I'm sure 



you'll find it a useful and 
novel feature on your 
repeater 

I'll be happy to answer 
any questions regarding this 
circuit Please include a 
stamped self -addressed 
envelope. ■ 



Parts List 



Resistors (all Vz or V* Watt unless stated otherwise) 




R1,R2 ( R3, R4, R11.R19 


100k 


R5, R6, R27 part # TR1 1-1 meg $.39 


1 meg pot 


R7, R10 p R28 


1.0k 


R8 


4 J meg 


R9, R12, R13.R25, R26, 




R30 


10k 


R14 part#TR-11-20k$,39 


20k pot 


R15 


22k 


R16, R17 


3,3k 


Rt8 


1 meg 


R2Q T R21 , R22 


120 


R23, R24 


47k 


R29 


33k 


R31 


510 


Capacitors (all capacitors at least 12 volts do) 




01 part #TM2 2/35 $.51 2.2 


uF tantalum 


CZC4 part # MY. 22/ 100 5,33 


22 uF 


C3. C10 part#A1/16 $.17 


1.0 uF 


C5, C9, C13, C14 part #DC,01/50 $.08 


.01uF 


C6, C7 part # DC.001/50 108 


.001 uF 


C8 part#DC.1/12 $.12 


.1 yF 



C11.C15 
C12 t C16 

Diodes 

D1 , D2, D3, D4 
D5 

Integrated Circuits 

IC1 

IC2, IC3, IC4, IC5 

IC6 

IC7 

IC8 

Transistors 

Q1,Q2 

LEDs 
L1, L2, L3 



part # A 100/16 $.24 
part # A 10/ 16 $.17 

part#1N4001 12/$ 1.00 
part#lN4733 4/$1.00 

part#LF353N $1.00 

part#NE555V $.39 

part # MC4024P $3.95 

part # LM340T5 $1.25 

part # LM3Q46N $1.30 

part#2N3392 4/S1.00 



part#XC209R 5&1.00 



100uF 

10 uF 



1N4001 or equiv. 
5.1 V zener 



LF353 

555 

MC4024 

7805 regulator 

transistor array 



general purpose 
NPN type 



general 
purpose LEDs 



All parts available from Jameco Electronics 

1355 Shoreway Rd. 
Belmont CA 94002 



Plan Now To Attend The Most "OUT OF THIS WORLD 
Event In The History Of Ham Radio! 



COME TO THE ARRL 1904 NATIONAL CONVENTION IN NEW 
YORK, the worlds greatest city, at the New York Statler July 20-22. 
Along with the conventions fantastic parlies, technical and operating 
seminars. League committee meetings, banquet, OX gatherings and 
manufacturers 1 displays, you and your family can enjoy all there is to 
do in New York, the cultural capital of the world! 

FOR A TRULY "OUT OF THIS WORLD" EXPERIENCE we'll be 

celebrating both the 15th Anniversary of man's first moon landing 
AND the first off-world amateur radio operation during the STS-9 
Spacelab-1 mission, Our special guest will be astronaut DR. OWEN 
G ARRIOTT, W5LFL, first ham to operate from space? You can meet 
W5LFL in person, at the Moon Landing Anniversary Party on Friday 
evening. July 20th. AND hear him speak at the Banquet on Saturday 
evening, July 21st. 

IMAGINE, THE MOST IMPORTANT ARRL NATIONAL EVER 
HELD,.. AND YOU CAN BE THERE! Register now to assure your 
room and banquet reservations. For detailed information and 
registration forms, SASEto Mike Troy, AJ1J, R.R, 4 -Box 19C t 
Pound Ridge, NY 10576. 



^^ 





HARC 



30 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



9u pr&paren 



by WB2GMK Advertising 



ALL ITEMS ARE 
GUARANTEED OR SALES 
PRICE REFUNDED, 

PRICES F.O.B. 
HOUSTON 

PRICES SUBJECT TO 
CHANGE WITHOUT 
NOTICE 

ITEMS SUBJECT TO 
PRIOR SALE. 



I 



Electronics Supply 



1508 Mc Kinney 

Houston, Texas 77010 

'Call For Quotes 

713-658-0268 

We stock what we advertise, 

and much more. 



• i + i 



■ ■■p ii 



129.95 
699.00 

. CALL 
. 79.00 
199.00 
249.00 
269,00 



AMATEUR COMPUTER ACCESS. 

Micro Patch™ 

model MP-Z0/MP-64 . . . $129,95 

The lowest priced unit available. 

AEACP1 189.95 

CP1/VIC 20 rnbatext, . Special 

CP1/COMM64 mbatext Hot Deal 

Software 10% off Amateur 

Discount Prices 
Kantronics Interface 119.95 

with HAM7EXT 199.95 

Kantronics AMTOR . .-. 79.95 

MFJ 1224 plus rtew 1260 

or 1251 software for 

VJC2Q/COMM64 
HAL CWR6850 Telereader 
New Hot AEA MicroPafch 

COMM 64 or V\C2Q .... 
VHF/UHF MIRAGE B23 

B3016..... 

81016 ..... 

D1010N ... 

NewA1015 CALL 

KDK 2030 259.00 

ST144UP 269.00 

New Santec ST142 CALL 

ST7T.. 209.00 

Accessories In stock 

TR7950, TM201A CALL 

TW4000A HOT PRICE 

OSCAR FT726R , « 699.00 

SU726 95.00 

430 Module 225.00 

FT290/FT790 Combo 699.00 

F208RA/FT708R 269.00 

TenTec HT 279.00 

HT 1200 , 209.00 

HF 
Signal One Milspec 5995.00 

Accessories available. 
Rockwell-Collins 

KWM380 .,. Factory Order 

ACCESSORIES 

TS930S CALL 

TS450S DISCOUNT 

TS530S GREAT BARGAIN 

TSS30S plus free goods . . , , . BUY! 

TenTec Corsair 1020.00 

Argosy .. 529.00 

DcakeTRS 499.00 

YA£SU FT980 1299.00 

FT77 ..499.00 

FT757GX 749.00 

FH02 . 879.00 

NYE MB-V 3kw Tuner 479.00 

MB4-2 399.00 

MB1-2 100 watt 185,00 

GE Tubes . . STOCK 

Robot 1200c high resolution 



color SSTV 

450c Color SSTV 

800c/8OOch RTW/CW. 

™*k*"»J^w Ml * + ■***¥*«■*■■ 

OLA-rL* 1 1% II ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ * ^; * . ■ « 

Microwave Modules . , 

BIRD 43 - Elements 



1139.00 
. . 789.00 
. . 789.00 
. . 469.00 
. . 155.00 
10% OFF 
..SOON 

.STOCK 



Call for other BIRD Items! 



FEATURE 

New Santec ST142 

Same accessories as ST144up 
W6TOG Hearing Aids 

Preamp board 



r w i i I I 1 



■ r i r r I 



299.95 



. 29.95 



+ * * ■ ■ 



■ * ■ ■» 



STOCK 
$29.95 

149.95 
.58.00 
. 74.00 
.29.00 
159.00 



ANTENNAS 

Cushcraft Proline ....... 

Cushcraft turnstife 

Cushcraft D40 Rotable dipoJe 
Oscar 416TB .... 

A14420T 

A14TMB 

As a package 
Bel den 9913 Solid center Coax, 

foil 4- Braid shield 42C/R. 

KT34A 308.00 

2MI3LBA ... 79.00 

144-148-13LBA 78.00 

420-470180 .V. 59.00 

A1441QT ........ 49.00 

Antenna specialists AP151.3G 33.00 

40£~ I OLD ■■.■*»ip.t. ..♦*.*... wTiUU 

tJP IV »................»....fh I 4*7 » W 

Explorer 14 CALL 

TH7DX DISCOUNT 

HF6V 125.00 

G7144 ..108.00 

DB plus Enterprises, 2 El Quad 279.00 

Alpha Delta 10% off 

W1JC 160/30, 160/40Mdipole 

110' Long . . , 69,95 

B&W AV25 Vertical Notrap 85.00 

Q5-QRM, coax 

Dipote, Cornm. Grade 75M 69,95 

40M, Coax dipole 59,95 

Belden 8214 , 40*/Ft. 

9258 RG8X ...... 19*/R. 

8267 RG213 , 49*/R. 

Anipheno! 8261 N Male . 3.00 

831SP PL259 Silverplate , 1 .25 

U\_/ I / LJ ■ ■ ■ -r m, -h r >r hi II ■■■■■■■■■■»* + *■■■■■■■■■■ V* \J ™ 

HIQ dogbone insulator 50$ 

ACCESSORIES 

Triplite 12V20A supply $99.00 

Big Ham Clocks 

Dual LCD 12/24 hr . . . . . 29.95 

Books: Glifer Radio Pub, Radio Callback, 

ARRL SAMS, AMECO, TAB, RIDER 
AEA MM2 149.00 



KT2 

BT1 

Sherwood, Fox Tango 

Alpha Delta 

Janel, Vlbroplex 

Coax Seal 

QSL Holder 

Bugcatcher 

All band antenna coil , . , 

Single Band Coii 

Valor HF mobile antennas. 

Anteco 5/8 Mag. mt 

Bencher ZA1A/ZA2 

Poddies 

Single Paddle ST2 

Single Paddle ST1 



.129.00 
. . 99.00 
. . 79.00 
10% Off 

. . . /Vdn 

10% off 
. . . 2.00 
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. 45.00 

. 39.00 

20.00 ea. 

. 25.00 

.,21.00 



.54.00 
. 49.00 



t^Ab 



ICOM BLOWOUT 

Due to heavy buying, we have extra ICOM 
stock. Look below at these prices I 

IC490A ..._.... $519.00 

1C451A , 595,00 

CjX I 0«£ .. + . + ,,.. 4*1 -vU 

EX203 CW AUDIO 30.00 

rLQO 1 .».»»..,...*i... tfTiW 

FL30 , 46.00 

l~ LHr/G » * v ■ v i' w n m ^r***»***-*pp«" *+W-Uw 

f~ LsJi ■■■■■ * ■ +*..■»■ i fri»HPP«9 fl + " p ■ ■ * ■ "W\r 

FL53 ,,,............ 77.00 

HM10 31.00 

MB1 Z ......... . + . , . . • 1 £,UU 

R70 - 720A Interface 95.00 

PARTS 

CDE .001/20KV doorknob cap $1.95 

Sprague 100Pf/500V Peedthru 1.95 

Sprague 500Pf/30Kv doorknob cap , . . 16.00 
14, 20, 24 pin 600 Mil dip sockets, 

soldertail 40$ 

14 r 16 pin 300 Mil 10C 

20, 24, 40 Pin 600 Mil 25^ 

3n201 - 10* 

Caps to .01 Pc 10* 

Rec Tubes new surplus 1.00 ea. 



SWL CORNER 

Bearcat DX1000 

lw U i i ■ i..... ■ . ■ 

R2000 

R1000 ..., 

McKay Dymek . 



..499.00 
. . . CALL 
SPECIAL 
...BUY! 
. STOCK 



USED, GUARANTEED 

90 day waranty & 6 nnonth trade in, full value, 

for new gear, 

FT101ZD/FiJter .595.00 

TS520 or TS520S 395.00 ea. 

75A4/KWS1 or 32S1/75S1 Parts ....... CALL 

CX1 1 A. clean 3395.00 

V.^A,/,T"Ti .......... .»a».ii*. ii|*p..«.4. U'v-Vv 

TS830S - . , .695.00 

HOT & NEW 

Ree upgrade book or call directory with 
new HFrig purchase. Tired of counting on 
"satisfaction" from your present dealer? 
Try us! Don't hesitate to call for a little 
radio advice, we always try to steer you 
in the right direction, 

Trades welcome. 

POLICIES 

MasterCard, Visa, COD W&lcome 

Note: Many companies use your money 
until the item is shipped. We hold charge 
cards, checks, until shipment, Call us 
anytime on the status of your order. Ail 
prices FOB Houston, subject to change, 
prior sale. Used gear sales price refunded 
if not satisfied. 



AEA 

Alliance 
Alpha Delta 
Amphenol 
Anteco 



Belden Bugcatcher ETQ-A3pha 

Butternut Antennae Finco 

Sird Bencher Fb* Tango 

Cushcraft Dawkey Gitfer 

CDE Drake GE Tubes 



Heil 

ICOM 

IRL 

Hustler 

HyGain Consumers Wire HamKeyer Kantronics Kenwood Mirage 



1-800-231-3057 



McKav-Dymek Rahn 
Nye Rockwell-Collins 

Radio Call book Tentec Triex 
Rider TeJex TAB 

Robot TCG Tripfett 



Signal One 
Spiagu^ Vibroptex 
Santec W6TOG 
Surplus Vaesu 
SAMS 



fim Willis WA4CCA 
18456 Overlook Rd 
LosCato&CA 95Q3Q 



Some Alarming Techniques 

These burglar-proof circuits will stump second-story men 
and amaze possible thieves— as well as you. 



The most cost-effective 
_. way to protect life and 
property against fire, theft, 
and vandalism is with an 
electronic alarm system 
Wayne Green has been tell- 
ing us for years of the mar- 
ket potential for amateur 
radio operators in the alarm 
business. Having once been 
in the alarm business, I 
agree with Wayne and in 



this article I will share the 
common circuit techniques 
and a schematic for a simple 
but sophisticated residential 
alarm control panel. 

Closed Loop or Open Loop? 

For an alarm to be reli- 
able, its operation must not 
be defeated by a loose con* 
nection or broken wire in the 
system. Most intrusion 



i 




BELL 



NORMALLY CLOSED LOOF* 



AUHM CONTROL PANEL 



Fig, t Schematic of a simple closed-hop alarm using a relay, 
battery, and bell The closed loop is self4esting because the 
loop must be made up before the alarm is turned on. 



CURRENT LiMiTIKG LAMP 




i} — S-s^^r—^sr^^^ 




HORMALLT OPEN LtHN* 




BELL 



TROUBLE 



ALARM 



Fig. 2 Open-loop two-wire system, using end<jf-line diode, 
relays, and ac power supply. These are used in fire-alarm 
systems, 

32 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



alarms use a closed loop— a 
continuous loop of wire 
with normally -closed 
switches wired in series. 
When one of the switches is 
open or the metallic tape on 
a protected window is 
broken, the alarm panel re- 
sponds to an open circuit on 
its input terminals. This type 
of loop is self-testing; there 
is only one way to make up 
the loop, this being with all 
switches closed and wires 
connected. Fig 1 illustrates 
an example of a simple 
alarm control panel circuit 
for closed-loop operation. 

An open loop consists of 
a chain of normally-open 
switches wired in parallel. 
Some technique for testing 



the integrity must be provid- 
ed, since a break in the nor- 
mallyopen loop would ren- 
der part of the loop in- 
operative 

Fig. 2 illustrates the use of 
an endof -line diode to mon- 
itor a normally-open loop In 
this circuit an ac signal is im- 
pressed on the control-panel 
end of the loop During one 
half of the cycle the end-of- 
line diode conducts, supply- 
ing current to the trouble 
relay Should one of the 
switches close, the alarm 
relay would drop out. set- 
ting off the alarm circuit 
Should the loop open or ac 
power fail, the trouble relay 
will drop out, alerting the 
operator to trouble on the 



CURRENT LIMITING LAMP 







Fig, .?. Typical four-wire open-loop alarm circuit using alarm 
relay. These are also used in commercial Hre-alarm systems. 



line. There are other endof- 
line techniques for detect- 
ing open-loop trouble; each 
has some problem and is 
considered not as good as a 
four-wire loop. 

The Four-Wire Loop 

A four-wire loop is shown 
in Frg. 3. This circuit uses 
two relays to sense the in- 
tegrity of the loop. If either 
relay drops out, a trouble 
alarm is sounded. If the 
open loop is shorted, both 
relays drop out, as does the 
alarm relay. 

This four-wire circuit uses 
a single dc power supply 
and may be supplied by a 
backup battery in case of ac 
power failure. It should be 
noted that in case of relay or 
power failure, this circuit 
will fail in the trouble or 
alarm mode. The normally- 
open switches used in this 
type of alarm have four sets 
of screws for the incoming 
and outgoing pairs to ensure 
that a switch does not get 
left out of the loop because 
of a poor connection. The 
open loop is normally used 
for fire-alarm systems which 
are left on continuously. 

Entry and Exit 

An intrusion alarm is usu- 
ally turned off for part of the 
day and activated for part of 
the day; The operator must 
be able to turn the alarm 
system on and off without 
causing an alarm. There are 
two techniques for this: a 
high-security key switch 
mounted outside the pro- 
tected perimeter and the 
time-delay system. 

The high-security key- 
switch technique uses a key- 
switch with a cylindrical 
tumbler to bypass part of 
the closed loop, as shown in 
Fig. 4 To arm the alarm sys- 
tem, the operator first 
checks the integrity of the 
loop at the control panel 
and turns on the alarm. The 
operator then exits through 
the doors and areas by- 
passed by the outside key- 
switch. After securing the 
exit door, the high-security 
keyswitch is opened, putting 



the bypassed switches back 
in the loop. To enter the pro- 
tected perimeter these steps 
are reversed; first the out- 
side switch is closed, then 
the operator proceeds to the 
alarm panel and turns the 
alarm off. 

Entry and exit delays may 
be used in low-security sys- 
tems where the intruder 
would not expect to find an 
alarm system, such as in a 
residence. When the system 
is turned on, the operator 
has a preset exit delay peri- 
od before the alarm system 
is armed This period is nor- 
mally adjustable from a few 
seconds to a couple of min- 
utes. This gives the operator 
time to set the alarm and ex- 
it the perimeter without set- 
ting off the alarm. 

Another delay must be 
provided for entry. Here the 
operator may break the pro- 
tected perimeter and still be 
given time to go to the 
alarm-system panel and turn 
it off before the alarm 
sounds. Obviously, the in- 
truder may be given the 
same opportunity to find 
and silence the alarm before 
it sounds. Fig. 5 gives us a 
schematic for an alarm cir- 
cuit which provides for en- 
try and exit delay. 

The entry and exit delays 



OTHER SWITCHES 
-fi_i_it- 



HfGN |! 
SECURITY 
KEY SWITCH 




ALARM 

CONTROL 

PANEL 



ENTRY/EXET 
DOOR SWITCHES 



Fig. 4> Example of how a high-security keyswitch is used to 
bypass entry/exit doors. This type of circuit is used on com- 
mercial intrusion alarms. 



are fixed by the choice of 
timing capacitors CI and C2 
and resistors R10 and R11 
connected to IC3; with 1 
megohm and 10 ptF respec- 
tively, the delay is about 
14 seconds. This is about 
the minimum practical de- 
lay time. . L 
Half sections of IC2 are 



connected as R-S latches to 
hold information about the 
system status. System status 
and loop integrity are indi- 
cated by LtDs. Also includ- 
ed is a power supply tor the 
system with battery backup. 
Normally the batteries are 
dry cells which are tested 
and replaced periodically. 



Parts Lrst 



R1-R6 


2.2kQ, M-Watt 


R7-R9 


330Q, V*-Watt 


R1Q, R11 


1 megohm, 1 /4-Watt 


C5, C6 


47-uF tantalum 


C1,C2 


10-uF, 16-volt electrolytic 


C3. C4 


0.01-uF ceramic disc 


D1-D3 


1IM4001 


04- D6 


Light-emitting diode 


S1-S3,S7 


Normally-closed switches 


S4-S6 


Normally-open, momentary-contact switches 


IC1, IC2 


7400 quad two-input NAND; + 5 — pin 14, Gnd 




pin 7 


IC3 


556 dual 555 timer; + 5— pin 14, Gnd— pin 7 


IC4 


7805 5*V regulator 


RY1 


5-V low-current relay 



CLOSED 
LOOP 







+ 5 
4 




D< 



I/4IG2 Jo 11 



ATI 



ARMED LEP 
05 



m 



Fig^ 5. Schematic diagram of an alarm control panel suitable for residential use. Entry/exit 
delay is included. 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 33 



9 VOLT 

ADAPTER 
300mA 



J 



*9 



B4TT TEST 
ST DZ 



1 




/*T 



cs 



1 

I 



J 



e 



I 



03 



— 9V0LT fliTTERT 



I 



Fig. 6* Power supply for Fig, 5. The battery is usually dry cells 
which are periodically tested and replaced. 



Summons 

The systems described 
here all rely on a local bell 
to scare the intruder away 
and/or notify the occupants 
Commercial alarms must al- 
so notify the police or fire 
department or some other 
private security office Nor 
mally this is done over 
leased phone lines — pairs of 
wires leased trom the phone 
company which connect t he 
alarm panel to the central 
office. 

In simple systems, a nor- 



mal status is indicated by 
plus six volts dc, trouble is 
indicated by zero volts, and 
an alarm condition is indi- 
cated by negative six volts 
dc In most locations, the ex- 
act nature of these signals 
has already been estab- 
lished and any new systems 
must conform to the existing 
standard. The central office 
receiver may vary from a 
plug-in zero-center meter, 
with latching relay and buzz- 
er, to a small computer 
console which types out the 
name, address, and time of 



any alarm. Usually a small 
charge is levied for the use 
of the central system by the 
city or private company. 

Parts Procurement 

Commercial -quality alarm 
components are available 
from Ademco, Bourns, FBI, 
Moose. Napco, and Univer- 
sal. These units are well 
engineered and built like 
tanks to provide years of 
trouble-free service. Resi- 
dential-quality units are 
available from Midex, Seek- 
er, Eico, and Solfaa Many 
of these have entry and exit 
delays and may not be suit- 
able for commercial use. 
These are available from 
suppliers in many metropol- 
itan areas. 

Selling the System 

For those interested in 
making a business out of 
selling and installing alarm 
systems, the thing being sold 
here is security, not a bunch 
of alarm panels, wires, 
switches, lights, and bells. 



The buyer wants to feel that 
he, his property, and his 
family are safe from fire, 
theft r and burglary. He 
wants his system to be reli- 
able; if it fails to operate 
properly he wants it re- 
paired immediately, even if 
it's 2 am. Once he has the 
security of an alarm system, 
he will not want to be with- 
out it. For this reason, 
alarms are usually sold with 
a service contract or lease. 
Remember: The customer 
probably won't know a thing 
about how his system op- 
erates. 

There exists a good poten- 
tial in many areas of the 
country for someone who 
can understand these simple 
circuits, organize a business, 
and be reliable in the in- 
stallation and maintenance 
of alarm systems. For those 
not interested in a business, 
a do-it-yourself residential 
alarm offers a cheap, effec- 
tive insurance against loss 
due to fire, theft, or 
burglary ■ 



• TECHNICAL FORUMS 

• ARRL AND FCC FORUMS 

• GIANT 3-DAY FLEA MARKET 

FRIDAY, SATURDAY AND SUNDAY 

• NEW PRODUCTS AND EXHIBITS 

• GRAND BANQUET 

• WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES 

• ELECTRICAL SAFETY FORUM 

• SPECIAL GROUP MEETINGS 

• YL FORUM 

• PERSONAL COMPUTER FORUM 

• CW PROFICIENCY AWARDS 

• AMATEUR OF YEAR AWARD 

• SPECIAL ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS 




ADMISSION 

$7.50 in advance. S 1 at door, 

(Vaidtora«3days) 

BANQUET 

$14 in advance. $16 at door. 

FLEA MARKET SPACE 

$15 in advance, 
(V^lid for aU 3 days) 

Checks for advance registration to 

Dayton HAMVENTION 
Box 2205, Dayton, OH 45401 



April 27, 28, 29, 1984 

Hara Arena and Exhibition Center — Dayton, Ohio 

Meet your amateur radio friends from all over the world at the internationally 
famous Dayton HAMVENTION. 

Seating will be limited for Grand Banquet and Entertainment on Saturday 
evening so please make reservations early. 

[f you have registered within the last 3 years you will receive a brochure in 
January, If not, write Box 44, Dayton, OH 45401 . 

Nominations are requested for Radio Amateur of the Year and Special Achieve- 
ment Awards. Nomination forms are available from Awards Chairman, Box 44, 
Dayton, OH 45401. 

For special motel rates and reservations write to Hamvention Housing, Box 
1288, Dayton, OH 45402. NO RESERVATIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED BY 
TELEPHONE, 

All other inquiries write Box 44, Dayton, OH 45401 or phone (5 13) 433-7720. 

Special Ftea Market telephone (513) 223-0923, 

Bring your family and enjoy a great weekend in Dayton. 



Sponsored by the Dayton Amateur Radio Association. Inc. 



34 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



812-422-0231 






449 



808 N. Main 
Evansville, IN 47711 



HAM SHACK 





?^^ 




1 ■ -II, 

■»*•■■ l 




TEN TEC 2591 



SANTEC142 






YAESU 726R 

AEA 

CP-l/C-64 or VIC 20 Sol I ware Package 

MP-20or MP-64 Interface Package 

Software for C-64 or VIC 20. 

Amior Text ... _ . . 



AHHL 

US Call Directory 
1984 Handbook . 
Antenna Book., 



$235,00 

.129 00 

69,00 

. -.69.00 



ALLIANCE 

H073 (10 7 sq ft| Rotato*. . 



■ *•■*-- *■ 



$15,75 

1200 

8,00 



$9900 



ASTRON 

RS7A 5-7 Amp Power Supply ............. 

RS1QA 7 5-10 Amo Power Supply 


$49.00 

.59.00 


R512A 9-1 2 Amp Power Supply - 

RS2DA 18-20 Amp Powef Supply 

BS20M 16-20 Amp w/meter 

RS35A 25-35 Amp 


69.00 

89.00 
109 00 

135,00 


RS35M 25-35 Amp w/meier 

RS50A 37-60 Amp ...,.,...., 
RS50M 37-50 Amp w^meter 


- . .. . . . 149 00 

199 00 

.225 00 


AZDEN 

PCS4000 2M mobtfe rig 


$280 00 


BENCHER 

BY t Paddla/BY 2 Chrome 


,536,00/45,00 


BUTTERNUT 

HF6V 80-10 Meter Vertical ,.,,... 


$11900 


CUSMCHAFT 

A3 Trtbander 3EL , . . 

A4 TribancM 4EI 


$215.00 

. 279,00 





w B 


wmm ' \ P?t*^- -w".T5"* J *r 





TEN TEC CORSAIR 



R3 Motor Tuned vertical 

214 B/21 4 FB Boomers 14EL2M 
32 1 9 Super Boomer 19EL 2M . 
ARX 2B Ringo Ranger II 2M 



DAIWA 

CN-520 1 6-60 MHz SWR/Pwf MTr 
CN-620B 1.8-1 50 MHz SWFuPwr Mtr 
CNS30 14CM50 MHz SWR/Pwr Mir 
CN720B I.BrlSOMHzSWFUPwrMtr 

DRAKE 

TR7A Xcvr w/P37 



279.00 

75.00 each 

8900 

39.00 



$63.00 

99.00 

114.00 

12900 



..... $1,495.00 



ENCGMM (SANTEC) 
ST 142, 223, 442 

Trie Handheld* Still Offering the Most Feature? 

Call tor Your Discount Price 



HAL 




DS31OQ/MPT/ST6QO0 F , , ,,,,., 


$2,825.00 


CT22G0/KB22G0 , , , 


945 00 


CWR6850 Telereader 


743.00 


HY-GA1N 




TH7 DXS 7ELTrlbander 


£375.00 


TH5 MK2S 5EL Tribander i 


319.00 


Explorer 14 Trlbander. ;.».; 


. 1 m t 1 l- 1 - t <Vl llrVV 


5/6 Wave 2M Mag Ml 


22.00 


CD45 8,5sq ft Rotator. , 


, .119.00 


HDR 300 25 sq ft Rotator 


435.00 


Ham IV 15 sq ft Rotator. 


195,00 


T2X 20 sq ft Rotator 


24900 


Free Shipping on a?) crank- up lowers 




(COM 




IC-02AT Now Available. 


Call 


751 UltimateTransceiver 


Can 


745 Amazing New Transceiver 


. Call 


730 Super Buy 


$59900 


IC-2AT 


Now Only 21500 


3AT/4AT Handhelds . 


235,00 


25A new display & n- : 


30500 


25H45vVatt2M 


345.00 


45A 440 MHz 


335.00 


R70 Receiver 


. 595.00 


KLM 




KT34A 4EL Triband Beam . , . , , 


$299 00 


KT34XA6ELTnband Beam 


459.00 


144-t48-13LBA 2M Long Boomer. 


. -79,00 



KANTRONICS 

The interface ][. The brand new computer Interface for 

CW H RTTY f ASCII Software Available for VIC20. C-64. 

APPLE, ATARI, TR60C> TI99 

Amior Software Now Available 



LARSEN 

NLA-150-MM 5/8 Wave 2M Mag Ml 



£39 00 



Prices and Availability Subject to Change 



- O . ..- ;j 

o i " o o 5 



ICOM 745 



MFJ 

1224 New Computer interface. . 
941 C Tuner/MelerfAnl Swttch/Bal un 
422 Keyer BENCHER Paddle combo 

313 VHF Conv for HT. 

989 3KW Tuner 

940S Tuner/Meter/ Ant. Switch 

900 Tuner .... 

401 Econokeyer .,.. 

722Filterwmotch 
8T2 VHF Mete? 

BT6 HF Meter 

1040 Deluxe Ptese lector . . 
103 New 24hr Clock . . 



MIRAGE 

Bl0l6i0V160Preafnp. 
B30 16 30/160 Pr earn p 
MP1/MP2 Watt Meters 



SHURE 

444D Desk MIc 



Call 
S81.O0 
89,00 
36 00 
285 00 
72.00 
4500 
45 00 
63.00 
29 00 
2900 
69 00 
33.00 



$245 00 
199.00 

toooo 



. $50,00 



TEN-TEC 

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Join the Packet-Radio 

Revolution — Part 111 

Don't mess up. Packet protocols and procedures are 
all-important, says WAJGXD, and he's been right so far. 



Now that you have a 
background as to what 
packet radio is and what it 
takes in the way of hardware 
to get a packet station on 
the air, it is time to go into a 
little more detail on the 
communications protocols 
used in packet radio. 

As mentioned in Part I of 
this series, protocol is taken 
to mean the format rules 
governing information trans- 
fer There are many dif- 
ferent types of protocols 
used in amateur radio to- 
day. Every time you check 
into a net there are pro- 
cedures to follow. If you get 
involved in a roundtable dis- 
cussion, less formal rules 
may apply. If you wish to 
use a busy repeater, there 
are, again, procedures to 
follow. In fact, any time you 
wish to communicate [and 
sometimes when you don't 
wish to!) there are rules. 
Some are formal, such as in 
parliamentary debate, while 
others are not 

In packet radio, the pro- 
tocols used are designed to 
enable many users to access 
a given channel for point-to- 
point communication with 
maximum reliability. And 
since computers are used 
(the Terminal Node Control- 
ler— TNC— is a computer), 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 



the rules must be very explic- 
it, Because computers lack 
judgment all possibilities 
for confusion must be de- 
fined and worked out Thus, 
protocol design is a very crit- 
ical part of designing a 
packet- radio system 

Do other amateur digi- 
tal-communications systems 
have defined protocols? The 
answer is yes! In RTTY, the 
5-level Murray (Baudot) 
code is used in the United 
States, while in Europe the 
CCIR Alphabet Number 2 is 
the standard. Holding a 
marking tone between char- 
acters, unshift-on-space, data 
rate (60, 67, 75, or 100 
wpm)- these are all part of 
RTTY protocol. In ASCII, the 
7-level code itself is part of 
the protocol, and in amateur 
usage, most of the appli- 
cable RTTY standards have 
been carried over, including 
such things as 170-Hz shift 
and the 2125/2295-Hz tone 
pair. 

As digital communica- 
tions have progressed, more 
rigidly -defined protocols 
have emerged, AMTOR, per- 
haps the most sophisticated 
RTTY system in amateur use, 
has evolved as an error-re- 
ducing communications sys- 
tem and is defined in CCIR 
Recommendation 476-2. In 



commercial packet work, 
the International Standards 
Organization (ISO) has pro* 
posed a 7-layer model for 
packet-switching networks 
(see Fig. 1). 

The first level, called the 
Physical Layer, deals with 
interfacing the user's ter- 
minal to the packet system. 
In the case of amateur 
packet radio, it is also the 
radio interface and the mod- 
ulation scheme. While there 
is no standard in amateur 
practice at this time, there 
have emerged several de 
facto standards. RS-232 is 
the common interface be- 
tween the packet system 
(usually a TNC) and the ter- 
minal. 1200 baud is the nor- 
mal signaling speed on the 
packet side, using AFSK with 
1000-Hz tone spacing using 
tones of 1200 Hz and 2200 
Hz. Since there is no stan- 
dard among amateur radio 
manufacturers for audio 
connectors or pinouts, no 
standard is possible for this 
physical interface. 

The second level is the 
Link Layer. This deals with 
the actual format of the 
frames of information that 
make up a packet It cares 
nothing for the data in the 
packet but rigidly defines 
the address and control 



fields as well as the flags 
and the Frame Check Se- 
quence (FC5). It is at this 
level that amateurs have 
come to agreement and 
adopted a standard called 
AX.25 level two. This pro- 
tocol was first publicly pro- 
posed by AM RAD and 
adopted, with certain mod- 
ifications, at a special meet- 
ing called by AMSAT in 
October, 1982, It was first 
put on the air by Tucson 
Amateur Packet Radio 
(TAPR) on the then-new 
TAPR TNC in December, 
1982, and has since been 
coded into software for 
the Vancouver Amateur Dig- 
ital Communications Group 
(VADCC) TNC by Hank Mag- 
nuski KA6M and others, 

The next level, the Net- 
work Layer, is the focus of 
much experimentation to- 
day, When implemented, it 
will provide for inter-group 
linking as well as support 
multiple connections for. 
say, a roundtable with posi- 
tive frame acknowledgment 

The functions of this lev- 
el overlap somewhat with 
level four, the Transport 
Layer. It is the successful 
operation of amateur pack- 
et radio at these levels that 
will herald a new era in am a- 
teur-radio communications, 






opening the way for an ex- 
tensive, high-speed, highly- 
reliable communications 
network on a continental 
scale. Experiments with 
Phase I [IB, HF gateways, 
and the like are precursors 
to amateur level three. 

The last three layers, Ses- 
sion, Presentation, and Ap- 
plication, deal with such 
things as CRT screen con- 
trol, character sets, and the 
like Amateur packet opera- 
tion has managed to blur 
these areas with standard 
usage, For example, ASCII 
is the normal mode of char- 
acter encoding. Bulletin 
boards are running at level 
two 

In fact the definition of 
the digipeater function in 
AX.25 level two is actually a 
level three "kludge" to 
allow limited intermediate 
linking. This is not necessar- 
ily bad; it just shows that 
amateurs tend to adopt and 
adapt until things suit them 
for the unique environment 
in which we operate 

At the lowest level, an 
RS-232 interface has be- 
come the de facto standard 
for communicating between 
a TNC and a computer or 
terminal. The TNC looks like 
a modem (Data Communi- 
cations Equipment, or DCE) 
while the computer or ter- 
minal is defined as Data Ter- 
minal Equipment (DTE). 

A Protocol-Related Problem 

Even at this low level, 
problems may arise. What if 
the receive buffer in your 
computer gets full, or the 
lines you are reading start to 
scroll off the screen of your 
terminal? What if the packet 
channel is so clogged that 
the transmit buffers in the 
TNC are getting full? These 
problems are solved by the 
application of a flow-control 
algorithm (computerese for 
a method of solving a prob- 
lem—hopefully one that 
doesn't introduce other 

problems!)* 

Flow control is handled in 

the TAPR TNC by both hard- 
ware and software, although 
the software has to recog- 



nize the "hardware" solu- 
tion. 

In the case of the terminal 

(or computer— well use 
'terminal" to mean both) 
wanting to tell the TNC to 
stop sending data, the ter- 
minal may either (a) set the 
TNCs Request-ToSend (RTS) 
line false or (b) emit an 
XOFF character (usually 
Controls) to the TNC In the 
first case, the TNC will im- 
mediately stop sending data 
to the terminal In the sec- 
ond case, if the TNC has 
been told to, it will recog- 
nize the XOFF character 
and cease sending data. 
Note that if the TNC is oper- 
ating in a so-called trans- 
parent mode, only the hard- 
ware solution may be used, 
since in this mode the TNC 
passes all data, ignoring 
commands 

To resume data flow to 
the TNC, the CTS line may 
be set true (if the hardware 
control was used) or the 
XON character (typically 
set as Control-Q) may be 
sent to the TNC. [With the 
TAPR TNC, the XON and 
XOFF characters may be 
user-defined and the default 
characters are given here.) 

In the case of the TNC 
wanting the terminal to 
pause in sending data, it will 
set the Clear-TchSend (CTS) 
line false, returning it 
true when ready to again re- 
ceive data from the ter- 
minal. Thus, flow control be- 
tween the TNC and terminal 
is defined and provided for 
in the TAPR TNC "user inter- 
face" protocol. 

The above discussion is a 
simple example of the sorts 
of problems that must be 
solved in defining a usable 
protocol for digital commu- 
nications. While the details 
can become quite involved, 
the rest of this article will 
deal with the issues in a 
more general framework. 
The idea is not to make you 
an instant protocol expert 
but to give you some insight 
into the general workings of 
amateur digital communica- 
tions with particular em- 
phasis on the recently- 






APPLICATION 



PRESENTATION 
LAYEB 



SESSION 
LAYER 



TRANSPORT 
LATER 



NETWORK 
L AYE Ft 



LOWEST 
LEVEL 



LINK 
LATEP 



PHYSICAL 

LATER 



BULLETIN BOARDS & 
OTHER 5C J* VICE 5 



I-&0- DEFINITION 



INTER GROUP LINKING 



PACKET (FRAME I FORMATION 



USE* !S't= r -'.:E 



,- 



AMATEUR APPLICATION 



Fig. 1 ISO 7-1 ay er protocol model. 



adopted AX.25 packet-radio 
protocol. First, however, 
let's take a look at how ama- 
teur packet protocols de- 
veloped 

Early Packet-Radio Protocols 

At the risk of oversimplifi- 
cation, there basically are 
two ways of handling packet 
communications. One is to 
have a master-control sta- 
tion acting much like a net- 
control station in traditional 
amateur practice. The other 
is to have all stations equal, 
as in casual amateur opera- 
tion. Not surprisingly, both 
methods have been used in 
amateur packet radio. Since 
the Canadians were allowed 
packet operation first, they 
implemented both first 

One system was devel- 
oped in which a master-con- 
trol station would poll each 
station in ite list and each 
station would in turn pass 
along any traffic. The advan- 
tages are apparent: Every- 
one takes his turn and any 
potential conflicts in using 
the frequency are thereby 
resolved. The disadvantages 
are more subtle: How does 
one get on the list and what 
happens if the list is long but 
only two or three stations 
are active? Do the few ac- 
tive users have to wait for 
the inactive stations to be in- 
terrogated by the master 
station between every trans- 
mission? And of course 
there may be a real problem 
if the master station goes 
down. 

Another system was de- 



veloped in which each sta- 
tion had its own identifica- 
tion and could attempt to 
access the channel at will. 
The possibility of "dou- 
bling" (called a collision in 
packet jargon) became real 
with this system, but com- 
munications were somewhat 
more robust because a cen- 
tral controller wasn't need- 
ed. And you didn't have to 
figure out how to get on the 
list 

The polling system is used 
in very few active packet 
areas now, and a variation 
of the second system be- 
came the de facto standard. 
Developed by the Vancou- 
ver Amateur Digital Com- 
munications Group, the 
Vancouver protocol spread 
with the VADCC TNC, Near- 
ly all early work with packet 
radio in the United States 
was based on this TNC and 
protocol 

Features of the 

Vancouver Protocol 

The Vancouver protocol 
allowed two stations to con- 
nect and carry on point-to- 
point communications with 
positive acknowledgment via 
a handshake High-Level 
Data-Link Control— HDL C 
(see Part I of this series, Sep- 
tember, 1983, issue of 73) 
was used for assembling 
and disassembling packet 
frames, and Non-Return to 
Zero Inverted (NRZI r pro 
nounced nurzi) encoding of 
the data stream was used to 
allow clock recovery, since 
HDLC is a synchronous pro- 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 37 



tocol (as opposed to the 
asynchronous RTTY format 
with start and stop bits at- 
tached to every character). 

In addition, this protocol 

allowed the use of a digt- 
peater for allowing stations 
to connect that couldn't 
connect directly. A digipeat- 
er is similar in this respect to 
a voice repeater, although it 
is really very different It 
performs the same Frame 
Check Sequence (FCS) on an 
incoming packet as any 
other packet station, re- 
jecting those that are cor- 
rupted, It then generates a 
new, and slightly different, 
packet which it sends. The 
modifications are in the ad- 
dress (and possibly the con- 
trol) field, much like the 
changing preamble in mes- 
sage traffic. The digipeater 
is thus more like an auto- 
mated traffic-handling sta- 
tion than a repeater. 

The Vancouver protocol 
also allowed a packet to 
contain multiple frames of 
information. Up to seven 
frames could be sent in one 
transmission, and the ac- 
knowledgment (ACK) would 
contain a number indicating 
how many frames were suc- 
cessfully received. This had 
the advantage of increasing 
the amount of data that 
could be sent in a given time 
period (called channel 
throughput) by reducing the 
number of times the chan- 
nel had to be "turned 
around" to acknowledge 
receipt of data. At 1 200 bits 
per second (bps), radio per- 
formance becomes the rate- 
limiting factor. 

Finally, the Vancouver 
protocol provided for cer- 
tain types of supervisory 
frames for control of the 
data link. 

Unfortunately, there were 
problems, or more properly, 
limitations with the system. 
For one, only a single digi- 
peater was allowed. What if 
two stations wanted to con- 
nect that needed two, or 
even three, intermediate 
relays? How could multiple 
stations exchange data and 

38 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



still get positive acknowl- 
edgment from the other sta- 
tions? What if a station 
found itself in range of two 
digipeaters (overlapping net- 
works)? 

The greatest limitation, 
however, was in the ad- 
dressing scheme. In confor- 
mance with commercial 
HDLC implementations, and 
to allow the TNCs HDLC 
control chip to screen in- 
coming packets, a single- 
byte addressing scheme was 
developed. Due to part of 
the HDLC standard, only 
seven (7) bits are allowed in 
an address byte, meaning 
only 128 addresses can exist 
on a given channel The digi- 
peater had to share in all of 
this, certain address fields 
had to be reserved for vari- 
ous reasons, and the result 
was that a maximum of 31 
stations could be on a given 
channel. 

This may not seem like a 
problem since that would be 
a very congested channel, 
but the hardware used re- 
quired that the station's spe- 
cial ID code be burned into 
the TNCs memory. Since 
not everyone in an area is 
likely to be on at any given 
time, 31 addresses can be 
very limiting because it then 
implies only 31 packet sta- 
tions can exist in an area, ac- 
tive or not What if a visitor 
comes into the area with the 
same address as a local? 
Who assigns the addresses? 
What if a person is in range 
of two or more networks, 
and his address is used in 
more than one of them? The 
list goes on. 

Dynamic Addressing 

At the time TAPR was 
forming, the protocol issue 
was taken very seriously. 
The hardware for the TAPR 
TNC has provision for 
changing addresses, and 
many other parameters, by 
inclusion of a nonvolatile 
memory chip that requires 
no battery backup yet can 
be changed by the user with 
a simple command (see Part 
II of this series, October, 
1983, issue of 73). 



A protocol was designed 
that would have an "address 
server" to assign addresses 
to any stations that came on 
frequency. When the station 
checked out, its address 
would be removed from the 
active list, making room for 
other active users to join in. 
The "net-control" station 
would poll the users on the 
list from time to time to see 
if they were still on channel 
to prevent a station that had 
"died" from hogging an ID. 
The first station on a chan- 
nel would become the ad- 
dress server, and this func- 
tion could be passed on to 
any other station by com- 
mand. Further, if a station 
detected the absence of the 
address server, it could then 
take over the function. 

Finally, the address server 
would send out a broadcast 
message to all stations 
whenever a station came on 
or left the channel. This 
would allow a user to check 
the ''system-status table" in 
his TNC to see who was on! 
It also would smooth the 
transition if the address 
server went down for any 
reason. 

This T APR/DA protocol is 
presently under continuing 
development and may be 
undergoing on-the-air tests 
by the time this appears in 
print. 

Unfortunately, the proto- 
col is fairly complex and the 
team implementing it in 
software has met with de- 
lays beyond their control 
Further, adapting it to ex- 
isting VADCC TNCs may be 
impractical without exten- 
sive modifications to that 
TNC. 

AX, 25 Level Two 

In October, 1982, in con- 
junction with the AMSAT 
annual meeting, Tom Clark 
W3IWI called a meeting of 
the various packet groups to 
settle on some sort of level 2 
protocol (the level at which 
the TNCs communicate with 
each other). The reason was 
very simple. With the suc- 
cessful launch of the Phase 
IHB satellite, a digital-com- 



munications channel with 
predictable reliability would 
be available. If the various 
packet groups were all do- 
ing their own thing, a Tower 
of Babel would result with 
no two groups speaking the 
same language (protocol). 
This would result in either (a) 
chaos, or (b) extreme under- 
utilization of the channel re- 
source. Therefore, a com* 
mon protocol had to be de- 
fined sufficiently in advance 
of the satellite launch to 
allow it to be coded in soft- 
ware and tested on the air 

Represented at the meet- 
ing were AMRAD (Washing- 
ton based), PPRS {San Fran- 
cisco based), SLAPR (St 
Louis based), TAPR (Tuc- 
son based), and of course, 
AMSAT (also Washington 
based). New Jersey was also 
represented, and the groups' 
membership base covered 
most active packet sites. Un- 
fortunately, the various Ca- 
nadian groups were unable 
to attend. 

Several proposals were 
espoused, with each group 
defending its particular ap- 
proaches) to the problem. 
Tom's strategy, essentially, 
was to lock everyone in a 
room with no departure 
allowed until agreement 
was reached. Surprisingly 
enough, it worked! What 
eventually emerged from 
the meeting was a modified 
form of the AMRAD AX.25 
level-two protocol, which is 
an adaptation of the com- 
mercial X.25 packet-switch- 
ing protocol, level two, 

Essentially, this protocol 
provides for the various 
functions of the earlier Van- 
couver protocol with a num- 
ber of additional features. 
Point-to-point connections 
are allowed, with positive 
acknowledgment of frames. 
Up to seven frames may be 
included in a packet. Flow 
control between packet sta- 
tions is defined, so a receiv- 
ing TNC may tell a sending 
TNC to stop sending traffic 
for a while (to prevent buffer 
overflow) A digipeater is al- 
lowed, and its functions de- 
fined. HDLC frames are 



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DATA 



V 



DESK NATION ADDHC5S 



_ v . 



SOURCE AL-ORtSS 



•* * ■SECG*tCAR* STATION I D 
ISSIOl 



Fig. 2. Typical AX.25 norhdigipeated address header. 



tint- 



FLU 







ilFI 



^^^^^T 



iSPi 



fS*i 



* 



:►.-. 



no 



DAT* 



-OESHHAHQN ADDRESl 



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SOURCE ADORE SS 






CH&IPEATCR ADDRESS 



y ,: 



5SIIJ 



F/g. 3, Typical AX.25 digipeated address header. 



used, with NRZI encoding 
and zero-bit stuffing. 

The major differences lie 
in the addressing scheme, 
Whereas the Vancouver 
protocol allowed only 31 or 
so stations, the AX.25 system 
effectively allows over ten 
times the licensed amateur 
population to be active at 
once! 

Why is this so important? 
Recall that the Vancouver 
protocol used single-byte 
addressing. The problem of 
a new packet station com- 
ing on channel becomes real 
when a channel exists that 
allows over 50% of the 
world's amateurs (theoreti- 
cally) to have access at one 
time, as in the case of the 
Phase III satellite. 

In AX.25, the amateur sta- 
tion callsign is encoded into 
a 7'byte field. This allows for 
a six-character callsign with 
an additional byte as a qual- 
ifier. This may be necessary 
when, for example, a packet 
station has multiple TNCs 
that must operate under one 
station call. This occurs fair- 
ly frequently, with some am- 
ateurs providing a bulletin- 
board service or a gateway 
station in addition to their 
"normal 7 ' packet station. 

Both the sending station's 
and the intended receiving 
station's caflsigns are in the 
address field, making it 14 
bytes in length. A digipeater 
may be specified (you could 
be in range of multiple dtgi- 
peaters), in which case its 
callsign must be included, 
making the address field 21 
bytes in length. 

Recognizing that future 
protocols may emerge, the 
packet group decided to ap- 

40 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



pend a Protocol I Dent loca- 
tion byte (PID) to the control 
field of the frame to let the 
receiving station know 
which protocol was in use, 
and AX25 was assigned an 
identifier. 

The advantages of this 
system are numerous. No 
longer must an amateur 
worry if another station has 
the same ID when he re- 
ceives a packet. Many users 
may be accommodated 
(from an addressing point of 
view) with no effective limit 
Monitoring of a channel be- 
comes simplified, with a 
monitoring station able to 
identify (by callsign) the 
source and intended desti- 
nation of every packet re- 
ceivable at his location. 

Of course, nothing is free, 
and AX.25 has its costs, The 
main problem is that the ad- 
dress field is quite long, be- 
ing 21 bytes if a digipeater is 
used. At TAPR, we wanted 
to play with multi-hop pack* 
eting, so we allowed up to 
eight digipeaters to be speci- 
fied. This makes for an ad* 
dress field of up to 70 bytes! 
This is a lot of overhead 
merely to send a zero data- 
length ACK. 

Another limitation of 
AX.25 is that it doesn't allow 
for the typical amateur 
practice of round table dis- 
cussions. Since a station 
may connect only to one 
other station, some sort of 
monitor mode must be en- 
abled to see activity from 
other packet stations. If the 
"monitored" FCS is cor- 
rupted, the packet is dis- 
carded. In the case of very 
weak signals, it is common 
to miss a lot of the moni- 



tored activity. Some provi- 
sion must be made to 
accommodate this type of 
networking, and it will most 
likely take place at level 
three. This problem appears 
to be unique to amateur 
packet requirements at pres- 
ent so we must pioneer 
and develop this capability, 

The lack of multiple con- 
nectivity poses another 
problem. Suppose a station 
has a computer mailbox or 
bulletin-board service avail- 
able on packet Since only 
one connection can be 
maintained at a time, only 
one user can check in at a 
time. If others wish to check 
for messages, etc.. they 
must wait until the first user 
disconnects, If he suffers a 
power outage or otherwise 
leaves the air without prop- 
erly disconnecting, the mail- 
box station will lock up until 
reset, Thus, other users are 
denied access, 

There undoubtedly will 
be further experimentation 
with link-level protocols, 
but AX 25 forms a sound ba- 
sis and a common language 
for such development to 
build on. 

A T\pical Connection 

To illustrate the function- 
ing of packet protocol, an 
example of a typical con- 
nection sequence follows. 
(Note that in packet par- 
lance a connection is merely 
establishing contact with 
the desired station.) Let's 
say that station WA7CXD 
wishes to connect to station 
N0ADL WA7GXD would 
type at his terminal: C 
NO AD I. 

A packet would be sent 



that could be represented 
as-: FLAG : N0ADI : 
WA7CXD ; SABM : FCS : 
FLAG:. 

Note that the destination 
station callsign precedes the 
sending station callsign. The 
control field SABM means 
"Set Asynchronous Bal- 
anced Mode/ which is data- 
communications talk for 
''connect me to the other 
guy and treat us as 
equals — no one is a control 
station." 

Assuming N0ADI is on 
frequency and his TNC is al- 
lowed to accept a connec- 
tion request (he is not al- 
ready connected with some- 
one else), his station would 
respond with — : FLAG 
WA7CXD : N0ADI : UA : 
FCS : FLAG :. 

In this case, the callsigns 
are reversed and the 
Unnumbered Acknowledg- 
ment (UA) is sent in the con- 
trol field to ACK the con- 
nect request At WA7CXD's 
terminal, the following mes^ 
sage would be displayed 
^CONNECTED WITH 
N0ADI, while N0AD!'s ter- 
minal would display: 
***CONNECTED WITH 
WA7GXD. At this point the 
TNCs would enter the CON- 
VERsation mode. Now any 
information entered at ei- 
ther station will be trans- 
mitted to the other station. 

When the QSO ends, one 
station, say N0ADI, will 
place his TNC in the Com- 
mand Mode and enter D 
WA7GXD, at which point his 
TNC would send out a 
packet like—: FLAG : 
WA7GXD : N0ADI : DISC : 
FCS : FLAG :, where DISC is 
the control code to discon- 
nect and WA7CXD's TNC 
would respond — : FLAG : 
N0AD1 : WA7CXD : UA : 
FCS : FLAG :, and each ter- 
minal would then display: 
***DlSCONNECTED. 

While in the connected 
mode, any information en- 
tered at one station's TNC 
will be sent to the other sta- 
tion and positive acknowl- 
edgment utilized to ensure 
that the receiving station in 
fact received the frame cor- 



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73 Magazine • January, 19S4 41 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 

The ARRL publishes the Proceedings of the Second 
Amateur Computer Networking Conference held In San Fran- 
cisco in March. 1983. Copies are available from League Head- 
quarters for $9.00 postpaid. Topics covered include the com- 
plete AX.25 specification, papers on the software and hard- 
ware aspects of the TAPR INC, and other developments such 
as AMRAD's HF packet modem and Sweden's SOFTNET 
system. 

Tucson Amateur Packet Radio's TNC Manual covers opera* 
tlon of a packet station in detail. Complete information is 
given on the TAPR TNC, including construction and checkout. 
Appendices include radio hookup and the complete AX.25 
specification. This manual is available from TAPR for $20.00 
postpaid in the US and Canada. 

TAPR also publishes the bimonthly Packet Status Register, 
which is devoted exclusively to packet radio. Membership is 
currently $12.00 per year. 

AMRAD, PO Drawer 6128, McClean VA 22106, publishes the 
monthly AMRAD Newsletter, which contains columns on 
packet radio. Annual dues are currently $15.00. 



rectly. If the receiving sta- 
tion does not send the re- 
quired ACK, the sender will 
repeat it This goes on for up 
to RETRY times (RETRY be- 
ing a user-entered param- 
eter telling the TNC how 
many times to retry sending 
a packet before giving up 
and assuming the path no 
longer is usable between the 
stations). 

The reasons that the send- 
ing station may not receive 
and decode an ACK are 
many, The receiving station 
may not have sent it due to 
(a) corrupted or garbled data 
bits, (b) someone else trans- 
mitting over the packet (a 
collison), (c) the receiving 
unit failed, (d) etc. The ACK 
may have been sent but not 
received correctly by the 
sending station for the same 
or other reasons. 

In order to minimize the 
chances of a transmission 
getting stepped on or col- 
lided with, a station wishing 
to transmit will first listen 
and ensure that it doesn't 
hear any packet activity. 
Only then will it transmit 
Further, if it is retrying a 
transmission, it will wait an 
additional random amount 
of time before transmitting. 
This helps ensure that two 
stations don't get "locked" 
and continually collide with 
each other. 

42 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



If the retry count is ex- 
ceeded, the station attempt- 
ing to send will then report 
to the terminal: 
''♦DISCONNECTED 
RETRY COUNT EXCEEDED. 

Thus, the operator is kept 
informed of any changes in 
the state of the communica- 
tions channel, and valuable 
channel time isn't wasted in 
continually trying to main- 
tain contact with a station 
that may not even be on the 
air 

From the above example 
it can be seen that the proto- 
col issues involved in packet 
radio can be very complex, 
but that if properly ap- 
proached, the result can be 
extremely reliable commu- 
nications and efficient shar- 
ing of amateur frequencies. 

Applications 

No discussion of packet 
radio techniques is com- 
plete without some mention 
of the mulititude of prac- 
tical applications of packet 
radio in the amateur en- 
vironment 

Apart from FCC-man- 
dated "advancement of the 
state of the radio art/' 
packet provides unique op- 
portunities for experimenta- 
tion and public service. 

Consider the aftermath of 
a tornado, earthquake, vol- 
cano, or other disaster. Usu- 



ally, the first emergency 
traffic to be handled is done 
via amateur radio, especial* 
ly if the damage is severe 
enough to knock out com- 
mercial lines of communica- 
tion. In many cases, the traf- 
fic entered into the commu- 
nications system far exceeds 
the ability of the system to 
handle it The network be- 
comes saturated and delays 
increase It may take hours 
or even days to get all the 
messages handled. 

Typically, voice or CW 
traffic nets are limited to a 
realistic rate on the order of 
tens of words per minute. 
Fatigued operators are sub- 
ject to errors in copying and 
otherwise handling the in- 
formation. As time wears on, 
the error rate increases. 

RTTY or ASCII offers 
some improvement in sys- 
tem capacity, but errors are 
still likely. 

On the other hand, pack- 
et offers the capability for 
operators to enter traffic 
without having to listen first 
(the TNC does that for them) 
and allows error-free com- 
munications to occur on a 
channel at nearly 1200 wpm 
(not quite 1200 due to ACK 
delays and the like), Multi- 
ple messages can be "in 
flight" at any given timcv 
and the TNCs can sort it all 
out Since the TNC likely is 
coupled into a computer 
system at some point, traffic 
can be passed to commer- 
cial lanes as they become 
available. Automatic log- 
ging of third-party traffic be- 
comes trivial. And system 
capacity is on the order of 
20 times that of RTTY The 
capacity is even greater 
compared to CW or voice 
nets, especially when oper- 
ator fatigue is considered. 

As another example, con- 
sider the computer-minded 
amateur, Perhaps he has de- 
veloped a program he 
wishes to share with another 
amateur. He can place his 
TNC in transparent mode, 
where it passes all data of- 
fered to it, and send a binary 
file dump to the other ama- 
teur, who passes it directly 



to his computer Errors are 
trapped before the data is 
passed through, so the recip- 
ient can be sure that rf he re- 
ceives the program, it is 
right 

Another system used ex- 
tensively on packet right 
now is the bulletin board, or 
computerized mailbox sys- 
tem Amateurs may leave 
messages for other am- 
ateurs or get general infor- 
mation items, etc. 

PACSAT is a proposed 
system much like a bulletin 
board except that it will be 
on board a future AMSAT 
spacecraft. Having as much 
as 2 megabytes of memory, 
PACSAT will fly in a Low 
Earth Orbit (LEO) similar to 
OSCAR 8 or UoSAT The 
PACSAT concept is a pio- 
neering one in the use of 
low<ost space technology 
since it is far cheaper to in- 
ject a satellite into an LEO 
(say, via a $10,000 Shuttle 
Get-Away Special) than to 
inject one into a geostation- 
ary slot (for a few million 
dollars) Further, there are 
many more LEO-launch op- 
portunities than there are 
geosynchronous ones. 

PACSAT will enable a 
low-power ground station 
with relatively unsophisti- 
cated antenna systems (a 
whip will do!) to leave and 
retrieve messages with PAC- 
SAT. Since we all don't live 
and work on the same 
schedule, PACSAT opens up 
a brand new opportunity for 
non-real-time "store^and-for- 
ward" communications. 

For satellites such as AM- 
SAT Phase III, which require 
a fairly complex ground sta- 
tion, packet offers the op- 
portunity for several sta- 
tions to share a common 
satellite link. By means of 
gateway operation, where 
one packet station has the 
needed equipment to track 
and communicate through 
the satellite, other packet sta- 
tions can use the facility by 
operating through the gate- 
way much like using a digi- 
peater to increase a station's 
effective range. Similarly, 
HF and high-speed UHF mi- 







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COMMUNICATIONS 



crovvave links may be estab- 
lished with a gateway con* 
cept to allow other pack- 
et stations to utilize the 
resource. 

Resource sharing in itself 
is an exciting application of 
packet radio Perhaps a club 
is heavily involved in com- 
puting and wishes to pur- 
chase a high-capacity data- 
storage medium, such as a 
1 0Omegabyte Winchester 
drive. If the unit is net- 
worked into a packet chan- 
nel, the various users may 
access it at will. 

Of course, some of these 
activities, such as resource 
sharing, will require higher 
levels of protocol to be de- 
fined and developed, but 
the potential is there and 
they undoubtedly will get 
implemented, 

Wrap-Up 

This series of articles has 
introduced vou to packet 
radio as it presently exists, 
with a short look into the an- 



ticipated future. An over- 
view was given in Part I, 
where certain fundamentals 
were presented and a pack- 
et station analyzed. 

Part II went into some 
detail covering packet hard- 
.\are, with the specific ex- 
ample of the TAPR TNC 
given. Sufficient informa- 
tion was presented to 
enable the ambitious con- 
structor to build a TNC for 
packet operation (and kits 
are now available). 

This last installment has 
given an overview of packet 
protocols and applications. 
While not exhaustive in any 
sense of the word, some 
history and examples have 
shown the types of issues in- 
volved and the present level 
of packet communications 
capability. 

For further details on 
amateur packet radio, I en- 
courage you to write to Tuc- 
son Amateur Packet Radio, 
PO Box 22888, Tucson AZ 
85734-2888 ■ 



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44 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



TRADE IN YOUR OLD RTTY TU 
FOR A NEW FLESHER TU-470 

The Flesher Corporation dares to make an offer you can't refuse. Now you can move up to a high quality RTTY 
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• Signal balance circuit for single tone detection • Threshold control • 
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73 Magazine • January, 1984 45 



■P 



L B, Cebik W4RNL 
5105 Hohton Hills Road 

Knoxvilte TN 37976 



The CW Stationmaster 

Regeneration turns the worst signal into a CW symphony. 
And that's not all you get when you build this station accessory. 



Every CW operator has 
(at leasl) two desires to 
improve his ability to copy 
code through QRM and to 
be able to gauge accurately 
how fast he or the other 
fellow is sending, CRASH is 
a device which will enhance 
both abilities and provide a 
few extra options for the C W 
fan 

CRASH— Code Regener- 
ator And Speedometer Hy- 
brid—uses modern phase- 
locked-loop circuitry to pro- 
vide good CW regeneration 



for clear copy In addition, it 
counts the code speed of 
both transmitted and re- 
ceived signals. As a bonus 
the unit serves as a code- 
practice oscillator that per- 
mits the instructor to adjust 
his speed ac < urately. 

The hybrid part of the 
name CRASH derives from 
the sources ot the ideas that 
went into its development, 
WB4TYL developed a very 
Straightforward CW speed- 
ometer; "The 1 Confidence 
Builder" [73 t September, 



p. 134) One of the 
drawbacks of the unit was 
that it did not work well with 
received signals, since it 
responded to all signals in 
the receiver passband. The 
cure for this problem 
emerged from W3BYM s 
"Golden Articulator, a CW 
Regenerator for Amateur 
Receivers" {Ham Radio. Oc- 
tober, 1980, p 64) The heart 
of this unit is an LM567 
phase-locked-loop tone de- 
coder with a very narrow 
passband Combining the 



two circuits became an easy 
task, since both made exten- 
sive use ot LM555 timers, 
very handy device- indeed, 
The remaining chips are 
standard TTL K \ plus an 
optocoupler and an LM386 
audio amplifier. 

By combining the two cir- 
cuits, with additions and 
modifications, we achieve 
the following results: 
• a CW regenerator with a 
narrow, variable frequency 
passband for single-signal 
reception; 





Front view of completed CRASH unit. 
46 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



• • 



Internal view. 



• automatic or manual 
return from the regenerator 
function to receiver audio 

• a CW speed counter 
which updates every fi\e 
seconds; 

• provision to count either 
transmitted or received 
code speed; 

• a code-practice oscillator 
suitable for training Novices 
through Extra-class hams by 
precisely setting the prac- 
tice >[>eed; 

• optically isolated keying 
of the unit in the CPO func- 
tion; 

• digrtal output tor audio 
input, hence the possibility 
of keying other devices, 
such as a computer or TV 
readout 

• relatively simple circuitry 
through extensive use of 555 
timers. 

• a design amenable to 
one-stage-at-a-time build- 
ing and adjustment 

tven if you do not want 
to copy CRASH as a total 

unit, there may be some 
useful ideas in it lor other 
projects around the shack. 

Fu fictional Analysis 

Although the circuit dr- 
agram^ (I <gs. 2 and 1) appear 
complex, the functions 
break clown in a very direct 
manner Fig. 1 provides a 
blo< k diagram of the en- 
tire unit to make clear 
what happens to CW enter- 
ing at the audio input jack. 
Since there are so many 
555s, each has been given a 
functional name for easy 
identification. 

When receiving CW, the 
567 tone decoder is the first 
step in the signal processing. 
It has a very narrow band 
width, even with high inputs 
14% of the audio frequen- 
cy. Over the range of the de- 
coder (400 to 2000 Hz) this 
amounts to 56 to 280 Hz, a 
figure excellent for CW, but 
also capable of producing 
ringing in most filter designs. 
Since we throw away the 
audio at this point and 
create our own in a later 
stage, ringing is no problem 

From the decoder, which 

■ • * a » • f m mm a » ~ ■ ^ 



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Fig. 1. Block diagram oi (RASH. 



produces a digital low when 
a signal is present we move 
in three directions One is to 
a tone generator (555) which 
produces new CW in the 
astable mode, Adding the 
LM3S6 amplifier lets us 
i hange 1 he square-wa\ e 
output into something a bit 
less harmonic-laden, but 
still not a pure, monotonous 
sine wave 

The second direction is to 
a pair of 555 relay drivers 
The first has variable delay 
time and is <u fivated by the 
presence of CW plus a short 
press of the spring-loaded 
toggle switch There is also a 
manual switch to change 
from receiver audio to re- 
generated CW. The second 
relay driver has a fixed 
2-second period and is acti- 
vated by the first when its 
cycle ends, This permits 
time for continuing CW to 
reactivate the first driver, 
thus holding the relay in for 
the entire transmission. 

The third direction from 
the decoder is to the 555 
pulser which triggers the 
counter. For each leading 
edge of a dot or dash, the 
pulser sends a very short 
(10-ms) pulse which the 
counter section counts dur- 
ing a 4.7-second period The 
readout provides a display 
of the code speed 

The counter section itself 
is very standard and might 

/ 



be considered obsolete in 
the face of new combined 
devices available for count- 
ing and readout work, A 555 
clock provides adjustable 
4.7-second highs to enable 
counting and a brief 1 -sec- 
ond low for resetting and 
latching. The 7490s build the 
count during the high, and 
their last count is latched in 
the 7475s by the low while 
the 7490s reset, The laU bed 
count is i onverted to 7-seg- 
ment displas format h\ the 
7447s and read out on (he 
common anode displays, 
The counting section runs 
continuously in all modes of 
operation of CRASH, and 
thus can tell us the received 
speed, the transmitted 
speed, or the CPO speed 

Back at the main board, 
there is a provision for 
switching in speaker audio 
to the pulser through a step- 
up transformer and a bridge 
rectifier and filter. One sec- 
tion of a 7414 Schmitt trig- 
ger inverter provides a sharp 
square signal to cue the 555 
pulser This section is most 
useful in checking transmit- 
ted speed by using the side- 
tone. Since the sidetone will 
rarely be in the passband of 
the decoder, It will not reg- 
ister unless we retune (a 
bad idea) or unless we use 
a wideband circuit (a bet- 
ter idea) 

The tone generator and 



■ * 



• • 



pulser also can be triggered 
directly so that we can use 
the CRASH unit as a code- 
practice oscillator. Since all 
my equipment is set up for 
negative-voltage keying, an 
opt oisol a tor/coupler (TIL- 
11b) with a negative suppl\ 
permits me to switch to the 
CPO mode and key a com- 
patible voltage I he inverter 
provides the necessary high 
for thp tone generator and 
pulser In tact, the inverters 
shown but not mentioned 
are also placed in the circuit 
just to make sure that each 
device receives a control- 
ling signal of the proper 
high or low state, as needed 
For the entire unit, a rela- 
tively simple power suppk 
suffices. The five-volt sup- 
ply needs to be very well fil- 
tered (since we are working 
with audio and not just dig- 
ital signals) and well regu- 
lated (for TTL chips) In fact, 
the combined digital-audio 
techniques represent a sec- 
ond reason for calling 
CRASH a hybrid circuit. The 
negative supply is uncritical; 
with component adjust- 
ment, anything from — 1 5 to 
— 50 volts will work. 

Circuit Details 

Having run through the 
entire unit, let us look at 
some of the circuit details 
that bear mentioning, either 
because we might want to 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 47 









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46 73 Magazine * January, 1964 



Fig. 2. Processing and audio se&ions of CRASH 



. . . • 



* « • • 



experiment with them or 
because some caution may 
be in order Fig. 2 will aid 
us here. 

The 567 tone decoder 
chip is extremely versatile, 
and a data book will provide 
you with enough informa- 
tion to experiment with val- 
ues. The frequency range of 
the unit with the resistor and 
capacitor values shown at 
pins 5 and 6 runs from a lit- 
tle over 400 Hz to just above 
3000 Hz. The last thousand 
Hz are extremely com- 
pressed, and 2000 Hz is the 
useful upper limit for tuning 
in signals, If you prefer a dif- 
ferent range, the frequency 
is determined by the for- 
mula F = 1 1-R1C1, where 
R1 is the series-parallel com- 
bination of the 25k pot the 
120k resistor, and the 3.3k 
resistor, and CI is 1 uF The 
minimum resistance should 
be no less than 2k 

With most received sig- 
nals, the input signal level 
will run above the 200-mV 
level at which the decoder 
limits and the bandwidth 
levels at 14%. For maximum 
speed of the decoder, that 
is r the fastest rate of cycling 
in response to received 
code, C2, the bandwidth fil- 
ter should be derived from 
the formula C2 - 130uF/F1, 
where F1 represents the low- 
est frequency to be used. 
This gives a value of 325 uF, 
and hence the .47-uF ca- 
pacitor shown. C3, the out- 
put Miter, should be about 
twice the value of C2 as a 
minimum, hence the 1-uF 
unit. The 1-uF feedback ca- 
pacitor between pins 8 and 1 
provides suppression of 
chatter, that is, multiple on- 
off cycling at the leading 
and training edges of the 
dots and dashes (a phenom- 
enon which does not dis- 
turb the tone generator, but 
\vhn h produces some unbe- 
lievable code-speed indica- 
tions). Since the highest cy- 
cling rate for the unit is giv- 
en by the decoder frequen- 
cy divided by 20, and since 
for practical purposes the 
highest code speed is about 
twice this value (in terms of 



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fig, X Counter, display, and power supply sections oi CRASH. 



dots and dashes, not in 
terms of bauds), the values 
shown may be a bit low for 
those who listen to lower- 
speed code in the main 
Static, which is random in 
tone and hence sometimes 
is in the passband of the 
decoder, may activate both 
the tone generator and the 
counter. Experimenting with 
values for C2 (and adjusting 
C3 accordingly) can over- 
come this at some loss of 
tracking at the very highest 
speeds The feedback ca- 
pacitor should also be 
enlarged in such cases. 

A single 7414 chip pro- 
v idt^ all the inverters need- 
ed for the entire unit — with 
two left over The 7414 in- 
verters are Schmitt triggers 
which p ro v i ci e e x t rem e I y 
sharp rise and fall slopes, 
About the onlv place they 
are essential is just preced- 
ing the pulser to sharpen the 
rectified audio into a good 
digital pulse to key the puls- 
er cleanly The two inverters 
feeding prn 4 of the tone 
generator could have been 
combined into a NAND gate 
(V* of a 7400) as shown in 
Fig, 4, with the remaining 
sections used as inverters by 
tying together their in- 
puts. This would have saved 
the use of diodes and 



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Fig, 4. Using a 74()() in pbce oi the 7414, 



the Ik ground-return resis- 
tor. Either system should 
work well 

All of the 555s are used in 
standard ways as either 
monostable timers or as 
astable oscillators. Among 
the monostables are the re- 
lay drivers The first has a 
variable time period of .1 to 
5 seconds, which is con- 
trolled from the front panel 



* * 



■ . 



• • 



The second is fixed at 2 sec- 
onds This system is more re- 
liable than the original, 
which used a large capacitor 
across the coil of the relay. 
The value of the requisite 
capacitor will vary accord- 
ing to the coil characteris- 
tics; the present system 
makes the delay in opening 
the speaker to receiver au- 
dio independent of the re- 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 49 






lay The lOOOhm resistor 
between the output diodes 
from the 555s and the relay 
may require some adjust- 
ment depending on the re- 
lay you have in hand The 
Auto switch is a spring load- 
ed toggle which shorts out 
the resistors and keys the 
relay when a signal has acti 
vated the first driver Since 
the voltage needed to pull in 
a relay is greater than that 
needed to hold it in, the re- 
lay remains in the c ir< uit 
as long as either one of the 
drivers is activated t he 555 
is triggered faster than its 
output Kills, so then* is no 
noticeable voltage drop dur- 
ing the transition from the 
first to the second driver 
The Manual switch allov\^ 
you to hold in the relay 
independently of the Auto 
circuit 

The other nionostable 
555 is the pulser whose 
10-millisecond pulses per- 
mit tracking of CW tp a very 
high speed 

The tone generator is a 
standard audio range asta- 
ble circuit lor the 555 Vol- 
ume and tone controls are 
provided on the front panel 
With the \aiues shown, 
tones from 200 Hz to 3000 
Hz arv available Contfasl 
this circuit, where the wave 
has nearly equal positive 
and negative halves (or near- 
ly equal on and off times), 
with the clock 555, which 
places the large resistor 
value between Vcc and pin 
7 Here the "on" time is very 
long and the "off" time very 
short, The 4,7-second on 
time can be adjusted using a 
digital stopwatch (averaging 
several tries) or by allowing 
the counter to show the 
speed of a known trans- 
mission, such as a timed 
code-practice session The 
1-meg pot shown should be 
a miniature trimmer with 10 
to 15 turns; otherwise, the 
adjustment will be very 
tricky. The ,01 capacitor 
from the clock to the 7490s 
provides a count -clearing 
pulse that drops again 
through the resistor to per- 
mit gathering a new count 

50 73 Magazine * January. 1984 



IHPUT 




220 



£2 00^ 

Hi — 



^Zp-F 



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JT 



OUTPUT 
4fl 



Fig. 5, An alternative audio amplifier. 



I he inverter provides the 
positive pulse to the latches 
to clear their old count and 
take on a new one for dis- 
play At the 7-segment read- 
out, the single 100-Qhm re- 
sistor provides a simple 
means of lighting ihe units; 
however, brightness will 
vary depending on how 
many segments are lit simul- 
taneously. For constant 
brilliance, use a tt.HJ-Ohm re- 
sistor in each lettered leg 
and omit the 100-Ohm unit 
in the supply line. Note that 
the lead zero is suppressed. 

The schematic shows the 
units in reverse order of 
visual indication — be sure 
to get the tens unit on the 
left. For common cathode 
displays, use 7448s instead 
of the 7447s and reverse the 
supply voltage 

Supplementing the basic 
( ir< uit are a number of fea- 
tures. The optoisolator/cou- 
pler permits use of the unit 
as a code-practice oscil- 
lator I he internal LED of 
the TIL-116 (or just about 
any other available similar 
unit) is fed negative* voltage 
through a multi-turn pot trig- 
ger-level adjustment. Use 
the minimum current that 
will key the output transis- 
tor cleanly, since there is 
little load on the circuit. 
The 47-Ohm resistor be- 
tween the pot and the 
IIL416 is a safety feature 
limiting the maximum cur 
rent the LED can draw. 

The LM386 is an extreme- 
ly easy chip to use as an am- 
plifier It provides about a 
quarter Walt of power at 5 
volts, far more than enough 
for a single CW tone. The 
1-uF capacitors at the input 
make triangles out of the 
555 square waves Under 
load, these bend into hybrid 



sine and square waves, 
which are very pleasant to 
listen to for long periods of 
CW. The senes resistor and 
capacitor to ground in the 
output might be omitted at 
the risk of what National 
Semicondui tor calls "bot- 
tom side fuz/ies/' a distor- 
tion to the negative peak of 
the waveform I was able to 
produce this effect easily, so 
I recommend retaining this 
simple insurance of good re- 
production. If you desire 
more power, Fig. 5 shows c \n 
alternative amplifier using 
the LM383. This one will fill 
an auditorium with sound it 
your speaker is big and good 
enough. 

The transformer and 
bridge circuit are miniature 
parts, the transformer being 
a reversed transistor output 
unit for driving speakers 
The diodes (like all others, 
except in the power supply) 
are 1N914 equivalents. One 
uF should work as the filter, 
but you might wish to verify 
first that the inverter swings 
i leanly and that the counter 
gives accurate readouts 
The bias pot another multt- 
turn unit should be set for 
about 8 volts. More precise 
ly r adjust it for a level that 
permits audio signals ol 
moderate level to cleanly 
swing the inverter. 

Switching within the unit 
may look complex, but actu- 
ally is straightforward The 
TX-CPO 4-pole, 2^osition 
rotary changes several 
things at once The speaker 
audio reaches the decoder 
in the TX position. In the 
CPO mode, the amplifier 
(LM38&) output is switched 
to the speaker rather than 
allowing the relay to con 
trol tt as in the TX mode 
The key is switched from the 

• ~ • — / ■ • ■ 



TIL-116 circuit (CPO) to the 
transmitter {TX) Finally, a 
pair of LEDs are switched to 
indicate the mode Other 
^witches are the two relav 
driver control switches, a 
DPDT toggle to pi act* the 
audio input into the bridge 
and counter circuit (with 
LEDs to indicate what is 
being counted), and tl 
power switch. One other 
LLD appears in the decoder 
circuit to give a visual in- 
dication of tone-decoder 
signal lock and the code be- 
ing received. 

The power supply is nor- 
mal in every respect, with an 
LM309K regulator in the 
+ 5-volt line Note the 
heavy filtering in this supply 
to suppress hum. Those who 
work with digital circuits are 
accustomed to using about 
3000 uF in such circuits, but 
audio requirements are 
much more stringent. The 
negative supply is unregu- 
lated and uses a small trans- 
former trom the junk box. 
Since its only function is to 
provide voltage and current 
to the optoisolater couplt 
not much of either is needed 
and any small transformer 
from 1S volts up will work 
Although the LED in the 
TIL-11b requires only about 
1.7 volts, the higher initial 
voltage provides room tor 
adjustment of LED current 
to the lowest level that will 
key well 

Construction 

Duplication or CRASI t ex- 
actly as shown is a lairlv 
straightforward task, but it 
may not be the best way for 
you to go Many ol the cir- 
cuits can be replaced with 
others you prefer, and as 
long as each works at TTL 
levels, substitution should 
present rev\ problems Man\ 
extra features can be built 
into the unit to serve your 
CW needs, so before build- 
ing, try modifying the design 
to fit your desires. After all, 
this is how CRASH hap- 
pened in the first place— b\ 
a combination and adaption 
of ideas used by WB4TYL 
and K3BYM The odds are 



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tfcnvCnrq 







73 Magazine • January, 1984 51 



you can come up with some 
new design wrinkles and 

improvements; 

Construction of the 
CRASH unit is a matter of 
taste All will fit in a Radio 
Shack 9 by 5" by 6" cabi- 
net, as the photo shows Fig. 
6 shows a sketch of a layout 
for inside the cabinet, while 
Fig. 7 suggests some board 
layouts by reference to the 
ICs Although the prototvj 
was built around two 
boards — one for processm 
the other for the counter — I 
recommend using three. The 
processing board is over- 
crowded alter c ircuit modi- 
fication and adjustment 

Radio Shack digital exper- 
imenter boards [#276-1 56) 
for use with edge i mine 
tors £#276-1551) make con 
venient bases for the com- 
ponents, and Hg 7 is drawn 
with these boards in mind 
The counter board contains 

the 74 the 74 net the 
7447s lined up in rows as in 
the m hematic The ouputs 
to the display board use a 
14-line DIP connr< lor set A 
slightly larger set would per- 
mit running t hi* power t\\u\ 
ground < onne< lions as well 
1 he [>rcx esslng board 
should contain the r >*>7 de~ 

coder, the 7414 mvertet 

t hip, the 555 pulsn, the r > r > r ) 
i lock, the transformer and 
bridge c i re ml, and ihe 
TIHIboptoisQlatprs A sep- 
arate audio board should 
contain the SSS | genera 
tor the W6 amplifier, and 
the two 555 relay drivers. 



TOP IM$IG£ VPEW 
*E* N It CL-T 

a an 



along with the relay. The 
three boards might be 
mounted vertically in the 
case. The power supply is 
built on pert board and 
mounted on standoffs at the 
bottom of the case for good 

•ight balance The displa\ 
board also uses pert mater i 
al and is held to the front 
panel by standoffs attached 
to the lugs on the bezel for 
the readout, Since most 
bezels are large enough for 
up to six digits and we only 
need two for this project, in- 
dicator LEDs (six of them) 
are mounted on the display 
board against a black foam 
background This minimizes 
panel work and makes an ef- 
fective blackout displa\ 
when power is off. 

Since the photo of the 
front of the unit was taken 
before the addition of the 
lettering, the panel control 
knobs are as follow s ?rom 
left to right: decoder fre- 
quency, relay delay, TX-CPO 
vitch regenerator me, 
and regenerator vol urn 
The toggle switches along 
the bottom of the panel are, 
also left to right, ac power, 
auto relay, manual relay, 
and audio-oscillator count- 
ing, Were I to build a sec- 
ond version of this unit, 
about the only change I 
would make is to add a 2 I 
or i 1 vernier to the decoder 
frequency control, sin< e 
tuning is just a bit tight at 
higher audio frequenc ies 

Because the unit mi\es 
digital and audio tunc lions, 



n i m sp*p : 



STAUDOFF 
irPOt CONNECTOR 



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PHQCES51MG 
BOARD 



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U CONTROLS 



OtSPLAT BEZEL 



it is easy to slip into digital 
habits and ignore the tact 
that ground loops and hum 
pickup are potential prob- 
lems in layout Besides using 
j high level ot filtering in the 
+ 5-volt supply, some extra 
precautions will minimize 
problems Use short ground 
leads and attempt to ground 
all parts of each circuit to a 
common pad or small area, 
r.roup the main audio cir- 
cuits together especially the 
555 tone generator and the 
UMi audio amplifier Use 
shielded leads from input 
and output terminals to 
the boards, and between 
boards, for all audio hn< 
On each board, run a 47hjF 
or 100-uF electrolytic to 
ground at the power entrv 
point and bypass each chip 
v\ith at least a 01 uF disc ce- 
ramic capacitor 

Stm e you will be using 
ihe unit in the presence of 
your transmitter and with 
the keyline running into the 
umt P good rt practice is also 
essential Bypass both ac 
lines where they enter the 

ise with (11 -u I disc ceram- 
ic (1000-volt units, which are 

King harder to find at dis- 
i mint prices}, Also bypass 
I he key jack and the trans- 
mitter | t u k with .01 units. 

Since rfcan instantly disable 

many ICs, especially at 
transmitter leakage power 
levels, the more bypassing, 
th tier ll should not af- 
fect dc levels in the keying 
< in mis When you develop 
your own layout, be gener- 



t r 



3i* 



LEO* AMD 



o o o 

«L At o QVQumt 

LOCK 

P*«0 O O *fo COUNT 

al.tq mMM OS£ 



f* 



9*« 




Figk b. Genera/ layout sketch for CRASH 
52 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



ous in this department It in 
doubt, bypass it Hnally, be 
sure the case is at dc ground 
potential Some of the anod- 
i/ed cases make it difficult 
to get a good ground con- 
tact, so be sure to use a 
good tooth washer at con- 
tact points. 

Since this is a one-of- 
a-kind unit I regret that 
no circuit boards are avail 
able. However, The Radm 
Shack epow experimenter 
boards are fun to use, and 
where perfboard is recom- 
mended, the wiring i^ eas\ 
and straightforward The 
toughest problem will be 
to have patience durir 
construction 

When you build the unit 

(if you do build one), I 
recommend one ot two pro- 
cedures tither build the 
unit a stage at a time, or at 
least omit the power lead 
every chip until it is time to 
check out ihe circuit The 
first step, as m all proje* ts ( 
i> to build and test power 
supplies. Once these are 
ready, we can work pro- 
gressively through the rest 
of the stages, 

A good place to start is 
with the counter board, 
which can be built com- 
plete, along with the srv> n 
segments of the display 
board Since there are tew 
components besides j unifi- 
ers between ICs, visual in- 
spection should prepare you 
for testing under power 
Next, verify the clock SSS as 
operating by checking its 
output (and the output from 
its inverter section) with a 
\ TVM If all is well T connect 
to the counter board Only 
the right (ones) digit should 
light and show zero (al- 
though there may be a spuri- 
ous count when power is ap 
plied] For test purposes, you 
can key 5 volts through a re 
sistor (say Ik) to the counter 
input to verify counting. If 
all is well, time the counter 
with a stopwatch An eas\ 
way to check periods is 
tap the key a few times 
that the count changes at 
the end ot the period Ihe 




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^See List of Aav#rrtMfs on page t i4 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 53 






RAO 10 SMACK 27E-156 

DIGITAL E » PER i MENTAL ETCHED BOARDS 

I 



hF ■ 



TOJCKCQOE1 



ftTET? PULSE" 
74J* ue-S33 



OPTO-COUPLEB 

4J4-TIL-H* 




CLOCK 

119- SM 




© 



TSj^sroHME& 

AMD BRIDGE 

1*0* 22 Pm EMC CQ*n*C*0*s: 



PROtCSSlNG BOARD 



l|EL*f tm*Vt- T0*i£ GENERATOR 




it DRIVES 2 AUDIO AWPLtFIEfl 

U3-555 LJ7-LM3GG 





flELAt 



DRIVER LATCH COUHTEH 

UI4-T447 UIZ-7A75 U 10^4 90 



TENS 



PLUS 



i 



• ■ 



».f S 






cownto. ea^e ticks 



U15-7AAT UIB-TAT^ Ul 1-7*90 

0«rvEii lat» cotprtEH 



/ 



AUDIO BO AfTO 



CDUMTER BOARD 



/ fg . Suggested hoard layouts tor CRASH. 



targei fof reasonably at c u- 
rate i ode-speed readouts is 
4,8 seconds per total cycle 
The next step is Eo verify 
the tSS tone generator In 
the absence of the tone de- 
coder and rtL-116 keyer, 
key the tone generator by 
applying + 5 volts to pin 4 
When you are satisfied with 
its volume and tone ranges, 
add the i8h amplifier If you 
have a st ope, vou can c heck 

the waveform and adjust 
the capacitor network be 
tueen the 555 and the iHt> to 
suit your taste The 555 can 

overdrive the 386, so check 
the output with a scope it 
you can Adjust the cou- 
pling capacitor (shown as 
.02 ul in the schematic) so 
thai the waveform just be- 
gins to flatten at full 
volume 

At this point, vou can 
move in several directions 
according to your prefer- 
ence Now is a good time to 
wire the TX-CPO switch and 
adjust theTIL-llboptoisola- 
tof/coupler Begin with max- 
imum resistance on the 20k 

multi-turn pot and reduce 
the resistance until pm 4 of 
the Til -1 lb shows clean key- 
ing without hanging, as indi- 
cted by a VTVM The ob- 
ject here is to get clean key- 
ing of the tone generator 
with minimum current to 
the LED. Since the inverter 
requires little current from 
the phototransistor output 
of the riL-116. there is lit- 
tie need to overdrive the 
system 

We can now' count our 
own code speed as we key 

54 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



the optocoupler, since the 
inverter which keys the puU- 
er is driven. Adjust the bias 
10k multi-turn pot until the 
output of the inverter (pin 9) 
also shows clean keying 
without hanging, as indi- 
cated on a VTVM About 8 
volts of bias will suffice, and 
we will readjust this control 
in a moment h>i now p we 
should st»e our code-speed 

readout on the seven-seg- 
ment displays every 4 8 sec- 
onds To be sure that count- 
ing is good, key the unit a 
known number of times 
(that is. J to 12 or so dots) 
Within a counting period 
and wait for the i<*adout to 
correspond. In this way, we 

in check that the < ounter 
and pulser art 1 giving us 
proper performance. 

At this point wire the AF- 
OSC switch and the input to 
the transformer. The OSC 
position is blank, since the 
incoming count connection 
is made direc tl\ to the 
pulser's inverter, Audio from 
the speaker, however, goes 
directly to the transformer 
through the switch to count 
the sidetone oscillator dur- 
ing transmit periods or to 
count received signals when 
the band is clear. An audio 
generator with a few volts 
output at low impedance 
will aid you to readjust the 
bias 10k pot so that the key- 
ing is c lean Weak signals 
may not push the voltage to 
the inverter high enough to 
trigger the inverter, but once 
connected to the receiver, 
the sidetone should key the 
counter easily. > uu may 



want to tweak this atjjusl 
ment later when the unit is 
nnected to the station n 
We have saved the ton** 
decoder 567 for last Using 
the audio generator so that 
the %7 has about 2 volts at 
its input am\ with the 1 
( PO switch in the TX posi- 
tion, locate and lock the an 
djo signal with the frequeu 
cy control, 700 to 900 H/ 
should put the control 
about midrange using the 
-'■ries-parallel resistor com- 
bination given If you ke\ 
the audio line, the tone gen- 
erator should follow vyith 
out delay and the count 
should be art urate It the 
i uunt goes very High, even 
at slow keying, you proba- 
bly are experien< ing «. battel 
and may want to increa 
the feedbac k capacitor be- 
tween pins 8 and 1 from the 
I uF value shown The LI 
from Vcc to pin B should 
also track the keying 

Assuming that all is well 
to this point check the unit 
wilh on-the-air signals on a 
1 , i i r I y clear band If the 567 
responds loo readily 
noise (anything from QRN 
to internal receiver pop 
you may want to increa 
the values of the capacitors 
at pins 2 and 1 ot the 567, re- 
membering to keep (I 
larger about twice the value 
of the smaller I his will slow 
down the response of 567. 
We cannot eliminate all re- 
sponse to noise without cut 

ting off higher speed CU 
but we can find values that 
will keep the counts fairly 

accurate and eliminate hash 



trom the keying of the tone 
generator 

At this point, the CRASH 
unit should be operational 
and ready for dial decals, 
t asp covering, and regular 
Lise in the shack 

Operation and 
Modification of CRASH 

Operating CRASH is sim- 
ple but requires some ad- 
justment ot your habits 
When receiving tVY find 

the desired signal with the 
irequemv *ontrol The II D 
will trac k the code when the 
Signal is m the passband of 
the 567 It the signal drifts, 
it is probably better to ig- 
nore the regenerator and 

ncenlrale on the station 
Stable signals, however, will 
stay in the passband Once 
the signal is acquired, use 
either the auto or the man- 
ual toggles to swik h to tl 
regenerator 

Since CW without QKM 
and QRN sounds strange at 
first, you may initially dis- 
like the effect Part ot learn- 
ing to like i lear reception is 
i (loosing tone and volume 
setting that ptease your 
ears. You nia\ find that you 
prefer a lower volume than 
with received signals, and 
the tone \ ou f hoose may be 
something differenl from 
where you usually tune sig- 
nals m the receiver pass- 
band Experimenting with 

gnals on relatively clear 
bands is the best wa\ to 
match the unit to your 
preference 

Although the 567 lone de- 
coder accepts a wide range 
of input levels, receiver 
characteristics limit the use- 
ful range Weak signals he 
u>nd the recei\ igt limit 
can fade below the 567's 
ability to lock, and e s»ve 
volume may be accom- 
panied by enough noise 
pulses to hold in the relay 
continuously! even without 
a signal I he level t ontrot 
can be adjusted to provide 
the 567 with input voltages 
tailored to your own habits 
uith the receiver volume 
control However, you rnav 
have to adjust receiver vol- 
ume to suit the 567 if you of- 



ten move trom noisy bands 
with high signal levels, like 
80 meters, to quiet bands 
with weak signals, such as 1 5 
meters in the evening Con- 
siderabie experience using 
the CRASH unit may be 
needed before you settle on 
the final compromise set- 
ting of the level pot 

Although the unit oper- 
ates well as is, CRASH is a 
good project for trying out 
new ideas For example. Fig 
8 shows the insertion of an 
amplifier to isolate the au- 
dio to the speaker from th*- 
inputs of the transformer 
a\u\ the 567, Any amplifier 
which limits the voltage at 
the output in a controllable 
way should work here. Fig. 8 
also shows an extra transis- 
tor in the rela\ < ireuit, in 
case you wish to drive rela\ - 
of other than 5 volts, or in 
case you want to drive a 
heavier load. 

In addition to these op- 
tions, which have been tried 
but are not used in this ver- 
sion, the CRASH unit pro- 
vides possibilities for exter- 



f OUTPUT TO f 
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DECODER 



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'NPUT 



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m 



rh 



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USE 



tisr 



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RELAY DRIVER 



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I if>. 8. Some modifications to CRASH. 



ruil connections. Since the 
567 bandwidth is narrow 
and its output is digital, the 
unit can also be used to kr\ 
other devices Fig. 8 shows 
inverters as buffers to othei 
devices, such as a MORSE- 
ASCII converter system for 
1 1 Revision or a computer 
readout of theCW How you 
do this ts open to many op- 



tions, and a system is under 
development here for driv- 
ing a TRS-dO II L Once you 
have brought the unit this 
far, then computer keying, 
automatic logging, and 
other station conveniences 
are only a dream and a 
soldering iron away. 

In short, the CRASH unit 
not only works well as a CW 



regenerator and code speed- 
ometer, but it also forms 
the basis for a number of 
other station options. But 
that is the way it usually 
goes with ham projects: One 
thing leads to another and 
nothing is ever finished for 
good. There is no telling 
what a good CRASH will 
lead to next ■ 



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Top Drawer, Micro-Style 

Building circuits is fun, but drawing them isn't 

Let your Apple do your drafting. 



Hilt Snvth K iLF 

RD 2, Cold Spring C/eame 

DoWesfOwn PA Jfl90f 



Using a microcomputer 
to assist in designing 
circuits is a natural I recog- 
nized this shortly after ac- 
quiring my Apple computer 
and proceeded to build a li- 
brary of electronic-design 
programs. My library covers 
sue h things as audio filters, 
timers, multivibrators, and 
many op-amp cin cuts. Most 
of the programs were en- 
tered from magazine arti 
< les such as those found in 



back issues of 73. These pro- 
grams are a real asset when 
designing or trying to "ball- 
park" component sizes for a 

particular applu ation. 

As helpful as these pro- 
grams are, they have one 
major weakness; They have 
no way of displaying the t ir- 
ruit diagram. To make mat- 
ters worse, they usually refer 
to components as "R1" nr 
"C3." To find out where 
"C3" is located in the circuit, 
you have to find the article 
from which you entered the 
program and hope that the 
author included a circuit 
diagram with all of the com* 




fig. 1, Schematic of an active audio filter as it would appear 
within a program. This is typical of the type of schematic 
which may be incorporated in your programs. 

56 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



ponents labeled correctly. If 
you are like me, you will 
probably find that you lent 
that particular magazine to 
a friend who just left town 
for a sabbatical in South 
America! 

Well, hang on, help is on 
the way. This article de- 
scribes how you can incor- 
porate that schematic dia- 
gram within your program 
so thai it will be available at 
the touch of a button. 

I have devised a system 
that uses the excellent 
HIRI-S capability ot the Ap- 
ple It to your best advan- 
tage. I decided that the sys- 
tem to be used should be 
fairly easy to implement; I 
did not want to spend hours 
entering a diagram for each 
program. ! needed a system 
that would be flexible so 
thiil I could enter all types 
of electrical schematics, not 
just one unique circuit Last* 
lv. the system had to allow 
me to enter fairly complex 
circuits. 

With all of these points in 
mind, I embarked on a six- 
month project to develop 
the system described here. I 
call it my ' J ECC' f (Electronic 
Graphics Generator), and it 
really works. 

The EGG is nothing more 
than a shapefile with up to 



200 shapes and a system to 
map the shapes onto the 
HIRES screens. (Currently 
there are 135 shapes in the 
shapefile but I have set up 
the file to handle up to 200 
for any future expansion ) 
The first 59 shapes are char- 
acters generated by the Ap- 
ple's text generator These 
shapes are used for labeling 
circuits and components 
and for any text desired on 
the HIRES screen with the 
circuit diagram. Shapes 60 
through 65 are Greek letters 
common to electrical dia- 
grams (such as lambda for 
wavelength), trf> through 99 
are the actual electrical 
components, and the re- 
maining shapes are used for 
connec ting the components 
and drawing rectangles rep 
resenting ICs. 

The Apple HIRES screen 
dimensions are 280 points 
horizontal by 192 points ver- 
tical I used these dimen- 
sions to determine the opti- 
mum si/e tor each shape in 
my shapefile Each shape is 
drawn within a grid that is 15 
X15 with the origin of the 
shape located at the center 
of this grid Using these di- 
mensions, I could accom- 
modate 18 shapes horizon- 
tally and 12 shapes vertical- 
ly for a total of 216 shapes 



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Table 1. These are the shapes in theshapefile along with their respective shapenumbers. You may add an additional sixty-five 
shapes to the file if you can think of any to add. 



on each screen With two 
HIRES screens available, I 
could have up to 432 com- 
ponents in my circuit, more 
than enough. 

Practically speaking, the 
number of components you 
will be able to fit on the 
screen will be much less as 
labels and connecting lines 
take up some space. To 
date, the largest diagram I 
have used contained 28 
components c\nc\ it easily fit 
onto one screen. With a lii- 
tle effort you should be able 
to gel as many as 50 compo- 
nents on a screen and still 
have them labeled properly. 
Fig. 1 is an active audio filter 
which I recently used in a 
progratii As you can see, 
this is a moderately complex 
circuit but it fits on the 



screen well and all of the 
components are easilv 
recognizable. 

As mentioned, the shapes 
are all centered in a square 
measuring 15 spaces times 
15 spaces. This is an impor- 
tant point and I want to ex- 
plain it in more detail If you 
examine shape 76, a stan- 



dard diode, you will not ice 
that the leads are centered 
on the 15x15 grid. I have 
enlarged this in Hg. 2 so it 
may be seen more readily. 
You will find thai all oi ilu- 
components have their 
leads exiting on a center 
line, either horizontal or ver 
trcal If I draw two of shape 



76 and each is rotated 90 de- 
grees, with one centered 15 
spaces above the other, the 
leads will appear to connect 

as shown in Hg. 2. Havinu 
the origin of all of the 
shapes located in the center 
allows us to use the ROT (ro- 
tate) command so that we 
can draw the diode as 



oi 



i 
2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

to 
II 

■3 
14 
11 



F I M 5 6 7 | » 10 11 IZ IJ W 15 

















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m, 


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* 






























• 























SHAPE 76 
ftOT -16 



SHAPE 76 f 

HOT ■ 46 



&} 



•■* • 

!**■ f 


• » • ■ * * * * 

■ 
• 
* 
• 
a 
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m 


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■ *»• 

• ■ • ■ • 

* *#■*# 

• • 



• 
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■ 
m 
• 
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SHAPE 106 
HOT »Q 



SHAPE I CO 
HOT -O 



Fig. 2,(a) Shape #76 as it would appear under a magnifying glass, (b) This drawing shows how 
the shapes are rotated and combined to form schematics. 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 57 






shown, and you will find 
that the leads exit the grid 
centered on either side. By 
maintaining this convention 
throughout the shapefile, I 
have made it possible to 
draw any of the components 
in any of four orientations 
with their leads available for 
easy connection to the next 
component 

By now you should have a 
good idea of how the shape* 
file is set up. Next, I will de- 
scribe how to use it to get 
diagrams into your pro- 
grams There are two meth- 
ods. One is quick from a pro- 



gramming point of view but 
takes longer to execute and 
uses more room on your 
diskettes- The other takes a 

little longer to program but 
executes quickly and takes 
little storage room. 

The first method is to use 
the schematic draw-and-edit 
program accompanying this 
article This program makes 
it very easy to draw, label, 
and edit a diagram, Once 
the diagram is drawn, the en- 
tire map of the HIRES 
screen is saved to disk. This 
method is quick. (The 
schematic jn Fig 1 took 



about ten minutes to draw 
and edit using the EGG pro- 
gram ) The main drawback 
to this method is that each 
screen must be loaded from 
disk when needed. It takes 
about 34 sectors to store this 
much information, and it 
takes about 8 seconds to 
read it in from disk. This 
8-second delay in the middle 
of a program is mildly dis- 
concerting but certainly ac- 
ceptable. 

The second method is to 
enter into your program the 
necessary BASIC language 
statements to draw the 



shapes during program exe- 
cution. Using this second 
method to generate the dia- 
gram of Fig. 1 took less than 
one second during program 
execution but requires 
about thirty minutes of pro- 
gramming 

Using the EGG program is 
really quite easy as it is 
menu -driven and contains 
many useful edit com- 
mands. There are two levels 
of menus, The first level is 
used to select which HIRES 
screen you are interested in 
using and the second level 
allows selection of various 



Program listing I, This is the 
actual shapetable. This 
should be entered exactly as 
shown beginning at address 
hex &)0Q. 











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58 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



operating modes. From this 
second level you may save a 

HIRES screen to disk or load 
one into memory from disk, 
and you may enter a new 
schematic, edit one already 
in memory, or return to the 
first menu. If you select the 
enter or edit mode, you will 
next see the HIRES screen 
either blank or with the last 
schematic you put there 
You also will see a small ar- 
row and a three<ligit num- 
ber in the upper-left corner 
of the screen The arrow in- 
dicates the rotation applied 
to the next shape to be 
drawn, and it may be turned 
by pressing the R key. The 



three-digit number shows 
the shape number to plot 
next. 

To plot a shape, move the 
cursor to the desired place 
on the screen using the I, J, 
K, and M keys. Enter the 
shape number and push P 
[Plot). Some other available 
commands are Erase, Finish, 
and Text, This last com- 
mand puts you into the text 
mode so that you can add 
text to your schematic. 

The edit commands in the 
text mode are similar to 
those in the diagram mode 
except that you use the 
CTRL key to get the function 
desired. To get the text onto 



the screen, just type the 
characters desired and they 
will be plotted automatical- 
ly. In both text and diagram 
modes you can move the 
cursor through your drawing 
without affecting the draw- 
ing. 1 have included a com- 
prehensive set of instruc- 
tions within the program 
and about two minutes of 
practice is all vou will need 
to start diagramming. If you 
don't feel up to entering the 
ECC utility, you can always 
use the second method of 
putting the diagram into 
your programs. 

Get some graph paper (I 
use paper with ha If -inch 



squares). Position the paper 
with the long side horizontal 
and draw a grid of half-inch 
blocks so that you have 16 
columns and 12 rows. Draw 
a heavy line between the 
second and third row from 
the bottom. This line is the 
bottom of the page 1 screen. 
Starting at the top left; label 
the first column 15, the sec- 
ond column 30, the third 
column 45, and so on until 
the last column is labeled 
270 Starting at the top left. 
label the rows in a similar 
fashion so that the bottom 
row is labeled 180, Next you 
should make copies of this 
as it is your worksheet for 



Program listing 2. This is a listing of the timer program dis- 
cussed in the text It works well; give it a try the next time you 
are playing with a 555 timer chip. 



13 

t** 
1 1« 
lit" 
16:: 
i ■»<« 

36! 



FftJNT 
- R J NT 



333 T 1MER DESIGM ' < hi'tRAM. 
BILL SrUTHt " 



I- 



21* 

22* 



7sm 
"i 

T4& 

- 

41P 

415 
JIB 
4>l 



NB COWTINFttfTS, OUTPUT I NQwr-j 
-Fimr» OL+TFlP, COMPONENTS trjQwN 

up Fmfxsnem — 



1- THEN 

then 
?he« 



M4 

■*-- 
4ft7 

* : 

3** 

'■ I ! 

312 

320 

' ■ 

54lS 
5Btt 
3** 



PEC* >_"> 

IF P - J 2* THEN {** 

PRINT □*r , BHJAtt SHftPEFILE 2*0, A*B***' 

Pi'i I "?,i.-<: POKE 233, 12EI 

ft 1 1 : HOME 
P • 

PR 1 M ' 

pp : n t 
IhiT 
pp 

PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
GET A* 
IF A* ■ 
I* i 

GOTO : 

F0F J ■ 1 TtJ 13: PRINT i NEXT I 

HER 

QOSUB ***** 

IF *• - *| 

n .'.« « -:■■ 

. I M 

REM FOLLOWING PART CALCULATES RESISTOR VALUES, 
0. , DUTY CYCLE. AND CAPACITOR VALUE 
POLE 34, 
Yi - . 
VTAH £4 

INPUT "f &Fm f wtv ■ \ > 
VTAB 

|MT tab* 2*#F 
VTAJi 2* 

INPUT "DUTY CTCLE i 3*V* "*B 
IF D = 3# THE*« SOTO 42* 
IF D ti» THEN OOtU 429 



THEN 
THEN 



Gnrn 4** 

GHTli 7M 



GtVEN OPERATING FRE 



ci rw up "tc 
L* 



• c 

* c 



li * * §#Bg i - 



«r 



j:ap Z4; FflriNT 

VTA© : «-fTAB It 

PRINT Dt'\ 
Tl « 1 r * Q I* 
F2 w t / t T t 

VTA© 24: HTflB I 

PRINT 

VTAB ,l 

INPUT "VALUE OF 

VTAB (YD! HTAB 

FRTNT C 
t: , 

Ft - Tl 
> INT 
M*C PI - INT 
tTB VtAB tvn: 
NT Rl 

i: 

PRINT 
&5* H/TAB 24 

IF fl| - " 3*9 *9*0 THE*4 PRINT 
tf* | i 1EJ/J C- LLAfE — H^R 

ftf i Tf- THEN TT IT : BOTH IB 

F3 = D:r5 * 0IR3 * RtlR* - 

VTAB rs : PRINT - 

•p rt 

PRINT ■ " = FS: TA»t 

! HTAB 1 
PR1MT * 

vi * : 

\- i 

REM FOLLOWING PANT CAI.CUATES OUTPUT, ON 
EMCV QIVE.N RESISTOR fliuD CflPftltrtlJH 'JAL.UES. 
Pm E 14,23 



t« t *93 

• = : 

(Rtt 






6B? 






"RESISTOR BRE TOO StO 

R2 



IIHD5; TAB? i^lsCSl TABt 23nR3t r-4 J :P a 



TIME, OFF TJNF. AND FREOU 



riM 



T2« 

7*fc 



REN 

WAB 24 

INRUTT "EMTEP Ct 
mi IV1H HTAB 

'■ 

ErfTEK RI 
Vfrth -t>: HTAB 



IN If 



1C 



IW EHtS -JRJ 



B6* 
B64 
R64 

BB£l 

9^7 T| 
<??B T2 




:' : 



IP ] 

R2 



I i.-H-l 






MB FPINT At 
75* /TA8 24 

7Mt Iftf-UT -EUTF* R2 IN 
Tfet V7A© 'YIM «TAE» 31 
7A6 ^ 
TBI* T : : * ' * C 

T2 * *_6*" • C 

D = Tl ? 1 # TZ* * 

a = ;»<r d * ie*» 

F = : > ! • 

IF F 100 THEN BB» 

F = INT IF) 

SO TO 9m 

F - ( INT <F * tWV'i 

VTAB (YIJ : HTAB 2 
ppint r j fA>( la) ;D 

I NT (Tl • liMUSfliW* 
INT CT3 • Hirf*iJNiH!ii 

vtab : ;: -tab » 

print "output : high " l t 1 1 ' 

VTAB 24 

INPUT -nENU OR RECALCULATE 
• •t • • THEN ItN» 

fld r " C :D9 * D:C5 = CiRS * fll 
Vb4 VTAB TJ 
PRINT 
VTA» 21 

PRINT TAB* IttFSl TABi l#ffQSl 
R6 

VTAB 3 
PHINT " 
VTAB . 
PRINT M 
9QB VI ■ 22 
*?^0 SpTO 71 * 

REM PUL9E SEN DIA, 
HGP 

SCALE- 1 
BO TO 42BI* 



RZI 



J P0i? 

' MS 



LOW -tT2l- Its - 



?A# 



*4* 



"1«» 



RA * R2 



TrtBt IMIC5I TABt 22 U RSI TAB* 31 1 1 



"JTfiP 

972 
"?74 
97A, 



400t.l 

4110 
« IS* 

42SW 
4Z1 

42'rf* 
4Z4* 



f-F.fl SUBROUTINE TO PRINT P* AS TEXT ON HIRES SCREEN 

9 P - LE« F • 

FDR 1 - I TD c 

JF ASC « «tt» rP*.I,M) * 3? THEM 426* 

DRAW ASC ( nlB4 (PtJ.lh - n AT l. 
■ - I • 7 
4Z7£ NE*T I 
4Z75 RETURN 

4ZS* REH HEADER ON HIRES DRAWING 
434NT P* = - PULSE GENERATOR DESIGN* 

431* X = ;;v ■ 5: GOSUB 42 Iff 
433« V ■ V + ?JX » '^ 
434* Ft - -333 T1NER CHIP* 

GOSUB 42161 



450© 
4510 

432* 

433* 
457* 



I2fS,43; DRAW 1 H4 AT 1 33, 43 1 DRAW 1 
I5*;t2*j DRAW 74 AT 1*8,173: DRAW 



4-i 1 ?* 



REN DRAW SCHEMATIC 

DRAW t3* AT 133,3*: DRAW 107 AT 
CfB AT IS*,. 45 

DRAW 1*2 AT 1 1*5,120: 9RAW 71 AT 
74 AT 15fl t 133 

DRAW tl?? AT J£5,^0l; PftAM Itfft AT 

DRAW 114 AT S*3.73: DRAW M" AT 
Pfr AT 13**731 

DRAW 12* «t 75,9*: DRAW 1*1 AT ■»,<**; DRAW 122 AT teFB,"?*; 

AT l3* k 4M: DRAW lf*8 AT |?S««p: DRAW 6"? AT 13*,?* 

DRiiw 114 at 1P3. 1*3: DRAW IIS AT 12**1*3; DRAW 1*4 &T 133, iiP3: DRAW 
I**? AT 13*. 1 1*5 



12*, 6*4 

12*. 73: 



|.i Ml 



69 AT (3*«4 

li3i AT 133, ".: 



DRAW 1 



DRAW 124 



440* 


REn LABEL SCHEMATIC 




-:: " 


X • 1433 T - 


3*:P« - 


-fl*-; 


GOSUB 42 I 9 


4&S5: 


i • tA#»:v * 


■4* IF* » 


■Rl'I 


GOSUB 421* 


4*4*1 


■ = 1**=* - 


-?:=* = 


, jl^-w A 


GOSUB 421* 


4463 


i = i**;y - 


12*: ps = 


"CI"! 


BDSUB 42 H 




DRAW 24 AT 


131,6* 






4^73 


DRAW ^3 AT 


I3t,*ra 






1 i; p* 


DRAW 19 AT 


171. 11* 






.1- -i'. 


DRAW W AT 


Itfi*. 116 






i6?* 


DRAW .'i> v,l 


92, B5 






4&«?3 


DRAW ft AT 


1*9, 6i4 






47** 


DRAW 23 AT 


L.-4,64 






4945 


X * 331 V • B^l 






49S* 


Pt * "SIGNAL" 






A9S5 


GOSUB 421* 








4 [ ?feS 


x - s*sy * B9 






4T65 


P* - -OUT" 








497* 


GOSUB 421* 








4975 


P* - * FREH DUTY 


CI 


ft I 


|^Q0 


.* = T:v * 147; EOSUB 


*2J* 




499* 


P* - - 


:_e 


UF 


OHMS 


4999 


i = r:ir • i33: EOSUB 


«3l* 




jTrT 


IH.IUWW 








TTTT 


EMB 









0HHS 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 59 







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Fig. 3. Example of the worksheet discussed in the text The diagram is that of the schematic 
used in the timer program listed with this article. 



drawing and inputting 
schematics. {See Fig. 3J 

As an example of how to 
correctly use the worksheet. 
I have included my timer 
program in Fig. 3 and will 
step you through the proce- 



dure for implementing the 
schematic in that program. 
Notice that each shape mak- 
ing up the circuit is centered 
within a block so that its 
leads will exit in !he middle 
of a side rather than at a cor- 



ner. First draw the diagram 
on the worksheet using only 
shapes from the shapefile 
Next, label each shape with 
its corresponding number. 
Now enter any labels or text 
desired. 



The next step is to enter 
the worksheet information 
into your program- In my ex- 
ample program (Program 
listing 2\ the HIRtS portion 
is located beginning on line 
4000 and extends to the end 
of the program Lines 4500 
through 4590 draw the actu- 
al shapes. The easiest way to 
do this is draw all of the 
shapes on each worksheet 
row using one program line 
This speeds up the program- 
ming process considerably 
when it comes to editing. 
Sometimes, when a row has 
only one shape, I will in- 
clude that shape with the 
next row (such *is line 4510 
which draws the shapes for 
rows 30 and 45) 

Lines 4200 through 4275 
are a subroutine which 
makes the printing of text 
very easy It takes the string 
P$ and prints it with normal 
character spacing beginning 
at the last values of X and V 
This subroutine will allow 
you to input only one line of 
text at a time. Additional 



Program listing 3, Here is the ECC draw-and-edit program list- 
ing. See fexf for a description of how it works. 

ICW . : i HR* <4U DIM hi n I i 

I , i 1 " ,l : ■ ■ .| . | i M . 

II , M • , n ' . . . •■! • 

II- M ' I 33 iHKf-t '■ 

I in in -.i k HAD ; n ■ .. I ' n • lifwti 

. ■'■ PCI E UB 

ill 1 n : Mini 

Et£CTROMIE M l ■ EN i 

J.Ni ■' : II .. I I 

■ 

II!' -1:1 I • IE I 

■ I F 

■ 

"I 

- 
■ | ■ 



,| • | hH 

I 'I III 

F RIM] 

I 



I" 






F SO*:* IN HErX* 

, --- - \ : : •-■ 






f •♦••** 



-— r 

■i -i INT 

nr« « rrfJTD j2¥s . 






1: HGR : GOS1H+ /. 

: aoTn . 



141. 



- 

t ri keht- 

i tii£v 

i . ■ 

j : ■ i i i 

I'.l.' HGHf : 'iurp w 

ME 

I '!• ill.'' PflOE- 1 - FUL I i.l F . 

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60 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



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lines may be processed au- 
tomatically by incrementing 
Y when the value of X gets to 
274. Lines 4280 through 
4350 print the header on the 
diagram using P$ and the 
line 4200 subroutine. Lines 
4600 through to the end are 
the labels for the schematic 
and the remainder of the 
text on the HIRES screen, 

The schematic for my 
timer program is small 
enough so that I was able to 
use HIRES page 1 and use 
the four text lines at the bot- 
tom for my calculations. 
This is a very convenient set- 
up as I can see the diagram 
at the same time I am calcu- 
lating values. To get the 
most out of the four lines 
below the HIRES screen, I 
put the column headings di- 
rectly on the HIRES screen 
at the bottom. Most of my 
programs with schematics 
require that the calculations 
be displayed on page 1 of 
text while the schematic is 
on the full-screen HIRES 
page 2 In these programs I 



include a small subroutine 
which allows me to flip be- 
tween the schematic and 
the calculations This is ac- 
complished by checking 
each input to the calcula- 
tions for an ESC When one 
is encountered, use the "soft 
switches' described on 
pages 12 and 13 of the Ap- 
ple reference manual to dis- 
play the desired HIRES 
page. To return to the calcu- 
lations, use the same sys- 
tem. Check for the ESC key 
to be depressed, then use 
the soft switches to display 
text page 1 . This method will 
leave your calculations in- 
tact while you examine 
the circuit and you will have 
to draw the circuit only 
once as it is preserved 
unchanged, 

Most of the shapes in the 
shapefile are self-explanato- 
ry, but there are a few re- 
quiring comments. Shape 70 
is a variable resistor. If you 
connect a lead to the left 
side, it will appear as a regu- 
lar potentiometer Shape 79 



P U L S E GEN E R h TO R D E S I G H 
555 I HER L-HIP 



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■ P P 



DUTY 

CYCLE 



C| 
UF 



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•;• 



R 
OHMS 



-- 
£ 



Fig. 4, Actual HIRES screen of the schematic used in the timer 
program. See Fig. 3 for the worksheet used to develop this 
schematic, 



can be used for coils, trans- 
formers, or chokes. Shapes 
84, 85, and 86 are leads to be 
used with the op amp, shape 
83. Using these leads will al- 
low you to connect the op 
amp to other components 
using the standard configu- 
ration. Shape 88 is a bridge 
rectifier, while shape 89 can 



be used for meters and other 
round items. 

Shapes 93 through C J9 are 
for transistors and II. Ts, To 
draw a transistor, you must 
combine tour shapes, but 
they make very nice I ran sis- 
tors. I use shapes 116 
through 119 to draw ICs 



&Z2* CI 



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657*1 



-, :m 

64 lH 
641 El 

LAI* 

£440 
6443 

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74 111 



FfM? * • i -:f- = 

PD» i 

IF P 127 then 

IF f I fZ AMfi iSf 

IF Cl = " THEN KORAN i >.l ■ , . : TJ = I 

IF P - t6«* THEN fil I' ' Rlfl 'it ■ -AF 

IF r i' : S THEN toZWQl REM Pt_Ol 

M -Hi M' i THEN R01- FJBK XDFWW HO Al ■■■' SPfO All* 

i r a 1 1 in j -'mm; hem E3C Ftl ' « * ■ 

IF P 2IM THEN 64 •' REM I 

¥ * • II 

II V - AMD F9QE - i nil I J 
IF ¥ « # 1HEN I = JBi> 
QQTO 

i . THEN fc4^#: t 

131 IF i = EN 

GOTO 62M 

THEN bllfl REM t 
IF f = then 64¥#: I If- n 

• : = •«£> fs ?HEn 

IF * « l«*3 THEM - - 13 
OOfO b2» 
IF ! THEJf 631*; «£N £ 

13* I » #: WAN 12i> AT k,y : t&AAM IT* - EDTO 

«2W 
IF I 2t# THEN bS3#: RPt A 

tC«.-hh «f* ft' " „ ~ 
FR^ * F-\ - I*: IF F*t% ■ 64 THEN FFTi = s* 
: *DR£W 6t 31 GO ID 6Z»M 

P ■ i a s r- : f-fi- f 

Dfl [ • 9 TO 6: DRAM 6H fi T t • 3) ♦ : ' « 3; XDRAN 6B AT (II « 3» * 

. . r.if i 1 • FE7HFII 

IF i .'It THEN fr7Wl REM SHIM 

GOTO t,'J 

ftEM MOVE ROUTINE 

GOTO 6}i90 
N'l) * F" t5? 

-i I .::vi - 7: ROT 

FOR I M TO : <3T£F J! ^DRAW N(I) AT *l f "3lN<] «j . ] ■ U: j.DRi^W 

:i .*T <1,3:*I = CJ I ?: N* <1 

RCIT- I 

F» 1 - 1 TO 4;»*<I1 ■ H1F* iN<tt - 171: l»IXT \ 

. I * Uti*> * N*'T - Ml #^L CHl#»ii ROT- FAX 

RETURN 

IfEN PfKXCSS FE»T 

; • it 

c? « t 

• - 4rt IF *r 274 THEM 72*# 
■3 « 33 V2 * *2 * B 
IF lf«> e*m F3t% * 1 THEN *2 ■ 11 

IF 187 THEM r2 ■ M 

It^AM 68 A^ 12- 
JF C2 ■ I T>0* CZ - :: GOTO 723» 

FrtF. ! ' 1 tO 3B=P = FEF» S "iEiF |; Bpfg - 1*740,8 

IF f 1^ THEN "I 

If C 1 THEN JtDRAw i-il R : IF C. 

I AND f SI THEN GOTO ^fl|V 
IT ^ ' THE^# 7J 

IF r L ' ..' "■': 

IF P . THEM 744^ 

»r - t: i r ■: 3 T I IF. N ■ 



..... 

?44# IF ' :4^ Th 



j: if 



= 275S DTi 



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ir ,1 ,1 I 

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il 



"4^i« IF F I ••!■!■ tfij? 

a; It THEN 

:i 116 IHLN 

li, - .. 

: ■■• n • ! nil li -IBk" 

I -.: II ' 1 THEr 

' »a0 IFF J 11 I "J ■■ 

►4i-' = yj • n: n . IS3 rtND FS1 

■ . = IBB: 1.' 1 •'■' 

I ■' JF F 1' ' . I Ml N " 

i 1 E*:E ■ ' 1 

IF E ' ' 

. I : I AND F '. I 1HI <^4: li 

■s 

' I f &OTB ~_ 
E 

■ ■ . 1 . 1 : 



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1 I THEN 



'it GOTO 
IF E 



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Btn t *H IF Ft - "T1" Mil || R| 

' . '.'I IF i :":.■- * I I II r ! I* -Il 

. '1 * = -"TJVrfM '• - 1 * . f . 

Ppltll t l:l t: HON!" E l = T « - •" I i 

• • ! i :■ ■ rtJF*l 

* FFIfiT i ■ ; U*l tj» ■ET^TET FILF t*V^f - HEtH J ■ "J Ft 

t« IF Ft = '- 

E¥*:Ff;- 

1 -'* 

HI4«* ■" T ' •:' 1 

BI*i> RETUFI* 

BI3tf F« = *BLOA0 * * Ft - ^»A «llJ iW 

CNERf^ «JT0 Ql4# 
014* PFIftJT B»irt 
8t8f> FtFLJFlt 
81^0 PftlMl J tM^'EPSf -" FJl_£ NOT FOijHD ryCTVUC ; PO* ! * 

1 to eft*: nftt 1 
ei*?* if fs* - i them eoto 1*** 

81 ^ JF FS3£ rtfEti W 

8t^6 IF l ihim GOTO "£*** 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 61 






WATCH FOR HAL'S NEW PRODUCTS 



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524 95 
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2100-2500 MHZ 



•HMR-II COMPLETE UNIT 

COMPLETE SYSTEM AS SHOWN. NOT A KIT. INCLUDES 
A PC BOARD, POWER SUPPLY, CABLES & 
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GAIN OR GREATER. 

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5 or ittdfft units . . . . 579,95 *a. 

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HAL 300 PRE 
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; same as above by* wtrhprearnp} . , . 



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HfGHLY STABLE DECODER KIT COMES WITH 2 &0ED PLATED THRU AND SOLDER 
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ACCUKEYER (KIT) THJS ACCUKEYER fS A REVISED VERSION OF THE VERY POPULAR 
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ACCUKEYER -MEMORY OPTION KIT PROVIDES A SIMPLE, LOW COST METHOD OF 
ADDING MEMORY CAPABILITY TO THE VVB4VVF ACCUKEYER WHILE DESIGNED FOR 
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CLOCK KIT— HAL 71 FGUR.DIGIT SPEOAL— S7-9& OR 
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COMPLETE KIT CONSISTING OF 2 PC G-10 PRE DRILLED PC BOARDS, 1 CLOCK 
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3 PUSHBUTTON SWITCHES AND INSTRUCTIONS. DONT BE FOOLED BY PARTIAL 
KITS WHERE YOU HAVE TO BUY EVERYTHING EXTRA WILL RUN OFF ANY 12 VOLT 
AC SUPPLY PRICED AT $1 2,95 

CLOCK CAS€ AVAILABLE AND WILL FIT ANY ONE OF THE ABOVE CLOCKS REGULAR 
PRICE 56,50 BUT ONY S4.50 WHEN BOUGHT WITH CLOCK. 

SIXDiGTT ALARM CLOCK KIT FOR HOME, CAMPER. RV, OR RELD-DAY USE 
OPERATES ON 12-VOLT AC OR DC, AND HAS JT5 OWN GfrHz TIME BASE ON THE 
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DRILLED PC BOARDS. BOARD SIZE 4" x 3". COMPLETE WITH SPEAKER AND 
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PRICED AT m$5 

"TWELVE-VOLT AC ONE CORD FOR THOSE WHO WISH TO OPERATE THE CLOCK 
FROM 1 lavOLT AC WHEN PURCHASED WITH CLOCK. KIT 1295 

SHIPPING INFORMATION ORDERS OVER S3 WILL BE SHIPPED POST PAID EXCEPT 
ON ITEMS WHERE ADDITIONAL CHARGES ARE REQUESTED. ON ORDERS LESS THAN 
525, PLEASE INCLUDE ADDFTIONAL 52,00 FOR HANDLING AND MAILING CHARGES- 
SEND 20& STAMP FOR FREE FLYER DISTRIBUTOR FDR 

Alumi Tow»r*AP Product* 
(We have the new Hobby-Bio* Sytttmi 






j^31 



HAL - HAtOlD C NOWIANO 
WfZXM 



HalTronix 

P.O. BOX 1101 

SOLTTHGATE, MICK 48196 
PHONE (313) 285-1782 



This allows enough room to 
label the pins clearly The re- 
mainder of the shapes 
should be fairly self-explan- 
atory, and if you are not sure 
about what a shape does, 
just trv drawing it on your 
computer. If vou want to 
add shapes to your shape- 
file, you should consult your 
Apple reference manuals 
and be familiar with shape- 
tables. To conform to my 
system, the new shape 
should be drawn on a 15 x 
15 grid and the origin of the 
shape should lie al the cerv 
ter (coordinates 8,8). Also 
remember to have all leads 
exit at the middle of a side. 
In setting up the sha pet able 
listed here, I used a program 
trom Micro Magazine, 
September, 1980, called 
Creating Shape Tables, Im- 
proved;' by Peter A, Cook 

I have listed the shapefile 
beginning at $8000. Note the 
400 beginning at $81 0c and 
extending to >8193 These 
00s are necessary for proper 
operation, and this is the 



space set aside to address 
additional shapes which 
might be added to the end 

of the table in the future. If 
you enter this shape! able by 
hand, you can edit the 
shapes by remembering that 
each shape is separated by a 
hex 00 It you have a prob- 
lem with, for exampl 
vhape #9, find the ninth set 
of hex 00s in the listing and 
you will be looking in the 
correct area. II hapehle 
is quite lengthy so I will 
make a copy available on 
disk It you send me £12 00, 
I'll send you a copy of the 
sliapelilr and the LGC utili- 
ty program. In addition, I 
will include a copy of the 
timer program and a couple 
of copies of my worksheet. 
The timer program and the 
ECC utility are written in 
Applesoft BASIC and re- 
corded using DOS 33 I 
hope you get as much utihtx 
out of my EGG as I have; it 
will add a whole new dimen- 
sion to \ our programs with a 
minimum of eiiori ■ 



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NOTE. Price. Specifications subject to change 
without notice and obligation 



62 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



TS830/TS930S 
IMPROVED! 



Yea. s pec i acutely* By 
quality Fc* Tango FftfarL 



Ktdinc ■ Vmrctfd F** of top- 

ire m. * e* &uoc w from enthusiast k 



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MTcA«d UHtn to hw 9905 wa#n r bitted my old 
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^S&& Ltsf of Advertisers on page J 74 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 63 



Trade Secrets 
of Mobile Installation 

Mounting a rig in your car is not as hard as it seems 

Find out how the pros do it 



Dave Ingram K4TWI 
Eastwood Village #1201 South 
Rie it Box 499 

Birmingham AL 35210 



Installing presently-pop- 
ular amateur transceiv- 
ers in the limited space of 
today's cars can often 
prove to be a hair-raising ex- 
perience. While slide-in 
mounts and rig-hanging 
brackets may be readily 
available for some units, 
these mounts often place 
their respective rigs in 



STRAPPING [PLUMBER'S TAp£ ) 

U« DESLHED HOLM- 
DASH (BOTTOM LIP) 





2-METER RIG 



Fig. 1. Method of using strapping to mount a rig under the 
dash, using existing holes. Screw and nut sandwiched be- 
tween the dash bottom; strapping should be short and thin 
for snug mounting and to prevent scratching the rig. The 
mike holder can be screw-mounted to one of the holes in 
the strapping. 



Mi ii BRACKETS 




RUBBER BAND 



SECTION OF STRAFFING 
WRAP WITH CLOTH \ 

6LE BRACKETS 



MIKE HOLDER 
it ARSHIPT MOUNT SCREWS 



G£AASHi< i 



Fig. 2. Method of using hardware-store L-brackets and metal 
strapping for a universal mount on small autos. Rig's front 
sits on the covered strap and is held securely by a rubber 
band. Brackets may be tilted as desired. 

64 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



rather awkward positions. 
When the rig is removed 
from the car, the unused 
mount or bracket may con- 
tinue to occupy vital inte- 
rior room and thus further 
emphasize the need for a 
more flexible arrangement. 
The mounting techniques 
presented in this article 
will attempt to alleviate 
those problems and provide 
a simple yet effective 
means of containing the rig 
in a desired location. Since 
the majority of mobile in- 
stallations are usually more 
involved than merely plac- 
ing a transceiver in the car. 



I'll also briefly consider an- 
tenna cabling and dc pow- 
er-cord routing Amateurs 
following these general 
guidelines should be able to 
progress from a "stock" 
new car to a complete mo- 
bile installation in less than 
an hour's time (assuming 
everything needed isn't 
buried at the bottom of a 
junkbox!). 

Rig Location/ 
Mounting Ideas 

An amateur owning a 
large automobile with a 
full-width dash, bench-type 
seat and no center console 




F/g. 3. The home-brew mount Note the power connectors 
tor various rigs in the background. 




Fig. 4. Low-band transceiver is side-slid into position with its 
front feet catching on the bracket The rear of the rig is sit- 
ting on the transmission hump. The squeezed position as- 
sists in securing the rig, eliminating need for a hold-down 
strap. 



boot's bottom will reveal 
the screws. The upper 
L-brackets' size and angle 
of tilt can be varied as 
desired for proper rig posi- 
tioning In order to prevent 
rig scratches, cover the 
brackets' upper area with a 
couple of layers of cloth 
matching the auto's in* 
terior, and sew the cloth 
tight. 

This mount can be used 
with a variety of rigs, de- 
pending on the particular 
auto's hump-to-dash clear- 
ance, A 2-meter rig, for ex- 
ample, can be placed on 
the mount and secured in 
place by a rubber band 
stretched between the long 
L-bracket screws- (How's 
that for a quick in- 
stall/remove caper?) An HF 
rig such as the Atlas, Ken- 
wood TS-120, etc., can also 
be side-slid into this bracket 
by positioning its front feet 
in front of the covered met- 
al strap while the dash itself 
secures the rig from its top- 
side (the rig's rear then rests 
on the transmission hump). 
Other rigs can also be used 
with this L-bracket setup 
merely by securing them 
with a rubber band when 
necessary. A small towel 
the same color as the auto's 
carpet can be used to cover 
or camouflage the rig dur- 
ing brief out-of-car stops. 



win experience few prob- 
lems mounting his rig or 
rigs. If existing holes in the 
under-dash lip don't align 
with the rig mounting 
bracket a section of metal 
strapping (plumber's tape) 
can be used as a "hole relo- 
cator " This arrangement is 
shown in Fig. 1. The rig's 
rear area can rest lightly on 
the auto's carpet, if neces- 
sary, and a small chock can 
be used if thick carpeting 
blocks air flow around heat 
sinks. 

Mounting 2-meter FM- 
sized transceivers (and pos- 
sibly small-sized low-band 
transceivers) in compact 
autos exhibiting miniscule 
dash-to-transmission-hump 
clearance can prove to be 
difficult. The most logical 
solutions here involve using 
home-brew brackets and 
existing supports for max- 
imum benefit. One example 
of this technique is shown 
in Fig. 2. Four L-brackets are 
bolted together as shown, 
with heavy metal strapping 
bolted between the upper 
L-brackets. The lower 
L-brackets are secured to 
the auto's gearshift mount- 
ing L-plate via existing 
screws, These are slightly 
underneath the floor shift's 
rubber boot in autos such 
as the Sunbird, Monza, Sky- 
hawk, etc., squeezing the 




Fig* 5* This rig-mounting bracket is ideally suited to 
rapid installation artists. The unit is merely placed 
on the mount and secured with a heavy rubber band. Ei- 
ther top or bottom-mounted speakers can be used with this 
arrangement 




Fig. 6, A second (or third!} rig can be used with the bracket 
of Fig, 5« If front feet don't secure the rig, use a heavy rubber 
band. Note the mike mount on the left side of the bracket 



(Be aware, however, that 
any out-of-view auto is 
open prey to rip-off artists). 

Many small and interme- 
diate-sized autos feature 
bench-style seats and one- 
piece dashes which can 
support 2-meter FM rigs, 
but may present problems 
for securely supporting 
larger HF rigs. An effective 
mounting idea for these 
autos involves propping the 
HF rig between the front 
seat's edge and the trans- 



mission's hump, securing it 
with a cloth-covered boat 
tie-down strap as shown in 
Fig. 7. If connecting cables 
dig into the carpet or if the 
rig's heat sink is slightly 
obstructed, a small piece of 
wood or indoor/outdoor 
carpet may be used for 
chocking. All rig cables and 
the tie-down strap can 
merely be pushed under the 
seat when not in use, pro- 
viding a perfectly clean- 
looking interior. Cloth- 
covered tie-down straps are 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 65 





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716-824-7936. 9 to 4 ■-'« 



available from boating sup- 
piy or sporting goods stores, 
with most stores boasting 
on-the-spot assembly of the 



tie-down in any desired 
length. The highest price I 
have found on tie-downs is 
$3.00 each. 




Fig. 7. Mobile installation of traveling amateur W4CEC con- 
sists of an Azden 2-meter rig and Kenwood T5-120. The 120 
is merely propped on the auto's seat; its tilt-down front bail 
secures the unit and eliminates the need for a tie-down 
strap. The Azden is secured, complete with bracket by a tie- 
down strap hooked under the dash. Clever and convenient, 
and both rigs can be removed in a snap. 

66 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



Two special-considera- 
tion-type mounts which 
may be applicable to small 
autos with center consoles 
involve mounting a mobile 
rig sideways on either the 
console or the drive-shaft 
tunnel right behind the 
rider's seat. This arrange- 
ment is illustrated in Fig. 8. 
Surprisingly, the front 
mounting often will sup- 
port a large low-band rig 
while the rear mount sup- 
ports a 2-meter rig. 

Routing Cables 

Today's tightly-assem- 
bled autos can prove quite 
challenging to cable rout- 
ing, but a few tricks of the 
trade can simplify that situ- 
ation. Antenna transmission 
line can easily be routed 
through the auto's trunk 
area by moving the rear 
seat on the rider's side and 
poking part of a stiff, 
discarded whip antenna 
through to the trunk. Next, 
tape the coaxial cable to 
the end of that whip and 
putl it into the auto's interi- 
or. (Use heavy-duty fila- 
ment tape and help the 
cable along for first-try suc- 
cess.) Additional cables, if 
desired, can then be taped 
to the initial cable and 
pulled through in a similar 
manner- Routing cables on 
the auto's right (rider) side 
also is good due to the 
absence of steering wheel, 
floor pedals, etc. 

The whip-antenna trick is 
also useful for passing pow- 



AUTOS DASH 



er cords through auto fire- 
wall openings. The most 
logical and convenient op- 
ening to use is the expand- 
able grommet through 
which the speedometer 
cable passes. Again, poke 
the whip into the auto's in- 
terior, tape the cable to the 
whip rod's tip and pull it 
back through the grommet, 
helping it as necessary. 

Finally, make a compos- 
ite resistance check in the 
following manner to ensure 
solid ground connections. 
Short the antenna's center 
conductor and shield at the 
antenna proper, then mea- 
sure from the power cord's 
negative lead, through the 
auto body, through the an- 
tenna mount, and back to 
the center conductor of the 
PL-259 for less than 1 Ohm 's 
resistance. At this point, 
you are ready to check al- 
ternator/battery voltage 
with the motor running to 
ensure that less than 14 
volts is delivered, . and 
then connect the rig. 

Conclusion 

The techniques of 
mounting amateur gear in 
autos varies with each set 
of circumstances, yet each 
installation can be made 
easier by using ideas tried 
and proven by others. I 
hope this collection of 
thoughts and views will 
prove helpful in both the in- 
stallation and operation of 
your existing or future 
mobile rigs.B 



CONSOLE- 



FRONT 
SEAT 



-flIC MOUNTED ON CONSOLE 



FRONT 

seat 



RIG MOUNTED ON 53DE OF DRIVE 
SHAFT TUNNEL CAN BE OPER- 
ATED FROM DRIVER'S SEAT AND 
COVERED WITH COAT WHEN AUTO 
tS LEFT. 



flEAfi SEAT 



REAfl AREA 



Fig. 8. Two rig-mounting locations for small autos which 
provide flexibility and a degree of security. Location behind 
rider's seat is preferred for small 2m FM units. 



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Around and Around 

and Around 

There's got to be a better way to wind your coils to specs. 
Build the Q-meter and get the exact inductance you need. 



Edwin C Wllet N7APE 
306 W Court Street 
Weiser to 63672 




Front view of completed Q-meter, 




Winding coils for a new 
project seems to be 
one of the more frightening 
aspects of the job. One rea- 
son may be the fear that we 
may not be able to dupli- 
cate the author's model. If 
we have a way to check 
each coil before it's in- 
stalled, much of the appre- 
hension is removed. A "Q"- 
meter will do this by mea- 
suring the coil's inductance 
and Q The unit pictured is 
such a Q-meter that will 
measure inductances from 
,5 uH to 50 uH and Qs to 
200. It's easy to build, easy 
to operate, and is powered 
by an internal 9-volt battery 
or wall-plug power supply. 
There are four basic parts 
to this Q-meter: a dual-fre- 



quency rf oscillator, an FET 
voltmeter a power supply. 
and the tank circuit that in- 
dicates the inductor of un- 
known value (L x ). 

Fig. 1 is the schematic. A 
2N2222 transistor serves as 
the rf oscillator, followed 
by an MPF-102 JFET buffer 
The range of measurement 
is controlled by the oscil- 
lator frequency and the 
tank variable capacitor. 
With the capacitor speci- 
fied, the range is .5 to 5 uH 
at a frequency of 20.05 
MHz, and 5 to 50 uH at 6.34 
MHz. The two toroid coils 
resonate with CI and C2 to 
produce these frequencies, 
and SI determines the 
range in use. The buffer 
stage provides the neces- 




Assembled panet and top plate showing component mounting. 
70 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



Pine and Masoniten* case for the Q-meter. 



sary low impedance excita- 
tion for the tank circuit 
through C8. A 1N270 ger- 
manium diode (D1) rectifies 
the rf output of the buffer 
and is used to calibrate the 
meter before taking a mea- 
surement. A hot-carrier di- 
ode (D2) is placed across 
the variable capacitor and 
rectifies the tank circuit 
current to provide a dc volt- 
age that is proportional to 
the Q of L* at resonance. It 
is this voltage that is mea- 
sured in the TEST position 
of 52. 

The JFET voltmeter uses 
two MPF-102 )FETs P zeroed 
by R15, Full scale on the me- 
ter should be 250 micro- 
amps or less. The critical 
components have been se- 
lected so that the Q reading 
will be quite accurate if 100 
is used as the calibration ref- 
erence, The meter I used is 
calibrated from zero to 250 
and is a 200-uA movement. 
A more sensitive meter will 
require using a higher resis- 
tance setting of R12, but will 
not affect the unit's accura- 
cy. Qs of 250 or more are 




l-X 

J-l 



i 



ffl 



s£eio 



j&ia £riq 



seldom required and are dif- 
ficult to obtain, so there is 
not much need to have a 
higher scale. 

As for construction, there 
is really only one critical 
portion — the mounting of 
the tank components (C9, 
C10, and the terminals for 
L x ). At 50 uH, an inch or two 
of extra wire will not have 
much effect on accuracy, 



Fig. 7. Circuit schematic. 



but at ,5 uH, the leads must 
be kept as short as possible. 
This is one reason for the 
miniature variable capacitor 
and small unit for C9. The 
terminals for L x consist of 
440 bolts mounted directly 
to the FormicaFM top, using 
solder lugs to connect to the 
circuit board components 
and 440 hex nuts fastened 
by epoxy to small wire nuts 



for holding the unknown in- 
ductor leads. Small 5-way 
connectors should also 
work fine, Although I used 
an import vernier dial mech- 
anism and attached a plastic 
pointer, a non-reduction 
knob will work quite well — 
it's just a little harder to get 
right on resonance. The 
shaft of CT0 is too short to 
reach the panel It can be 




Fig, 2. Circuit board I 






RI4 

I 1 



RI3 



Q4 






P*\ ^ S R "l C,2 L 
D I 




R2 




Q2 



. r«lWl«W 



L2 Ri 



C3 






C5 



R5 



C6 



CI4 



R6 m 
R9~ 

LJ 



J-l 




C7 



R8 



R7 






a0A(N0T USED) 

l 

i 1 



Fig. 3. Component layout foil side view. 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 71 





Parts List 


C1 


620-pF ceramic disc 


C2 t C3 


68-pFNPO ceramic 


C4 


56-pF NPO ceramic 


C5, C6, 




011,012 


.01 ceramic disc 


07 


100-pF ceramic 


Go 


22-pF NPO ceramic 


C9 


1500-pF poiy 


C10 


138-pF variable (RS A1-234) 


C13 


10-uF, 25-V electrolytic 


D1 


1 N270 germanium diode 


D2 


MBD-101 hot carrier diode 


R1 


47k T V4*Watt carbon 


R2 


100k, 1 A -Watt carbon 


R3 


10k linear pot 


R4 


1.5k, Y^Watt carbon 


R5 T R9 


1-meg f v^Watt carbon 


R6 


390-Ohm t V* -Watt carbon 


R7, R10 f 




R11 


2,2-meg, V4-Watt carbon 


R8 


100k f V^-Watt carbon 


R12 


100k trimmer 


R13 r R14 


150-Qhrn, V^Watt carbon 


R15 


2k linear standard pot 


L1 


1,97 uH (21 turns #24 enamel on T-37-2 toroid) 


L2 


19.7 uH (70 turns #32 enamel on T-37-2 toroid) 


S1 


SPOT rotary 


S2 


SPOT mini-toggle 


S3 


SPST mini-toggle 


M1 


200-uA meter (see text) 


J1 


Connectors for L* (see text) 


J2 


Mini phone jack (normally-closed circuit) 



lengthened by attaching a 
one-quarter-inch round met- 
al spacer with a bolt into the 
capacitor's threaded shaft. 
An alternative would be a 
small flexible coupler and a 
piece of VS-inch shaft. 

The total current drain is 
under 1 5 mA t so a 9-volt bat- 
tery wilt last a long time with 
intermittent use, For ac op- 
eration, any rectified and fil- 
tered wall-plug supply that 
is rated at 4.5 to 9 volts fills 
the bill 

To put the Q-meter to 
work, set S2 to It SI ', turn on 
the power switch, and adjust 
the meter to zero reading 
with R15, Switch S2 to CAL 
and set ihe rf level to 100 on 
the meter by adjusting R3. 
Connect the coil you want 
to measure, using the short- 
est possible leads. Reset S2 
to TEST; tune CIO for maxi- 
mum deflection of the me- 
ter. The reading is the 
approximate Q of the un- 
known inductor. If you can- 
not get any upward deflec- 
tion of the meter, try the 



other position of 51, If you 
still cannot get a reading 
and you are quite sure the 
unknown inductance falls 
within the range of the me- 
ter, recheck the L x connec- 
tions, A good connection is 
a must for reliable operation 
of the Q-meter. 

A test coil can be made 
by winding about 15 turns 
of #24 enamel-covered wire 
rn a T-37-2 or T-37-6 toroid. 
You should measure it 
somewhere around 1 uH 
with a Q of about 100. If 
you are satisfied with the re- 
sults, you may want to mark 
the measured information 
on a tag and attach it to the 
inductor. It can be used 
later to check the perfor- 
mance of the meter if you 
should question a reading 
on some unknown coil. 

This relatively simple 
project can take a lot of 
the fear out of coil-wind- 
ing, as well as sort out un- 
marked small inductors 
and provide the identifica- 
tion you need.B 



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72 73 Magazine • January, 1984 




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international) 



Each month, 73 brings you 
ham radio news from around the 
world. In this collection of re- 
ports from our foreign corre- 
spondents, we present the fat* 
est news in DX t contests, and 
events, as well as keep you 
abreast of the technical 
achievements of hams in other 
countries. 

ft you would tike to contribute 
to your country's coiumn f write 
to your country's correspondent 
or to 73: Amateur Radio's 
Technical Journal, Pine Street, 
Peterborough NH 03453, USA, 
Attn: Jack Burnett. 




AUSTRALIA 

J. E Joyce VK3YJ 
44 Wren Street 
Aitona 301 8 
Australia 

tn most countries, to varying degrees, 
amateurs ate Involved in emergency situa- 
tions. We In Australia have an organize- 
Hon called Wireless Institute Civil Emer- 
gency Network, abbreviated to WlCEN, 
that Is set up as a community service In 
times of Declared emergency situations. It 
Is used also at several sporting events 
during the year as practice exercis*- 

However, m what we In the southern 
states of Australia called "The Holocaust 
of Ash Wednesday/ 1 practice turned to re- 
ality, It was a firestorm that spread from 
Adelaide in South Australia right through 
Victoria and up north lo New South 
Wales— a distance of 800 miles. For us ft 
tail, unfortunately, on the biblical Ash 
Wednesday, February lBth. 

The states of the I owe* part of Australia 
were ripe for a bushflre. Being realistic, 
bush fires are a natural phenomenon here, 
as a lot of our trees and grasses will not 
germinate until bushfires have heated the 
seedpods to temperatures that would de- 
stroy Imported trees and Sbnjfcs. The pre- 
vious two seasons had been hot and dry, 
and on the morning of the 16th ( we had a 
temperature of over 4E}° C plus strong 
winds of over 60 mph at some spots. 

We had noticed minor bush fire smoke 
on the horizon during the working day but 
were not aware that in a few hours the 
whole state of Victoria with all its emer- 
gency services— and amateur radio in 
particular— would be put to the greatest 
test for decades. As you can imagine, with 
a country that relies largely on telephone 
lines strung between gym trees and 
wooden poles across open poms. It did 
not take long, once the fires got started, to 
bum down the gum trees and ihe wooden 
poiss, leaving much of the state of Vic- 
toria with a communications problem. 
Added to this was the fact (hat most of our 
emergency services had only two or three 
crystal-locked channels of communica- 
tions each. 

It soon became clear that WtCEftl had to 

76 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



be activated to back up the overloaded 
communications systems of the authori- 
ties Most amateurs had been monitoring 
the 2-meter repeater in their area and It 
was not long before literally hundreds of 
amateurs had volunteered to go mobile or 
set up base stations in the affected areas. 
All the 2-meter repeaters were taken over 
for emergency use m the Melbourne area, 
giving us a coverage of at least 100 miles 
all around Melbourne. Also, we had HF set 
up on 80 and 40 meters for those low spots 
that VHF could not reach. 

By the early hours of Thursday morning, 
February 1?. WlCEN was In full swing, had 
Organized amateurs as base-receiving 
stations, and had dispatched mobile sta- 
tions with VHF, UHF. and HF capabilities 
to aft the disaster areas, 

The sights at some of these spots were 
horrific, with some of the smaller towns 
losing 100% of their buildings. More than 
200O dwellings were totally destroyed. 
The loss of stock went into the thousands, 
and ft was « pathetic sight to see hun- 
dreds of dead or dying stock, some ot the 
badly Injured Ones still wandering around 
waiting to be shot 

Upon arriving at some of the places we 
were to operate from in the early stages of 
the operation, the scenes were not much 
better, with people wandering around 
dazed, some of them with their clothes 
Still smoldering. Large holes burned in 
their coats, dresses, etc.. showed how 
close they had come to being casualties. 
Even though a lot of them had losl every- 
thing they owned t their main worries were 
whether fathers or some other relations or 
friends had survived m the next town, or 
perhaps only 10 miles away; 

With the fires still raging and the 
phones mostly out of operation, it was 
here that WlCEN operators, by now locat- 
ed at all disaster relief centers, could real- 
ly help. Welfare mess a gas were passed, 
and the looks of relief on faces when mes- 
sages came back that relations or friends 
were alright made a lasting Impression on 
the WlCEN operators, some of whom had 
spent up to two days with no sleep. 
Some ot \h& places of operation were e 



Ml hairy, to say the least, as some ama- 
teurs decided to stay m the path of the fire 
to relay messages. While some were set 
up In plush hotels with cold drinks and hoi 
meals, others were out In the bush with 
cold sandwiches and hot drinks. 

As a rough guide to the intensity of the 
fires, agricultural pipes buried two feet 
underground were melted and buckled 
beyond recognition; land that was pre- 
viously flat had actually boiled and after- 
wards was left rough and uneven 

The wind created by the fires reached 
over 100 mph \n some places. One In- 
stance we had reported from one of the 
worst-hit areas along the southern coast 
of Victoria was that people trying to direct 
traffic had to wrap arms and tegs around 
the safety rails of a bridge to keep from be- 
ing blown off 

Another aspect of fires in Australia Is 
that the same eucalyptus oil thai gives 
relief to people all around the world is also 
released during the heat of the fires. It can 
form into fireballs that can be up to 50 feet 
across and can roll along, sometimes far 
in advance of the main fire front. There 
was a sad total of 70 lives lost in these 
fires over a period ot 2 days. 

The amateur involvement did not end 
with the fires. Amateurs later were asked 
to assist in 'Operation Clean-Up." when 
councils from most Country and city areas 
donated men and equipment to help the 
fire victims remove their debris so they 
could start to rebuild their houses and 
lives. As moat of these bulldozers, front- 
end loaders, etc. did not have two-way 
communications, a control center was set 
up and approximately ISO amateurs gave 
their services either at control Of out whh 
the vefilctes, directing them from one site 
of destruction to another 

A debriefing was held for all amateurs 
and some of the emergency services and 
the result, \ feel, will be a greater degree of 
cooperation between all concerned in any 
future emergencies. Also. In the media 
coverage of the fires, there was a fair men- 
I ten of the involvement of amateur radio, 
and I think the general public no* has a 
greater understanding of the role that we, 
as amateurs, can play In community- 
service ventures. 

The Wirslass Institute Of Australia has 
displayed proudly on ihe club room wait In 
Melbourne a plaque of appreciation 
awarded to inem for the part played by 
amateur radio in "The Holocaust that was 
ASh Wednesday " 





This photo, taken 100 years ago, snows fne 
po$ City, Equipment came from Cleveland, 
electric fight services in South America. 



first electric plant in South America, in Cam- 
Ohio, to Campos City, the pioneer in using 



BRAZIL 

Gerson Rissin PY1APS 

PO Box J2T78 Qofmcmbtm 
20000 mo de Janeiro, RJ 
Brazil 

Carlos Vienna Carneiro PY1CC 
Rua A ion so Pena 49, Apt. 701 
2O270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ 
Bratil 

CW GROUPS 

CW operation has had a gradual m- 
crease in Brazil ihe last five years, espe- 
cially on the low bands, More on forty than 
on eighty, we can hear a dozen stations 
daily between 2100 and 0300 GMT. our 
after-dinner time. The establishment of 
more than twenty CW groups dtd this. 

Sponsoring at least one beautiful 
award, CW groups have provided their 
members with the necessary incitement 
to be active In CW as much as possible. 
Their annua! contests are successful and 
they receive more than 95% of the logs 
from the participants, even when they 
made only a few QSOs. 

Since the beginning gf '73 Interna 
tionai, " wa haw published, little by little, 
the rules of some of those CW awards. 
Now, after six months, we are heppy to 
say that ihose groups which have had 
i heir award rules published have received 
many more applications for their awards 
from abroad. And the awards are not so 
easy, even for usl 

AWARDS 

Regarding the rules of Ihe CWRJ Award 
published In our column of May, 1983. 
please add to the CWRJ members list the 
following stations: PY10N. PY1PL 
PY1DUB. PY1VKA, PY1VMV, PY1ECL 
PY1DWM. PY1TBW, PV1APS, PY10MX, 
PY1KX. PYlQQ f PY1URQ, PY1ENW, and 
PYiVEC. They are ell very active stations 
and will make It easier to work the CWRJ 
Award 

LETTERS 

We wan! to thank you very, very much 
for the letters we have received from 
readers of our monthly column. Besides 
the kindness and the most flattering 
terms of the fetters, wa are happy to know 
thai readers are Interested In Brazilian 
things and events. 

One of them. Richard W. Randall 
KSARE. collects old telegraph and wire* 
less keys, and he is trying for one from 
each majoi part of the world. He wants an 
old key made In South America. The age 
does not make any difference, but it 
should be complete and In working condi 
Hon, If possible, the key should be marked 
with the place it was made and the name 
of the company 

1 have forwarded his letter to the CWSA 
CW group In the city of Santo Andre Who 
can help Richard? 

WIPA AWARD 

Sponsored by the Grupo Praia no de CW 
(GPCW). the WIPA Award Is available to 
all licensed amateurs for confirmed con- 
tacts with 10 (ten} different cities which 
have international ports (harbors) in at 
least three continents. No more than two 
cities tor each country. For example in 
Brazil, the city of Santos and the city of 
Rio de Janeiro. Contacts must have been 
made after January 1. 1983, on any ama- 
teur band. Only wo-way CW mode with a 
minimum report of (EST) 338, No QSLs. 
Send OCR lisl of stations worked (call, 



date, lime, band, mode, and report) and 15 
IRCs for mailing expenses 10 GPCW, PO 
Box 556, 11 100 Santos. SP, Brazil. 

Enrtorsemonts: bopoer label for addi 
tional 5 tfivej cities, stiver label for addi 
tionai 15 (fifteen) cities, and gold label for 
additional 30 (thirty) cities. 

d»PYlAP« 

CAMPOS CITY AWARD 

in 1883. a hundred years ago- using 
equipment coming from the Brush Elec- 
tric Light Company. Cleveland, Ohio, for 
the first time In South America public 
electric light service was ottered— in 
Campos, a Brazilian city In Rio de Janeiro 
State. Celebrating this event Campos 
radio amateurs are sponsoring the Cam- 
pos City Pioneer Award, as follow*; 

Available to all licensed radio ama- 
teurs; (he award may be won by forming 
t he sentence M 1 663- 1 983— Campos — 
Gem Anos de Huminacao a Efetrlcidade 
Pfoneira na Amenta do Sul (meaning 
1883-1963— Campos— One Hundred Veen 
of Electric Light Service. Pioneer in Souih 
America). 

Use last letters of call signs of stations 
reached to make me words. Contacts with 
two stations from Rib de Janeiro (PY1) are 
required, each one to substitute for one of 
the two dales (1883 and 1983). Contacts 
with stations from Campos City are valid 
as special QSLs to subsiUute for any 
missing letters. 

Any band, any mode OSL is valid, mixed 
or single as well Contacts made from 
January, 1983, on only, Do not send QSLs, 
Send log certified by amateur radio socie- 
ty or by two radio amateurs, stating name 
and call, date. QTR report, band, and full 
address with zip code. Fee is 10 iRCs, and 
aend request to Comissao Diploma Cent. 
Luz Elet.. PO Box 391. 23100 Campos, 
Brazil, South America, 

Submit the 62 needed QSLs in a col- 
umn, in log, with me last suffix letters 
forming the sentence vertically. 

PY2AMI BEACON PROJECT 

Since April 14. 1982, a ten-Watt beacon 
has been permanently operating from 
Americana, In Sao Paulo State, at 26,300 
kHz, using this message— VV W DE 
PV2AMI PWR 10W ANT GP LAT 22 45 S 
LONG 47 16 W AMERICANA SAO PAULO. 
Congratulations and reports are coming 
from everywhere for this first IOmeter 
QRP beacon. 

The PY2AMI call is the Brazilian hams 
league. LABRE, in Americana It was 
granted to the three Brazilian radio ama- 
teurs who were responsible for the trans- 
mittor and the CW Idem Hying call mes- 
sage PY2VRX Carlos Felipe. PY2FU2 
Jose Roberto, and PY2CRI D'Orsay. 

Reports have come from alt Brazilian 
states, from as far as SM4KRT(Borlange, 
Sweden), LU9DDQ (Buenos Aires, Argen- 
tina). VE3M8N (Ontario, Canada*. DF5FP 
(Amseiwg. Germany), F3HQ {Eau bonne. 
France), from the USA. VVBiOLE. 
Massachusetts, N6CSR, Virginia, and 
KA2LEB, New Jersey; from EA&EY 
{Canaries Islands], GD3FLWP (Isle of 
Mam, GM3MHG (Ayrshire, Scotland). 
ZL1ATW (New Zealand). PA38KS {Nether* 
rands), G5AQQ {Romford. England), and 
many other places. 

Keep an eye at 23.300 kHz and drop a 
QSL to PY2AMi Beacon Project. PO Box 
31 or PO Bo* 1011, 13470 Americana. Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. South America Carlos 
Felipe, Jose Roberto, and D'Orsay will 
sure appreciate your report 

QRP IN BRAZIL 

QRP operation In Brazil is getting a 
pusfy not only because of ell the fun, not 
only because of new equipment and ler- 



DXPEDITION 



FERNANDO DE NORONHA rS 




ONLY 

2 WAY 

CW 







Boi 15Q2i 24QOWJrterot R>- 



PY$FE*$ QSL Ron is ratify fond of CW operaf/ons as you can see aasiiy (torn she number 
at CW groups He's fred to 



rifle prices, and not even because of its 
no-TV I advantages, QRP Is growing as an 
immediate consequence of CW groups 
spread all over Brazilian territory, and 
even a QRP group was born from this, 
bringing to all radio amateurs {and espe- 
cially lo newcomers}. Love for CW oper- 
ation. Easy-io-build transceivers and 
transmitters are a very strong call to the 
QRP world, especially in. the CW mode. 

What? Still talking about a nocode li- 
cense? Why -don't you think big? Why 
don't you try to be a "real' h radio amateur 
and Join all the fun? 

de PY1CC 




ECUADOR 

PatncfO Recaide S HQ2PP 

PO Box 511 

Guayaquil 

Ecuador 

Last July 1 1, at D72B hours, there was an 
aviation crash in which 119 people died. 
The location was four kilometers from the 
airport of Cuenca, the third largest city In 
Ecuador. 

By 0745 , the SAR (Servicio a! a de 
Rescatej. had an emergency net operating 
on 40 and 2 meters. 

With the cooperation of radio amateurs, 
the SAR, part of the Air Force of Ecuador 
(FAE), was formed last year. 

The area of the accident was easily 
covered by three repeaters, two from the 
Cuenca Radio Club and the other one 
from the Guayaquil Radio Club. The am* 
teurs from Cuenca were at the place of the 
tragedy within minutes, and the reports 
were that there was nobody alive. At 0810, 
Guayaquil sent radio equipment and one 
amateur, by helicopter. At 0600, there 
were military people with amateurs from 
Cuenca covering the place. The repeater 
that was used was monitored by HC5KA. 
who was handling all the communication. 
He assigned different places for emergen- 
cy handling, hospitals. Red Cross, fire 
department* police, and military. 

At 0915 another helicopter was airborne 
to Cuenca from Guayaquil, and ihen, sue 
cesaively. three small planes were air- 
borne to Cuenca. At this time, we all got to 
know that there were no Survivors, and 
then our task goi very sad. 

We began, on 40 meters, to call rela- 
tives in different parts of the country and 



to locate people who were supposed to be 
In that plane but apparently were not. 

There was a call through 20 meters to 
England to led to some people there of an 
Englishman who died in ihe accident 

At midday, the emergency was under 
control. The SAR had handled the 
emergency In an extremely organized 
way But f 13 dead! We hope thai this kind 
of accident doesn't happen again. 




CANADA 

{Raptlnr&d from ttm CARF News Service 
Radio News, No. 14/33. by permission Of 
the Canadian Amateur Radio Federation, 
inc.) 

According to reports from maritime am 
ateurs, the DOC has taken action against 
* ring of Illegal radio operators by seizing 
equipment and dismantling antennas In 
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Among the 
equipment seized was amateur gear modi- 
fied to operate from 6 to 25 MHz. The 
group operates in and out of the amateur 
bands, with us own callsigns and QSL 
cards Halifax amateurs reported that 
they were asked by Ihe DOC to inform the 
Department of related "boot leg" activities. 
The enforcement action Is being taken in 
cooperation with other countries. The 
DOC has not given out any details as the 
mailer Is still under investigation. Prose- 
cutions witt 'ikely follow. 

tn what may be a spin-off from the re- 
cent sale or a Candu nuclear reactor to 
Rumania, Keith Jones VE3MH has re- 
ceived permission from that government 
to operate as VE3MH/YO m Bucharest 
Keith, who works for External Affairs, was 
to have been on the T5-, 10-. and 20-meter 
bands since October 1st. The warm-up In 
diplomatic relations apparently resulted 
in this first such authority and also could 
account for two other firsts, both to Cana- 
dians — the issuing of a fishing license to 
one end permission to pursue his hobby 
of parachuting to another. II put Keith one 
up In the diplomatic community as even 
the US ambassador in Bucharest, who is 
an amateur, couldn't get the okay to oper- 
ate there. Incidentally, Keith's good tor- 
tune Is a one- shot special permission as 
there is no reciprocal operating arrange- 
ment between Canada and Rumania. 

Scores of amateurs were present at Ihe 
Royal Canadian Corps of Signals reunion 
and 80th anniversary ceremonies on 



Labor Day weekend in Kingston, Ontario. 
More than two thousand signallers, wives, 
and girlfriends participated in the three 
days of ceremonies, banquet, and bar De- 
que About a thousand veterans look part 
in the impressive march past, making a 
real good show considering it was forty or 
more years since they had left the VI my 
Barracks training center. 

Unfortunately Canadian amateurs are 
spectators only in a situation which would 
affect them directly if the FCC proposal 
for a no-code license goes through. A mili- 
tant group calling Itself the "American CB 
Trucking Alliance J is pressuring US leg is- 
lators for a far more permissive aproach 
to Ihe code-free ticket than Ihe one pro- 
posed by the FCC. The group wants all CB 
11 -meter operators eligible for amateur 
status in any new code less license class. 
Most Of this crew are operating illegally. 
US amateur organizations are meeting Ihe 
FCG head-on in this one, with the peren- 
nial champion of the American amateur. 
Senator Barry Gofdwater. leading the 
charge, with the assistance of other legis- 
lators 

Thanks to the assistance of Ihe Minis 
ter of Communications, Francis Fox. 
three CARF handbooks are being trans- 
laterj into French, to be published by 
CARF in 1984, The Regulations Handbook 
is in the process of translation now. 

Hopes may not he realized to have the 
ARRL OXCC list graced with a special pre- 
fix for St Paul and Sable Islands, as they 
are based on the assumption that they are 
not under any provincial Jurisdiction. They 
are, however, very much a part of Nova 
Scotia's territory, according to the federal 
Privy Council Office. 

Regional Notes Midwest— Norm 
Wait ho VE5AE has taken over the VE5 
OSL Bureau in addition to his other ac- 
tivities, including the "CARF Family 
Hour" on 3770 kHz at 0215 Zulu Atlan- 
tic— Leigh Hawkes VE1ZN will be starting 
a CARF Regional Net soon. On- 
tario— CraiQ Howie VE3HWN. who has 
been very active in CARF, has resigned 
his directorship as he has moved to 
Calgary with a new Job. 




CYPRUS 

Arts Kapontdas 584JE 
PO Box ) 723 
Llmassoi 
Cyprus 

NEWS FROM CYPRUS 

On the 3rd and 4th of September, we 
had the National Field Day Contest. In 
this contest, three club stations took part: 
the Nicosia Club 5B4NC. the Larnaca 
Club 584LC, and the Paphos Technical 
School Club 5B4KX Many amateurs 
helped In the setting up and operating of 
the stations, which shows that interest In 
amateur radio in Cyprus is growing. 

All stations have sent me a report on 
their operations, and I start first with the 
Nicosia report which was sent to me by 
OM SB41T. 

A few days before the atari of Field Day, 
an initial scouting °Y 5B4iT and John 
5B4MC around the capital, Nicosia, 
resulted in finding a nice hill celled Kam- 
bia Early In the morning of Field Day, 
5B4NM (Marios), 534MB (YL Marianne), 
5B4LF (Andreas), and 5B4MF (Spyros) 
went to the site and Inst ailed di poles for 
10m, 15m, 20m, and 40m. They also put up 
a 4-band vertical antenna. Around noon. 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 77 



5B4MC and 5S4JT arrived win i he rest of 
the gear, including a Sommerkamp FT-277 
and a gasoline generator. Then the anten- 
nas were tuned and all was ready for the 
afternoon, All sat In the shade (temper- 
ature 35° C) and had a beer and a snack. 
5B4M0 (Georgei arrived in the afternoon 
bringing the East supplies of food and an 
IO720 transceiver 

At 1800 hours, the contest started with 
MF first lo operate. Around 2000, the tire 
tor the barbecue was started, but Lhe 
transceiver never slop peek operating. At 
about 2330. 5B4BD (Anton* »} became 
Quite hungry and so the charcoal fire was 
started again. Nobody slept that night un 
til very early in the morning when one by 
one, each In turn had a short nap. Break- 
fast was Served by 584 MD During lhe 
contest propagation was poor, and a final 
total of 937 contacts was made. Every- 
body In the group enjoyed both the barbe- 
cue and lhe contest, but it is rather diffi- 
cult to decide in which order. 

The Larnaca Club activities were re- 
ported to me by the main leader of Lhe 
group> 5B4GJ (Errlcos) The Installation o! 
the tent and generator was done by 
5B4EA 5B4GJ, and their harmonics. The 
site was 3Vi miles outside Larnaca City, 
by the seaside. Di poles for 10m, 15m. 20m, 
and 40m were installed by 5B4DM and 
5B4SP. Main operators for the contest 
were 5B4DM. 5B4JW. and 5B4SP. Ai the 
site, also present and helpful with opera- 
tion, were 5B4EN. 5&4KY. 5B4FM, and 
564 AH t who repaired the transceiver 
which was used. Only 160 contacts were 
made due to poor propagation, and also 
the station was operated only until mid* 
night Saturday and during the early morn- 
ing on Sunday. According to Cyprus tradi- 
tion, everybody enjoyed tola of food and 
drinks, such as wine, ouzo, beer, and 
whiskey 

The Paphos group reported to me via 
2m that they set up their tent and station a 
few miles outside Paphos, by the seaside. 
The station was operated by 5B4JH (An 
rjreasj, 5&4JX {Sotos). 5B4MG iDimitrisL 
S&4AI {Paul), who is also J28AI, and a 
group of pupils of the Paphos Technical 
School club station, 5B4KX. The Paphos 
group reports that they made around 450 
contacts. So the Nicosia Club is the win* 
t\er for this year's contest. 

The Umassoi group hopes to take part 
in the contest next year, and we generally 
hope thai more Cyprus amateurs will be 
taking pari In conlesis— not only local 
ones but also international ones. 



S3l*5Si 



^r^ 



GREAT BRITAIN 

Jeff Mayntrd 64E J A 
tO Churchfietds 
Witines WAS 9RP 
Cheshire 
England 

THE UK SCENE 

I have mentioned before the problems 
Of intrusion on the amateur bands by il- 
legal operators. This has usually meant 
CBers moving up from the crowded 
27-MHz band Into the bottom of our ex- 
clusive 10m band. Recently a new menace 
has presented Itself in the form of cord- 
less telephones. 

The UK has for many years had a very 
restricted and tightly -con trolled state mo- 
nopoly of teiecommuni cat ions run by Brit- 
ish Telecom ("formerly The Post Office). 
BTs obsession with technical excellence 



and paperwork has tong frustrated at- 
tempts to introduce modern telecommu- 
nications facilities (such as Key phones, 
call-distribution systems, mobile phones, 
electronic exchanges, and so on) for 
business and domestic use. 

It Is fair to say that BT has heeded the 
Thatcher government's desire for liberali- 
zation and competition with a more ag- 
gressive and commercial approach to its 
marketing. However, commercial pres- 
sures have ted in the last couple of years 
to the widespread use of illegal telephone 
equipment 

Included in this category is the cordless 
telephone of the type consisting of a base 
station and remote hand-held or mobile 
unit. To provide full duplex communica- 
tion, these cryslahcontrolled units oper- 
ate on widely separated transmlNeceive 
frequencies. Most of the imported units 
an t 6-2 MH<- and 49 7-49.9 MHz, or 
43 6-49.9 MHz and 7r>70 5 MHz. 

This causes interference to two ama- 
teur bands In the UK since, in addition to 
the international top-band allocation on 
160m. we have an allocation at 4 meters 
(70 MHz>, 

With an estimated 10.000 Illegal units 
operating in London alone and using 
powers up to lOO-mW FM, the scale of 
likely interference is readily appreciated. 
A recent report compiled for the Radio So- 
ciety of Great Britain by G3TCT has 
brought a measure of lhe problem to the 
attention oi BTs Radio Interference Ser- 
vice. (Recent legislation provides for legal 
operation of cordless phones on 1,632- 
1.702 MHz and 47.45-47,554 MHz.) 

DECLINE OF UK CB? 

As predicted by a number of pundits, 
the growth In the UK CB market has not 
continued, CB has not and is not likely to 
replace hi-fi or video as the dominant con- 
sumer electronics market. 

A recent statement In the House of 
Commons by Alexander Fletcher, Secre- 
tary ol State for Trade and Industry, 
pointed out that although 453,000 CB It- 
censes were issued since legalization in 
November, 196 1, only some 2B5.000 are 
still valid. The general impression one 
gets Irom the scale for lack) of C9 adver- 
tising and the demise of most of the 
st reel -corner equipment shops suggests 
that UK CB is no longer significant 

NOVICE LICENSE? 

The government has again rejected 
suggestions thai e Novice amateur li- 
cense be Introduced to allow code-tree, 



mini mum- technical -knowledge access 10 
lhe amateur bands. It is felt that nothing 
should be done which would reduce the 
high standard of operating and technical 
proficiency shown to date by the Amateur 
Service, I doubt that few readers will dis- 
agree with that, 

***** 

Tne RSGB breaks some new ground 
with the election of Bob Barrett as Its 
president for 1984. As well as being Welsh 
and only In his early forties, Bob holds a 
class B VHF-only calisign {GW8HEZ} Bob 
is the first class B license holder to be 
elected tor this high office. 

Anyone contemplating a visit to the UK, 
or just Interested In the latest happenings 
over here, might like to call the RSGB 
Headline News Service for some recorded 
comment The number to call is 44 707 
59312L 

On the subject of telephone numbers, 
reference orbits {and other information) 
for UoSAT {OSCAR 9) can be heard on 44 
4&3 61202. 




Manos Darkadakis SV1IW 
Box 2305 f 
Athens 112W 
Greece 

In my previous column, I mentioned the 
new frequencies now in use by Greek 
amateurs. 

By the time you read this, you probably 
will have heard some of them working 
around the new bands. On 160 meters, you 
may find Charlie SvflAA <e* 3V0VVTT) 
Charlie Is an old-timer coming from the 
States but living permanently In 
Greece— for about 20 years now. He is 
well known among CW operators world- 
wide and he is really enjoying t60 tun with 
his brand new Corsair from Ten-Tec and a 
center-loaded vertical Of course, Charlie 
1$ not the Only one down there, but he is 
probably the only one on CW (If I find a 
solution to the antenna problem. I will cer- 
tainty Join him.) 

There are also some SVs on 30 meters 
and there will be more as soon as interest 
grows. 




Finally, for you OSCAR enthusiasts, 
SViOE and SVi AB are almost daily In AM 
SAT's new bird, offering both SSB and CW 
to the satellite DX chasers. 

By the way, if anyone has a problem get- 
ting a QSL out of my fellow SV amateurs 
(including me) or needs a sked on some 
particular banoVmode. I will be more than 
happy to help. 

September and October are contest 
months, so as I write this many Greek 
radio amateurs are ready for the big 
events during these months In a contest, 
not only can you upgrade your operating 
skill and represent your country, but also 
you can pick up some new ones, and this 
makes the effort very well rewarded. 

So, antennas have been tested and 
tuned for optimum performance, radios 
have been checked, and arrangements 
have been made for (he XYL and kids to 
spend a pleasant weekend at her sister's 
(or mother's) place away from lhe shack 
jungle where the cannibals will scream 
and yell at the microphone for 48 hours! 




Starting cars being f fagged off at the Pare Ferme. The nam operators are stationed right 
under the banner In the background. 



INDIA 

James Kat&ssery VU2ARL 

POBox 1446 

36*77 Monastery floed 

Cochin 6S20t1 

India 

HIMALAYAN CAR RALLY 

Photos by C. P. Rivindrsnath 

The third Himalayan Car Rally was one 
of the toughest rallies in the world and 
therefore was Indeed a challenge for the 
motorists. So was it also for the hams who 
provided communications for the orga- 
nizers. They travelled over the most diffi- 
cull tracks of the rally, along spinechill- 
tog but beautiful mountain roads high up 
in the Himalayas, 

Thirty radio amateurs from different 
parts of the country converged In New 
Delhi to take part In this hectic activity 
from 30th October to 6th November, 1382. 
While seven were stationed at the Com- 
munications Headquarters and si* were 
mobiling on different legs ot lhe rally* 17 
ware manning nine different base sta- 
tions along the 4000- km track. 

Communications Headquarters was lo- 
cated adjacent to the headquarters of the 
organizers in the Hotel Maury a Sheraton. 
New Demi It was manned by VU9A1D 
Oasan. VU99&J Asu, VUBNKft Naresri, 
VU9RX Vasanl. VU9TN Ram, VU9VK Kap, 
and VU9YY Rayu in three shifts, with the 
special call VU9HRY. Changing shifts 
every four hours, the station was opera- 
tive on 80m. 40m, Z0m H and 2m all the time. 
Three separate dipoies for the HF bands 
and a 12-element yagi for VHF. all on top 
of the 40-meter-high hotel roof, were 
powered by a TS^&30S, Drake TR 7, loom 
720, and a host of VHF rlfls, 

VU9AIR VUL VU9FD DJnesh, VU9HSL 
Homi VU9KIT Chris. VU9NA Sasi, and 
VU9PCD Pradeep were manning the mo- 
bile stations en route, All ot them, except 
VlrSAlH viji. started from Bombay and 
came to New Delhi where they branched 
off In different directions. All of them were 
operating throughout the rally, providing 
most valuable support. In fact, the most 
adventurous, daring, and back-breaking 
activity of all was that of the mobiting 
hams. 

The base stations were located ai 
Dehradun and Mussorie {VU9LT Ratna, 
VU9LR Satya, VU9BF Kaliat, Nainllal 



78 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



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73 Magazine • January, 1984 79 



(VU9SU Subi. VU3WC Sesha). Ranikhet 
(VUSKT Dliip. VU9VPR Vilasj, Narkhanda 
(VU9VMJ Jadeja, VU9VRG Gopal), Manah 
(VU9MMA Mai hew, myself). Simla 
(VU9SNM Subhandu, VU9XX Pali!), Mandi 
(VU9SRJ Ramu r VU9POP Prakash), and 
Ral (VU9GSI Gurudev VU9JS1 JaSvlnder), 
all along the royte of the tally. 

Originally, one mote station was 
planned at Khoksar (tO.OOO-foot altitude), 
but we had to cancel 4 since the rally it- 
self went only up to Marni. a little beyond 
Ma nali, due to snow-clad roads. 

Most of the base stations were on HF 
bands. However, some operated both [Ma* 
nail, Simla) and one VHF only 
(Narkhartda) The setup at each of the sta- 
tions was decided on the basis of the stir* 
vey done earlier by VU9RX Vasant 

VU9MMA and I were assigned to Ma- 
naii. which was the northern tip of irte rally 
route- At Maria! I the rally stopped for a 
night and returned from Marhi during the 
next day So Manaii was considered an 
important regrouping control point 

We were staying at the Hotel Seas 
named after the snowy fiver flowing by its 
side. We had a trap dipole for 6Qm, 40 m. 
and 20m supplied by VU9RX Vasant, 
which we put across the river (ISO feet 
wide) at a height of about BO feet above 
the water level- The other 40m and 20m 
combination inverted V, wtiich I had 
brought along, was put up at the Pare 
Ferme (where the vehicles were parked for 
the haiti, about 20fl meters away trom the 
hotel. Tne 3 piece, 12-element 2m ZL 
beam was moved around quite a fail when- 
ever we needed It, 

In spite of Manaii being a very impor- 
tant control point, we had only one HF rig 
I Kenwood TS-1305) and one VHF rtg (Icom 
I C 255 A) lo work with. Both of these were 
worked on an 80- Ah car battery which was 
under charge all the time. 

The propagation conditions changed 
so rapidly that we had lo keep on chang- 
ing bands, one after I he olher almost ev- 
ery hour. And very often, we had to get the 
assistance of hams m southern India to 
relay traffic. But generally 20m stayed 
good for the day and the other two bands 
were good during the night, Copy from 
Hartii on 2m was perfect throughout. 

Until the cars started coming in on the 
night of November 3rd. wo were operating 
from indoors, either relaying for some oth- 
er rally station or handling traffic for the 
local regrouping control officials. But we 
had to stay outdoors almost the entire 
night once the cars came. And outside, it 
was realty cold at 2 a C. For many that may 
not seem cold, but for us who came In 
from far south, where the temperature var- 
ies only Between 26° and 35° C, It was 
really very, mry cold There were many oc- 
casions while operating outdoors when 
we had to stop talking to breathe! 

On our way back to New Delhi on No- 
vember 5th, we also picked up VU9SRJ 
Ramu and VU9POP Prakash from Mandi, 
whom we had dropped there on our on- 
ward Journey. In the prize-distribution cer- 
emony (and later at the Rally 8a I n + to 
wtiich all the participating hams were spe- 
cialty invited, the organliers commented 
on the excellent backup we all had pro- 
vided for the rally. In fact, In their words, 
"We only organized the rally; the hams ran 

itr 

The whole communications network or- 
ganized by the Federation of Amateur Ra- 
dio Societies of India iFARSii was steered 
by « committee headed by VU9AIQ (Chief 
Coordinator) and ably assisted by VU9RX 
Vasant and VU9TN Ram, In spite of all the 
difficulties with climate, food, and travel, 
all of us really enjoyed rhis activity end 
are looking forward lo something similar 
again. 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 





VU9MMA Mat he* and VU9ARL James standing outdoors where they set up the statmn 



noise amplifier to his receiving setup to 
aid the weak signals. His elevation a I an- 
tenna rotator is afso home conslructed. 

At the date of writing, 424 AG had con- 
tacted 30 countries through OSCAR 10. re- 
porting that its apparent range from Israel 
<s from New Zealand in the easi to Califor- 
nia in the west. California was contacted 
using at the lime only ten Watts of CW\ 
and the station sent him Hebrew New 
Year's greetings, lo Aharon's great Sur- 
prise! Aharon thinks lhat contacts with 
Hawaii may be possible, but only when 
the satellite is in a very particular posi- 
tron 

Tne amateur radio study guide, from the 
Open University's Center for Technologi- 
cal Education, mentioned here a tew col- 
li inns back, has at long last been pub- 
1 1 shed and been made available to the 
public. The book made its debut in August 
at the joint pavillion of the Israel Amateur 
Radio Club and tne Center for Technologi- 
cal Education at "Youth City" in the Tel 
Aviv fairgrounds 

Along with a display of the CTE's edu- 
cational wares— various courses and 
books in the technological fields— spe- 
cial-events station 4X4CET was operated 
around the clock, interested visitors were 
given explanations and encouraged to 
sign up lor the next courses to be given at 
4X4HQ. Special mention must be made of 
Naomi 4X6DW ior her efforts in setting up 
the station and coercing people to 
operate it! 



ISRAEL 

Ron Gsng 4Z4MK 
Kibbutz Urtm 
Negev Mobile Post Oft fee 
B5530 Israel 

In the last edition ol this column* I re- 
ported on the Israel' VHF scene and men- 
tioned Bruno 4X4 OH" s pioneering work 
with the first OSCAR satellites 

It is with pleasure that i can write that 
with the successful launching and opera 
tlon of AMSAT OSCAR 10, Aharon 4Z4AG 
Bruno's student from the Tel Aviv Club 
4X4HQ in me class ol 1966, was following 
in his footsteps on that historic afternoon 
of August 6th when trie satellite's tran- 
sponder was turned on The other Israeli 
station making contacts through the bird 
was thai of Abe 4X41X 

Aharon, well known in ham circles here 
for his high degree of technical proficien- 
cy had bis Mode 8 station already stand- 
by on the day of the launch. His pea 
largely home brew— the receiving con- 
verter, transmitting amplifier and anten- 
nas. The 70c enii meter transm liter is a 
Kenwood TR'9500; for receiving he uses a 
crossed yagi, and he transmits on a heli- 
cal antenna Aharon wants to add a low- 



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So. after two thousand years, the first 
ham study book has been published in the 
Hebrew language. Although this well-put- 
together and attractive work is intended 
only for the grade C Novice ticket, it is so 
thorough that it gives a good background 
for the higher-class graded license. The 
Center, so it ts said, has at present no in- 
tention of putting out a higher level 
course Instead, they are making available 
a bibliography of their other books which 
cover the technical topics of the grade~@ 
exam, such that the reader of the Hebrew 
language will not be left high and dry 
when he wishes to upgrade. 

The lARC Events Committee has been 
busy making plans, including, in May. a 
world conference of radio amateurs to be 
centered around the Israel Independence 
Day celebrations. Arrangements are to be 
made wiih various travel agencies and the 
Ministry of Communications, When more 
details are available, they shall be rushed 
to 73, In February, there I s to be a national 
hamtest which win include the raffle of 
equipment and "junk" mat was missing at 
the Annual Assembly, National Field Day 
is planned for the spring, March 20, 1934 

A new committee has come Into be- 
ing—the Contest Committee, Meeting at 
the QTH of Mike 4X6DF, they set tor them- 
selves the following aims: the creahon of 
an Israeli worldwide contest, updating the 
rules ol the Spring Contest (menl toned In 
the September. TS83, issue), liaison with 
the Mimsiry ol Communications and for- 
eign magazines, and the formation of a 
big guns all -star contest team to Operate 
In the multi-multi class Good luck in the 
Contest! 

On the social front, there have been 
meetings Of both the OtdTlmers, with Oz- 
2le 4X4CW at the helm, and the Voung- 
Ttmers, wJth Rami 4X8FH coordinating 
get togethers. The Jerusalem Club, meet- 
ing on (the first Thursday evening of each 
month, extends its Invitation to all visiting 
amateurs. The profusion of visitors from 
•broad was SO great at a previous meeting 
that the proceedings were conducted in 
Engush under the capable leadership of 
Ben 4Z4ZA! 

I have both good news and bad news for 
the seekers Of the coveted Jerusalem 
Award, First the good news: Only 8 IRCs 
will be required instead of TO Secondly 
4X4JW has informed me of the following 
changes Seven contacts with Jerusalem 
shall be needed instead of Vive, and three 
additional contacts must be made witn 
other Israeli stations. QSLs go to 4X6AA 
(Dr. Milt Gordon. P0 Box 4079, Jerusalem, 
Israel) 

To help you out with this difficult 
award, active Jerusalem amateurs in- 
clude 4K49 JW, OH. U RJ- SO, and WP; 
4Z4S JS, SM. SW. US, ZA and ZB; 4X6s AA 
BM, CJ. CQ, and GH. G32C2 and WB65ZB, 
both portable 4X. There are probably oth 
era. but these are known to me as active 
on HF, Check out the high end of 20 me- 
ters SSB after 2100 GMT 




VU9MMA. Mat hew, VU9ARL Jnme$, and their Mends ftml outside the hotel on the bank of 
River Bees 



ITALY 

Gttncarfo ManettimXR 
Via Bevignenh IB 
901G2 Rome 
Italy 

Nicola Senna IflSNY, breaks his own 
world record from Ceo la, EA9. to Italy: 

Continued on page T34 



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73 Magazine • January, 1984 81 



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LIVING ON A 
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Living on a Shoestring 

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A Guide to Ham Radio 

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The Propagation Wizard's 

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This book by one of the best 
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You'H read about magnetic storms, 
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$535 BK7302 136 pp. 



Study Guides 

Join the hams who know what hern 
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The Magic of Ham Radio 
Leam about the special hobby of 
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The Contest Cookbook 
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Mastering Morse code is easy with 
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A wealth of protects to show you 
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Peterborough, NH 03458. Be sure to incfude the book title, order number, and price. Postage and handling is $T50 for the first book, $1.00 for each 
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82 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



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73 Magazine * January, 1984 83 



On the Move with 10 FM! 

These modifications for Comtronix and Azden rigs 

will get you on your feet in a hurry. 



F. W. "Andy" Anderson WTAR 
8041 31 Avenue NW. 
Seattle WA 9B117 



I 




What aspect of modern 
ham radio could 
cause a 75-year-old "recy- 
cled teenager" to tumble 
back into a medium which 
devoured his spare time as 
far back as 1928? The excite- 
ment and freshness of FM 
on ten meters did it coupled 
with the fact that you can 
carry by shoulder strap a to- 
tally portable station feed- 
ing 14 Watts rf into a 
7.9-foot whip. 

Owners of transceivers 
like the Comtronix F/W£0 
and Azden may benefit 
from my tinkering -which 
included adding a 2 5-mH rf 
choke where the hot mike 
lead enters the chassis, to 



kill audio squeal from rf 
entering the transceiver 
through the mike cord, 

Discarding the whip which 
came with the Radio Shack 
CB kit (No. 21 -941 A), the 
ceramic cone and sturdy 
aluminum bracket gave me 
the necessary and secure 
antenna support My FM-80 
had two knurled screws on 
each side of the clamshell 
case, intended for U-bracket 
mounting under the dash. I 
used these screws and holes 
to fasten two suitably 
shaped 1/B-inch-thick dural 
plates to which not only the 
whip-mounting bracket could 
be fastened, but also the 
studs holding each end of 




Andy and his rig. 
84 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



Gose-vp of the rig. 



the Superscope tape-deck 
shoulder strap. !n this way, 
no drilling of the clamshell 
was necessary except for the 
minibox mounting. 

I experimented through a 
succession of whips to settle 
on a unit 7 9 feet long, con- 
sisting of a bottom section 
of 31 inches of 3/16" flexible 
aluminum rod, the upper 
end of which was threaded 
to fit an appropriate hole in 
the base of an 8-section tele- 
scoping whip, available for 
$.99 from Etco Electronics 
in Pittsburgh, New York. 
(Get on their mailing list; 
you'll not regret it!) This 
makes an extremely light, 
portable whip. 

The heavy aluminum right- 
angle bracket (part of the 
ceramic cone msulator) was 
painstakingly rasped into 
shape and made to swivel 
through a short arc from a 
central hole with 10-32 
thread screws into the dural 
plate. This allowed the whip 
to be vertical whether the 
FM-80 was shoulder-carried 
or operated from a card 
table outdoors. 

A Bud CU-2102-B minibox 
was secured to the clam- 
shell with 440 tapping and 
screws to hold the trans- 
match network— same as 
Ten-Tec's 247 unit I settled 
for ten turns of No. 22 
enamel on a 1/4-inch bake- 
lite rod. The 10O*pF (each 
section) 2-gang capacitor 
may be hard to come by, 



although Etco has one with 
45 pF per section that will 
work (No. 151 jK, made in 
England). I am actually us- 
ing only about 40 pF each 
section for an excellent 1 .1 :1 
swr into the whip. 

I dismantled several Meiss- 
ner mica compression pad- 
ders to come up with one 
10OpF capacity feeding the 
whip. It was a most pleasant 
surprise to find that the 
Radio Shack Micronta 3- 
way CB tester (No. 21-526A) 
of 10- Watt rating would han- 
dle our 14 Watts (up against 
the pin) with no sweat Un- 
fortunately, the coax fittings 
extended out the top sur- 
face„ Identical holes were 
drilled and reamed out the 
bottom; fortunately, the PC 
board inside could be tipped 
so that its coax outlets were 
convenient for my use. 

An swr reading should al- 
ways be available while 
walking with this rig. Two 
access grommet holes in the 
minibox permit one to make 
corrections for minimum 
swr before starting out Hold 
the mike to your face in the 
same attitude and the swr 
will remain low. When the rf 
power meter on the FM-80 
falls to mid-scale in trans- 
mit the nicads should not 
be discharged further; the re- 
ceiver itself should be turned 
off. These batteries should 
never be totally discharged. 

I have not regretted using 
the BP20A-11 nicad battery 
pack of 23-Ah capacity 



C3 

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COMPRESSION 




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' flOD 



TRANSMATCH NETWORK IN MrWifiO* 



m 



Fig. 1. Transmatch network in the minibox. 



(from Alexander Mfg. Co. in 
Mason City, Iowa) and their 
20-11 charger is guaranteed 
not to overcharge this unit. 
Fully charged in 10 hours, its 
14 volts provides about three 
hours of operating fun, Sti- 
ver duct tape secures the 
battery pack and swr meter 
case to the clamshell 

In passing, Azden/Com- 
tronix-type transceivers in- 
tended for portable use will 
eventually have to go to 
LCD frequency /channel read- 



outs since LEDs in daylight 
are useless. 

While testing this unit in 
my basement workshop sev- 
eral feet below ground level, 
the whip lying horizontally, 
N4JB in Germantown, North 
Carolina, couldn't believe 
the circumstances for the 
boffo signal he copied! Op- 
erating it on a card table 
outdoors feeding a Cush- 
craft Ringo-10 right from the 
swr meter, the world is your 
oyster See you on ten FM! ■ 




The modification of the antenna-mounting bracket. 



The transmatch innards in the minibox. 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 85 



Dennis Sladen VEWZI 
Site 16A r Sox 4, RR #4 
Armdale, Nova Scotia 
Canada B3L 414 



Thank You for Listening 

Build this simple speech expander and stop shouting. 
Your DX friends will thank you and the QSLs will roll in 



A versatile little chip 
called an electronic at- 
tenuator and manufactured 
under the brand code 
MC3340P is the heart of this 
unit When used ahead of 
my old war-horse — the 
Heathkit SB-401 transmit- 
ter—it certainly adds a few 
S units when trying to make 
a QSO through the QRM. 

In Fig. 1, the MC3340 is 
shown being used as a basic 
remote volume control The 
advantage of this circuit is 
that the remotely located 
potentiometer does not 
need cumbersome shielded 
leads directly connected to 
a sensitive mike or other 
low-level audio input. When 
pin 2 is held high [up to +6 
V del the audio will be fully 
expanded — approximately 
O-dB attenuation. If the volt- 
age at pin 2 is brought down 
to 3.0 V dc, 90-dB atten- 
uation is achieved The con- 
trol potentiometer, when 
varied between 4k and 30k, 
theoretically achieves the 
0-dB-to-90-dB attenuation, 

Based upon these prem- 
ises, the speech expander/ 
clipper came into being. 

The input transistor, Q1, 
is a 2N3819 and, being an 
FET, serves as an excellent 
high-impedance buffer for 

86 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



the microphone and the 
MC3340. Transistor Q2 is a 
2N1305 or similar transistor 
having a fairly good low- 
leakage coefficient. This 
transistor serves the purpose 
of dynamically varying the 
dc voltage at pin 2 of the 
MC3340. 

The second chip. IC2, is a 
dual op amp, i.e., an LM358. 
Half the LM358 is used as an 
ac complex-non-inverting 
amplifier, The other halt 
could be used to drive a VU 
meter or bar-graph display 
which can be used to moni- 
tor the audio output. How- 
ever, the first half of the 
LM358 samples, through its 
pin 3, a portion of the audio 
output from pin 7 of the 
MC3340, Based upon the 
setting of R3, which controls 
the gain of the LM358, the 
sampled portion of the 
audio signal triggers a con- 
trol voltage to appear at pin 
1 of the LM358. This control 
voltage is rectified by D1 
and fed to the base of Q2 
which in turn controls the 
gain of the MC3340. Thus, 
the whole circuit acts as a 
sort of age loop with R2 and 
R3 setting the attenuation 
thresholds. 

Most of the pa rts a re 
readily available at your 



local Radio Shack, except 
for the MC3340 and possibly 
the LM358, for which they 
may have no equivalent 
Any op amp could be used 
for 1C2 — the only stipula- 
tion being that it must be 
able to work off a single-rail 
supply. The prototype unit 
that I built used an LM741. 
but it required two 9*V bat- 
teries to produce the dual- 
rail supply, I suppose the 
CA3140, which is said to 
have a better slew rate than 
the 741, could have been 
used with a single-rail sup- 
ply. However, as far as I 
know, the MC3340 has no 
equivalent Therefore, this 
IC will have to be obtained 
from a Motorola dealer. 

The printed circuit board 
is fairly easy to lay out and 
etch and should be no prob- 
lem to the regular construc- 
tor. In the Heathkit SB-401, 
the unit can be built inboard 
if the VU meter/bar-graph 
display is not included The 
unit is more accessible with 
plenty of scope for expan- 
sion if built as an outboard 
addition, in which case the 
male and female replicas of 
the microphone connectors 
must be obtained 

Setting up the attenua- 
tion thresholds can be done 



accurately and quickly if a 
scope is available. If a scope 
is not available, plug the 
microphone into the input 
socket and clamp the leads 
of a pair of headphones be- 
tween output connector and 
ground. (Do not plug the 
output of the unit into the 
transmitter) Turn on the 
crystal calibrator of your 
receiver and adjust the 
audio output of the receiver 
for a high-pitch audio note. 
If the scope is available, 
connect it to the output con- 
nector of the unit 

Place S1 in the BYPASS 
position. Set R2 for mini* 
mum resistance from 
ground. Set R3 to minimum 
resistance. Set R1 to the 
halfway mark, Place the mi- 
crophone near the receiver's 
speaker. If S1 has been corn 
nected appropriately, a 
weak tone should be heard 
in the headphones and a low 
audio trace should appear 
on the scope 

Now apply power to the 

unit and set S1 toOPERATE. 
If all has been connected 
well, you should get a signi- 
ficant increase in audio 
level at the output Check 
the voltage at TP1 with a 
high-impedance voltmeter, 
preferably digital, It should 



read 2h V dc. The voltage at 
TP3 should be zero or — Ve. 
This is the unit in full expan- 
sion mode. 

Increase R3 until the 
voltage at TP3 goes positive 
approximately 1 volt. Check 
the voltage at TP1. It still 
should be showing +2.6 V 
dc and the scope should still 
be showing a healthy trace. 
A quick flip of 51 from 
OPERATE to BYPASS and 
back to OPERATE should 
show the amount of ex- 
pansion. 

With the voltage probe 
still at TP1, increase R2 until 
the meter shows +3 V dc. 
Now increase R3 until the 
meter reads +3,6 V dc, A 
reduction in the audio level 
at the output will be noticed 
and the trace on the scope 
will alter likewise. This is the 
clipping point. 

If the audio source is 

abruptly increased and held 
at that level, or a loud long 
shout is emitted into the 
microphone, the result will 
be a sharp rise followed by a 
steep decline of the output 
signal to a constant level 
This is most noticeable on 
the scope. The voltage at 
TP1 should show +43 V dc 
or higher (max. + 5.2 V dc). 
This status is the unit in the 
attenuation mode. 



When this has been 
achieved, speak at your nor- 
mal level into the micro- 
phone and adjust R2 and R3 
alternately until an accen- 
tuation of your voice from 
your normal speech level 
shows the peak briefly ap- 
pearing and then being 
pulled down to the normal 
level, The aim of the adjust- 
ment procedure is to get 
that time constant between 
the peak and the pull-down 
as short as possible. 

When this has been 
achieved, disconnect the 
headphones, turn off the 
crystal calibrator or audio 
source, plug the unit into the 
transmitter, and tune the 
transmitter into a dummy 
load It will be found that 
the microphone gain control 
does not have to be turned 
up so much before the ALC 
cuts in If a scope is used to 
monitor the transmitted 
audio signal, check and fine- 
tune R2 and R3 to suit your 
voice pattern and distortion 
threshold. 

Get on the air and see how 
it works. Contact a distant 
station with the unit in OP- 
ERATE mode. Do not men- 
tion the unit, but in the 
course of conversation put 
it into BYPASS and wait for 









You can help us pick the "Amateur 
of the Year" at the 1984 Dayton 
Hamvention. 

For details, drop a card to the 
address below. Do it now! 

Nomination deadline is April 1 , 1 984. 

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April 27. 28. 29. 1984. 



the reaction. Act accordingly. 
I will be pleased to re- 
ceive comments, enhance- 
ments, modifications, etc., 

concerning the unit and its 
operation. 



In closing, I would like to 
thank G3YNB [K Clayton} 
and VE1 AOP {C. Coughlan) 
for getting me into redesign- 
ing the unit and writing this 
article. ■ 




■ a 



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|lfl J.? jib ft [n :I3_ \\£ n [l0 



! RADIO SHACK £T6~1TQ7) 



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Fig. 1. Speech expander/clippef with LED bar-dot display. 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 87 



Hmy / Ekelund VVB2FVW 
4 J PocanUco Road 
O&ininp r0562 



Secrets of Nicads 



Nicad batteries will save you money. Or will they? 



You've been reading for 
years that nickel-cadmi- 
um batteries are the greatest 
thing since sliced bread for 
your portable gear. From 
one viewpoint, this is true, 
namely, economy One set 
of nicads can be recharged 
many times before they 
have to be replaced, at a 
savings to the user every 
time they are recharged. 
However, there are some 
down sides to the use of 
nicads, some of which are 
readily apparent [lower ter- 
minal voltage, memory, 
downtime while charging) as 
well as one which is very im- 
portant but not widely 
known The capacity of a 
nicad is only about 25% 
that of a premium primary 
celL 

As an example, let's take 



the AA-size cell The com- 
monly available AA nicad 
has a rapacity of 450-475 
milliampere hours (mAh). 
Gould, CE, and Radio Shack 
cells fall into this range. 
A premium alkaline AA cell 
from Dura cell, Eveready, or 
Ray-OVac has a capacity 
of 1700-1900 mAh or near- 
ly four times the capacity 
of the nicad. Thus, it would 
be necessary to recharge 
the nicad cell four times 
before you achieve any 
economy. 

But wait. There is more to 
this story. We all know 
about the memory associ- 
ated with nicads If not fully 
discharged before recharg- 
ing, they have a tendency to 
"remember" the discharge 
cycle, limiting the life to the 
remembered discharge. 



Primary 


Capacity 


Secondary 


Cape 


AA 


mAh 


AA 


mAh 


Duracell Mn1500 


1700 


Gould 0.45 SC 


450 


Eveready E91 


1600 


Sanyo N450AA 


450 


Panasonic AM-3 


1500 


Panasonic NR-AA 


500 


C 




C 




Duracell Mn1400 


DUuU 


Gould 2.0 SO 


2000 


Eveready 


4400 


Panasonic NR-C 


1800 


Panasonic AM*2 


3900 


Sanyo N2500-D 


2500 


D 









Duracell Mn1300 


10,000 


Gould 4,0 SC 


4000 


Eveready E95 


9,100 


Panasonic N2500-D 


2500 


Panasonic AM-1 


9 T 300 


Sanyo NR-d 


2500 



Suppose you use your HT 
every day to and from work 
for a total drain of say, 150 
mAh. You decide to put the 
charger on every night so as 
to have a full charge, right? 
Wrong. Unless you drag 
those batteries right down to 
nothing, a constant dis- 
charge/recharge of 1 50 mAh 
will result in cells with a ca- 
pacity of about 150 mAh 
Thus, you would have to re- 
charge 12 times to obtain 
the same life as a set of pre- 
mium AA cells. But that still 
represents some economy, 
doesn't it? Sure, if you are 
satisfied with less return on 
your investment than you 
expected. 

Let's talk about the lower 
terminal voltage of nicads. 
They are 1 2 volts when fully 
charged. Eight cells (typical 
arrangement) will give you 
only a 9 fe^volt power supply, 
vs. 12 volts from eight fresh 



premium alkaline cells. 
Some HTs will provide 
space for 10 cells when us- 
ing nicads, and some dum- 
my cells to be used with 
primary batteries, but then 
your economy is eroded fur- 
ther (10 nicads vs. 8 alka- 
lines). 

Now, your 1 2 recharges to 
recover your investment be- 
comes 15. Still an economv, 
sure, but not the one you 
thought you were getting, 
And if you cannot use 10 
cells in your rig, think about 
the lower outputs, both 
audio and rf, when operat* 
ing at the lower supply 
voltage. 

Another consideration 

that you should think about 
is charge retention. Nicad 
cells will lose 10-12% of 
their charge per month un- 
used, whereas alkaline cells 
can lose about 10-15% of 



MEffCuRT CELL 




Table t Capacity of various batteries. 
SB 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



Fig, 7. Cell discharge curves, 25 Ohms continuous discharge. 



rated capacity per year 

through she It -discharge. 
Nicdds are not the choice of 
battery to keep around in 
case of power failure, unless 
they can he trickle charged. 
You would be better served 
to keep a sack full of AA 
alkaline cells on the shelf for 
when the power goes off 

Fig 1 shows the typical 
discharge curves for both 
alkaline and nicad cells The 
curve for a typical mercury 
cell is also included for ref- 
erence. A A mercury cells 
have a typical capacity of 
2500 mAh, but cost nearly as 
much as meads, thus are not 
cost-effective when com 
pared to alkaline cells. 

Table 1 is a listing of 
available primary and sec- 
ondary cells with the manu- 
facturer's ratings. Note the 
dramatic differences be- 
tween cells and capacities. 

Please note: I refer to pre- 
mium alkaline cells, The Le- 
( lenche or /inc-carbon cell 
is not recommended for 



communications product* 
for a myriad of reasons, one 
of which is capacity, Manu- 
facturers of zinc-carbon 
cells typically publish no 
data on them because of 
their widely varying perfor- 
mance. 

I am not saying that nicad 
batteries don't have their 
place, hut in situations 
where it is important to keep 
a radio going over the long 
pull, when you can't re- 
charge (no ac outlets m the 
woods looking for that lost 
child), or in foreign countries 
where your 1 10-volt charger 
will not operate, the premi- 
um alkaline cell offers many 
real, substantial advantages 
that cannot be overcome by 
meads ■ 

References 

Gould Battery Handbook. 1973 
Eveready Battery Engineering 

Data, 1976 
Sanyo Cadnica Bulletin SF1542 
Panasonic Sales Brochure 

20M813/10M 
Duracell Products Data Sheets 



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73 Magazine * January, 1984 89 



Louis R MAfeoU'ffJMVK 
!2rM kuguslim \ venue 
larRockawa\ \> fi^f 



The Edison Effect 

American inventor Thomas Edison is remembered for 

his array of electrical firsts. But lesser known is 

his invention of the first wireless telegraph. 



The contributions that 
Thomas A Edison made 
to the electrical world w 

many And are fully i 

nized by today's historians 
His genius as a top-not < h in- 
ventor is well known mter- 
nahonallv jikI he is justly 

< redited to be the most pri 
I if ic and important pioneer 
of the electrical age The 

duplex and quadruplet 
telegraphs, the light bulb. 



the gramophone, the iam- 

era, and the movie projec- 
tor are only a few ol his in- 
ventions Fhere were nianv 
more, at t ounttng lor about 

1,300 different patents ai 
the end ol Ins < reative life 

Bui did you know that 
Edison also experimented 
v\ i t h elect mm a mi e 1 1 c 
waves several years before 

Herl/ did? invented an 
inductive railroad tele- 



graph? invented a win- 
less ele< tmstatit lommum- 

t ion s> n' discov- 
ered and applied the therm- 
ionic vacuum emission, 
< reating, in effe< t, the first 
two-element lube rectifier? 

in 1875, while expert 
menting with sound vibra- 
tions produced by a may 
net i bra tor and ways to 
transmit them over wires to 
distant points, he noticed 




Edison with some original Edison-effect lamps. 
90 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



with curious amazement a 
peculiar li^ht. or bright v 
i illating sparks, coming out 
of the core oi the magnet 
He had seen this phenome- 
non before in the telegraph 
relays and in loose filings 

between armatures ^n<\ 

magnetic i ores of tele 
graph printers, but so far at- 
tributed them to induction 
These new sparks were 
somehow rrx intense and 
it occurred to him that lhr\ 
were no) ( aused b\ induc- 
tion He wrote m his diary: 

"We found that if we 
touched any pari of the vi- 
brator or magnet we ^ot the 
sp<irk The larger the body of 
iron that touched the vibra- 
tor the larger the spark We 
now connected a wire to the 
end of the vibrating rod and 
we found we could get a 
spark from it by touching a 
piece of iron to it by con- 
necting to the gas pipe we 
drew sparks from it in any 
part of the room 

He called this unknown 
electrical dis^ harge ' ether u 
force <>r etheric current" 
and conducted several ran- 

domly*dire< ted experiments 

with it. It was not actually a 
discovery, since Joseph 
I lenry noticed it mm h 
earlier, Faraday had specu- 
lated upon such a possibility 
before, and Maxwell had 
predicted U in 1H23 Un- 
aware ot it at that time, fcdi- 



son had been playing with 
electromagnetic wau 

In order to observe the 
new force, he constructed a 
"black box" with two adjust- 
able sharp-pointed carbons 
and an eyepie» e on top He 
made public the results of 
his tests and since Edison 
was always news, the local 
papers reproduced his de< 
I a rat tons, adding a bit of 
spice for ^ood measure. 
I heir words were something 

like this: "Mr Edison discov- 
ered a new electric ray and 
predicts that someday all 
telegraphic and cable com- 
munications will be carried 
out without poles or 
wires 

He demonstrated his 

N,!< k box and ether i< l< >r< i's 

i<> a scientific association in 
New York, which brought 
about a few congratulations 
and started a turmoil of 
opinions — both pro and 
con. The news traveled as 
far as Europe, and in 
England, physicist Sylvanus 
Thomson declared that all 
was based upon known elec- 
trical principles Oliver 
I odtf e, distinguished man of 
science and later a re- 
nowned wireless pioneer, 
iIim ussed the experiments 

and arrived at the same con- 
clusion, Edison did not pur- 
sue his investigations much 
further, perhaps resentful of 

■ing critic J/ed by these 
known authorities, or maybe 
tor the lack of a practical 
application h>r the fort e& 
he continued his inventive 
career \n the direction of 
"greener" pastures. 

In 18H0 we tmd Edison at 
work with a novel telegraph- 
ic system, which he called 
the space" or "grasshop- 
per" telegraph He was as- 
sisted in this project by his 
good friend and colleague 
Ezra 1. Citliland. The idea 
was to provide a means of 
communication to train 
travelers in the long 
stretches of the western 
plains. It made use of a 
special telegraph line, 
strung en poles at car height 
on the opposite side of the 
regular telegraph line to 





I'O 



Close-up of an Edison effvtA. 
eliminate the interferes 

from then) Ihe receiver 
employed an insulated 
metal plate on top of the 
i ar. < orinected in series with 
the secondary winding ot an 
induction coil, and a tele- 
phone receiver Ihe circuit 
continued through the met 
a I wheels and track 
ground. Ihe transmitter 
used a battery, a telegraph 
key, and a higlvfrequen< 
buzzer, in series w ith the pri- 
mary of the iricku tion coil A 

send/receive switt h r om- 

pleted the installation 

A duplicate* set was to be 
installed at each telegraph 
tice a 1 01114 the railroad 
line The first tests were < on- 
ducted on a small train in 

Staten Island NY and after a 

lew failures and modilaa- 
lifins. if was <le< lared a SU< 

cess Furthei experiments on 

the I ehigh Valley Railroad 
demonstrated the praclica 
bility of the grasshopper 
telegraph It was never ex- 
ploited and. although pat- 
ented, apparently forgotten 
In 1855 at Menlo Park a 
wireless telegraphic system 
was developed by Edison It 
used vertical masts of a hun- 
dred feet in length with met- 
al plates on top In his origi- 
nal patent hi* claimed to be 
able to communicate with 

points Up to i miles distant 
and suggested that it could 
be installed on board ships, 



jt « 



x /it f 






•*■ 




E ffi 




Entry in Edison's notebook showing lamp connected as a 
voltage indicator. 



using their masts tor the 

same purpose He stated 
that t ommunit ations be 
tween ships and between 
ships and shore could be es- 
tablished and collisions pi 
Vented during foggy da\ 
As m the 1 ase ol the grass- 
hopper telegraph, the trans- 
mil ter discharged an indm 
tron < oil into the metal plate 
suspended on lop of the 
mast. This induced a similar 
electrostatic ( harge on the* 
plate at the receiving pole 
and the current thus created 
caused an audible click on 
the telephone receiver h 
was never used commercial- 
ly and when Lclison was 
quest toned about it. he 
declared with some air of 
mystery that, 'It has been 
Id to a wealthy medium 
who wishes I immunit ate 
with the spiritual world 
According to records found 
later, it was discovered that 
he had sold the patent, 
winch also included the 



grasshopper telegraph, to 
the 1 Marconi Company in 

1904 (patent no. 465,771), 

In 1880, while testing in- 
candescent lamps. Edison 
observed that particles ot 
carbon from the filament 
were "carried and deposit- 
ed on the inside ot the ylass 
bulb He also discovered 
that after certain periods ol 
operation there* was a thin 
white line, similar to a sha- 
dow parallel to the filament 
but to one side The lamps 
Were ted with direct current 
and it showed that this ef- 
fect was caused on the side 
of the filament connected 
to the positive side. Notes 
were taken but shelved for 
future reference since his 

irk on lighting and power 
plants required his tull at- 
tention at that time. 

Experiments clone by 
other scientists some years 
before had proven that the 
air, when in contact with 
red-hot metals, showed 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 91 











One of the Edison lamps used by Fleming in early ex- 
periments. 



strange properties with re- 
gard to electrical charges. It 
was assumed (and some- 
times emphatically af- 
firmed} that ele< t r i c. i t y 
could not travel in a 
vacuum, tdison was aware 
of all these theories, but he 
never paid much attention 
to scientific assurances 
unless, of course, he could 
arrive at the same conclu- 
sions by experimentation. 
He was not a theoretician 
but a practical inventor. The 
question, "Was or was not 
the electricity the carrier of 
these particles of carbon?" 
was in his mind. He wanted 
an answer, he had to know 
and wanted to be sure. 

Assuming thai he in- 
stalled another element in- 
side the bulb and connected 
it to the positive side of the 
line r would it stop the flow 
of particles and keep the 

92 73 Magazine * January, 19B4 



lamp clean inside' In 1882 
he sketched a bulb with the 
added element, but it was 
not until the next year that 
he was able to spare the 
time to build and test the 
new lamp. 

The second element con- 
sisted of a platinum wire 
suspended between the two 
filament legs and insulated 
by the glass When it was 
connected to the positive 
side of the line, he found 
that a current flow was indi- 
cated in a galvanometer 
connected into that circuit, 
but when the new element 
was on the negative side, 
there was no current indica- 
tion. Ho did many other ex- 
periments in order to deter- 
mine the best size, form, and 
position of the second ele- 
ment and found out that the 
best shape was a flat metal 
plate installed between the 



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Copy of Fleming's US patent for use of the "valve" in ac rec- 
tification. 



1 [laments, without any elec- 
trical connection to any of 
them, The current thus ob- 
tained proved to be propor- 
tional to the incandescence 
of the lamp, or candle- 
power This lamp was pat- 
ented by Edison (patent no. 
3,070,311) although its com- 
mercial use or application 
was vague a i that moment. 

What he created was in 
reality an electronic measur- 
ing device — the first one 
able to demonstrate that 
electricity, under certain 
conditions, could and would 
travel inside a vacuum. The 
reason why this truth was 
not fully understood at the 
beginning was that the na- 
ture of electricity was still a 
mystery, as far as electronic 
theory was concerned, 

The lamp was shown at 
the 1884 International Elec- 
trical Exposition in Philadel- 
phia PA and advertised as an 
indicator of incandescent 
voltages. Due to the lack of 
a better vacuum, the reli- 
ability was not of the first or- 
der. This time, however, Edi- 
son's discovery was re- 
ceived in a more favorable 
mood by the electrical elite. 
Visitors were frankly im- 
pressed by the tests con- 
ducted by Edison in person. 
The renowned professor Ed- 
win j. Houston declared pro- 
phetically that "Edison's in- 
vention would become 
something of great impor- 
tance in the future He 



was riyht. Sir William 
Preece, Engineer-in-Chief of 
the British Post Office, also 
dn induction telegraph pio- 
neer and later Marconi's 
protector and collaborator, 
who in the past had ques- 
tioned some of Edison's 
electrical conclusions, visit- 
ed the Exposition and was 
sincerely moved with the 
two-element lamp and ac- 
quired some of them for fur- 
ther study and evaluation. 
His conclusions were pub- 
lished in England and a pa- 
per about the subject was 
read at the Royal Society in 
1885. He coined the phrase 
"Edison effect" in recogni- 
tion of Edison's achieve- 
ment. 

Another well-known sci- 
entist, Dr. Ambrose Fleming, 
recently appointed electri- 
cal consultant to the new 
Edison London I ightmg 
Company, obtained several 
of the two-element lamps, 
with the purpose of using 
them as indicators in genera- 
tor circuits — without much 
success. 

In 1897 the British physi- 
cist, J. J. Thomson, after ex- 
perimenting with the lamps, 
concluded that the effect 
was caused by the emission 
of "electrons," or negative 
electricity, which flowed 
from the hot filament to 
the cold element or plate 
connected to a positive 
potential. 

Edison did not pursue 



these investigations much 
further and his discovery lav 
dormant for several years, 
that is, until 1904. At that 
time Dr Ambrose Fleming 
— later knighted for his dis- 
coveries in the wireless tele- 
graphic field — was em- 
ployed as technical adviser 
by the Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Co,, Ltd., in Lon- 
don. Fleming was searching 
tor a better detector to be 
used on the receivers manu- 
factured by that company, 
since the magnetic detec- 
tors currently in use lacked 
sensitivity He then recalled 
the tests that years before 
he had made with the tdi- 
son-effect lamps and con- 
cluded that they could be 
easily adapted tor that pur- 
pose. He dedicated himself 
to investigating the lamp in 
scientific detail and to im- 
proving its operation, using 
higher vacuum and chang- 
ing the plate to a cylinder 
surrounding the filament. 
He renamed them "oscilla- 
tion valves" i this is why, in 



England, all vacuum tubes 
are still called valves) and 
applied for patents in En- 
gland, Germany, and the 
United States, 

Contrary to his claim, he 
did not invent the device, he 
simply used it as a hr^h-tre- 
quency oscillation rectifier 
(it did not oscillate). Nor was 
he the first one to use it as a 
rectifier. Years later, as a re- 
sult of litigations, his US pat- 
ent was invalidated in tavor 
of Edison's previous patent. 

It did not matter very 
much anyway, since the 
Fleming valve did not make 
a great deal ot difference as 
a detector of wireless sig- 
nals. First, under the Marco- 
ni Company monopoly, it 
was supplied only to be 
used with their equipment 
and. second, it was less sen- 
sitive than the electrolytic 
and crystal detectors which 
appeared in the open mar- 
ket at about the same time. 

We cannot deny that Dr 
Fleming was a highly skilled 
and competent man ot sci- 



ence who made abundant 
contribu t ions to the wireless 
and later radio industry His 
experiments with the two- 
element lamps revealed 
facts and set standards to be 
considered later in their 
manufacture. He drew up 
operational curves; he used 
new configurations, types of 
filaments, and shielding 
schemes, and was the first 
one to use them in conjunc- 
tion with tuned circuits. But 
what really revolutionized 
the wireless art and convert- 
ed it to radio (1912) was 
the addition of a third ele- 
ment or grid" by Dr. Lee De 
Forest, which made the 
bulbs capable ut being used 
as high-frequent y detectors, 
amplifiers, and oscillators 

It has been said that Edi- 
son did not make tinv great 
scientific: discovery, but by 
his skill, in^enuily, and 
power ot observation, he 
was able to surpass in practi- 
cal achievements many sci- 
entists with broad academic 
backgrounds. He was a real 



pioneer perhaps the most 

important and imaginative 
of them all He planted 
many seeds, others contin- 
ued where he left off and a 
tew collected the fruits His 
work may not look like 
much to today's electronics 
students, where transistors, 
ICs, and computerized 
items dominate the in- 
dustry, but it was the begin- 
ning—without it, radio, TV, 
and satellite communica- 
tions would still be many 
years behind * ■ 

References 

The Saga of the Vacuum Tube, 
Gerald F. J. Tyne t H. W. Sams 
and Co., 1977. 

The Edison Era, 1876-1892, Elfun 
Hall ot History Publication, 1978, 
Edison* a Biography, Matthew 
Josephson, McGraw-Hill, 1959. 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^—^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^—^*^ 

* Other contributions made by 
Edison to the radio industry were 
the carbon microphone and the 
telephone receiver. The Edison 
battery was used as an emergen- 
cy source on ships' radio sta- 
tions. 



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73 Magazine • January, 1984 93 



CORRECTIONS 



In his article "The Magical Audio Filter" 
(November}, Jim Pepper incorrectly states 
that the notch frequency of Fig- 1 varies 
directly as R4 and by the square root of G t 
and C2 However, his formula indicate* 
that the frequency varies inversely as 64 
and inversely as the square root of C1 and 



C2. Thus, double R4 divides the frequency 
by two, Also, doubling either C1 or C2 
reduces the frequency to .707 its original 
value. 

Boyd Skillm K6MGY 
Fresno CA 



Due to an oversight, reviews from our August and September issues were not included in our 
1963 Annual Index published last month. Below is a corrected version. 



TIT 






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SOCIAL EVENTS 



Listings in this column are provided tree ot 
charge on a space-available basfs The tot 
lowing information should be included in 
every announcement sponsor, event date, 
hme, piece* ctty, state, admission chatgt 
anyjk features, iaik-m frequencies, and the 
name of whom to contact for further irrtarma- 
ttort Announcements must be received by 73 
Magazine by the ttrst ot the month* two 
months prtor to the month m whit* the event 
lakes place Matt to Editorial Dittoes. 73 Mag- 
azine. Pine St, Peterborough NH 0343S 

WEST ALUS Wl 
JAN 7 

The West Allis Radio Amateur Club will 
hold lis 12th annual Midwinter Swapfesi 
on Saturday, January 7, 1984, beginning al 
8:00 am, at the Waukesha County Expo 
Center Forum (take I-&4 to Co. F, then 
south lo FT. then west to Expo). Admls- 
si on is $2.00 in advance and 13.00 at the 
door Tables are (3.00 in advance {reserved 
until MOO am) and $4.00 at the door on a 
first-come, first-served basis. Delicious 
Food will be available. For tickets or more 
information, send 5ASE to WARAG, PO 
Box 1072, Milwaukee Wl 53201 

SOUTH BEND IN 
JAN 8 

A hamfesl swap & shop will be held on 
Sunday. January 8. 1984, at Century Can 
ter, downtown on US 33 Oneway North be 
tween the St Joseph Bank Building and 






*\* • "-& 



\* 



9V 



COAXIAL CABLE SALE 

- " ' ■ • . 




RG8U2QU PL 259 ea end $4.t5 

RG214U dbi s.ivef shieKJ 50 of- $1.55«ti. 

100 ft RGBU with PL 259 on eacti end $19 95 

BEL DEN Coax in 100 ft. rolls 

RGSflU *92C1 $1195 

Grounding strap, heavy duty lufoular braid 






h' -.A] 



\ 



' - I ■ l"H 1 



POLYETHYLENE DIELECTRIC 

RG59fU mil spec M% shield 

RG213 noncofitamifiatmg95% sheild mil spec 

RG i /4/U mil spec 96% shreJd 

RG1 tU 96 : ' u shield, 75-ohm mil spec 

RG SU 96 % sh lei d , m 1 1 s pe c S29,9S/1 00 ft 

RG6A/U double shield, 7frohm 

RGS6AU stranded mil spec 

RG58 mil spec 96 *■■* shield 



I4c;fi. 

36&ft. 
10e/ft 
2S*^fL 
or31cMt. 
25t ! f1. 
12c/ft 
tleffl 



LOW LOSS FOAM DIELECTRIC 

«G8X 95S Shield $14 9*100 It 

RG59rU r0% copoer braid 

RG8U 60 - 1 shield 

*G5&U 60 ■ i shield 

RGSeuaS 1 * shield 

RG59U 100* , foil shield TV type 



-■-■•-*' ■ * ■ 



RG&U97 = < shreid 11 q- .fv BeidenB2i4t 
Heavy Duly Ftotor Cable 2-16 ga, 6-18 ga 
Roto*Cab^e6con ? i8ga.6-22ga 



or 1 7«rtL 

Mm. 

laeffi. 
&7e/ft 
10* rtl 

idem. 

3icm. 

19c/tL 



3/16 in tinned copper lOc/ft. 

3/8 in linned copper 30c/ fi. 

COMNECTORS MADE IN USA 

Amphenol PI 259 79c 

PL-259 Tef I o n/S 1 1 ver . ... S 1 ,59 

PL 259 push-on adapler shell 10/S3.A9 

PL-259 & 50'239 tO;S5.B9 

Doubi^ Matn Connector $1,79 

PL-258 Double Female Connector 98« 

i 't patchcord w RCA type pluos each end 3/Sl.oo 

Reducer UG 1 75 or 176 10/$1.99 

UG255(PL 2%9ioBNC| $2.95 

.. '.*359j $1 79 

F59A|TVtypej 10/S2.15 

UG 2 IDjU Amphenol Type N Male lo* RG8 S3 00 

9NCUG8»CrU male $125 

■ ' -e P'uO ror Coll rns etc $t,25 

UG2 73 8NC to Pl-259 I3.0Q 

FREE CATALOG 
COD add $2,00— FLA Res. add 5% Salts Tu 



Orders under $30 DO add $2 00 

Connectors—shipping 10% add 1 !, $3.00 minimum *^ *12 

Cable— Shipping S3.00 per 100 ft. 
12240 NE 14th Ave. Depl. 73 , No. Miami, FL 33161 Call (305) 893-3924 



the river. South Bend IN. Tables are $3.00 
each jn a carpeted halt-acre room. The In 
dustrial History Museum is in the same 
building. Four-lane highways lead to the 
door from all directions- Talk-in on .52/52, 
9*.39 fc .93/33, .78/16, ,69/,09, 145.43. and 
145-29. For more information, contact 
Wayne Weds K9tXU, 1889 Riverside Drive, 
South Bend IN 46615, or phone (2l9> 
233-5307, 



SARASOTA FL 
JAN 14-15 

The Sarasota Amateur Radio Associa- 
tion will hold its 5th annual Sarasota Ham- 
lest on Saturday and Sunday, January 
14-15 P 19S4, at the Exhibition Hall, &01 M 
Tarn I am I Trail (US 41), Sarasota FL The 
hours on Saturday are from 8:30 am to 4:30 
pm and on Sunday, from 8;30 am to 3:00 
prn Donations, oood for both days, are 
$3.00 in advance and $4.00 at the door. 
The swap-table donation is $12.00 for bolh 
days and includes the door donation No 
one-day tables w»U be available and ad- 
vance registrations are requested Talk-in 
on 14&3T/.13 primary and 146.73/13 sec- 
ondary. For advance tickets, booths, and 
tables, contact Dave Johnson, Jr. W4CCR. 
2619 Forest Lane. Sarasota FL 33681, or 
call (813V924-2S25. or wrrte Sarasota Ham 
feat, PO Bo* 3182. Sarasota FL 33578, 

RICHMOND VA 
JAN 15 

The Richmond Amateur Telecommuni- 
cations Society will hold Its Frostfest p &4 
Winter Amateur Radio and Computer 
Snow on Sunday, January 15, 1984, from 
8:00 am to 4:00 pm. at the Virginia State 
Fairgrounds. Richmond VA. All events will 
be indoors and general adrmsston is 
$4.00. Flea-market spaces are $3,00 and 
tables are available tor $3.50. KX4Y will 
give Novice examinations. Doors will be 
open for unloading and setups begin- 
ning Saturday noon and a security guard 
will be on duty all night. Talk-in on 
146.2ffl.SB. and 1 40.34/ J4, For more infor- 
mation, contact Bill Scruggs N4DDM at 
(8O4J-272-8206. or write Richmond Frost- 
fest. PO 8ok 1070. Richmond VA 23208. 

YONKERS NY 
JAN 22 

The Yonkers Amateur Radio Club will 
sponsor the Yonkers Electronics Auction 
on Sunday, January 22. 1984, from 9:00 am 
to 3:00 pm, at Lernpko Hall. 556 Yonkers 
Avenue, Yonkers NY Admission for buy- 
ers and sellers is $3.00 each: children un- 
der 8 will be admitted free. New and used 
equipment will be auctioned and can be 
inspected from 9:00 am to 1 0:00 am. There 
wilt be plenty of seats and parking and the 
auction will start at lOrOO am sharp. Unlim. 
ited free coffee will be available alt day 
The club will charge a 10% commission 
on the first $100 and 5% on the remainder 
on successful sales only. Talk-In on 
146.265T/1 46.885 R and .52 direct. For 
more information, write YAFK^ 53 Hay* 



94 73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 



ward Street. Yonkers NY 10704, of phone 
(814^969-1053 

TRAVERSE CITY Ml 
FEB 11 

The CterYytand Amateur Radio Club 
win nolo its 10th annual swap and shoo on 
February 11. 1984, from 8:00 am to 1:00 
pm, at the Immaculate Conception School 
Gym. 2 blocks south and 1 block west of 
the Intersection of M*37 and M-22, Tra- 
verse City Ml. Registration wili be at the 
doof. Talk-in on 146-25/05, For more infor- 
mation, call Jerry Cermak K8YVU at (616}- 
347-4848. 

MANSFIELD OH 
FEB 12 

The Mansfield Midwinter Hamfesl/A ac- 
tion will be he td on Sunday, February 12 T 
1964. beginning at 8:00 am, at the Rich- 
land County Fairgrounds, Mans he Id OK 
Tickets are S2.00 m advance and S3 00 at 
the door. Tables are 55,00 in advance and 
$6 00 at the door, Half tables are avail- 
able, Talk-in on 146.34J.94. For additional 
information or advance tickets and tables, 
send an SASE to Dean Wrasse KBSMG, 1094 
Seal Road, Mansfield OH 44905, or phone 
(419^589-2415 

GLASGOW KY 
FEB 25 

The annual Glasgow Swapfest will be 
held on Saturday. February 25, 1984, be- 
ginning at 8:00 am Genual time, at the 
Glasgow Flea Market Building, 2 miles 
south of Glasgow, just off highway 31 E. 
Admission is $2 00 per person. There is no 
additional charge tor exhibitors. The first 
table per exhibitor will be tree, and extra 
tables will be available for $3,00 each, 
There will be a large heated building, free 
parking, free coffee, and a large flea mar- 
ket. Talk-in on 14634' 94 or 147.63/03 For 
further information, write Bemie Schwitz- 
gebel WA4J20, 121 Adatftand Conn, Glas- 
gow KY 42141. 

FRIDLEY MN 
FES 25 

The Robbinsdale Amateur Radio Club 
will hold its 3rd annual Midwinter Mad- 
ness Hobby Electronics Show on Satur- 
day. February 25, 1984, from 9:00 am to 
3:00 pm, at Tottno-Grace High School. 
1350 Gardens Avenue NE, F rid ley MN (a 
Minneapolis suburb). Admission is S3, 00 
In advance and 54,00 at the door. There 
win be manufacturers and dealers of ham, 
computer satellite, and R/C gear, as well 
as seminars and a flea market. TaJk-in on 
146. 52 simplex or the 147.60/. 00 repeater 
(K*LTQ Fo* more information, contact 
Robbinsdale ARC, FO Box 2261 3 P Rob- 
binsdale MN 55422, or call Bob at 
£612)533-7354 

AKRON OH 
FEB 26 

The Cuyahoga Falls ARC wiil hold its 
30th annual electronic equipment auction 
and ham f est on Sunday, February 26, 
1984, from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm, at North 
High School Akron OH There Is easy ac- 
cess from Ihe Taitmadge Avenue off-ramp 
of North Expressway (Rte 8). Tickets are 
52 50 in advance and S3.00 at the door. 
Some tables are available for $2.00 or sell- 
ers may bring their own, advance reserva- 
tions are advised. Tafk-in on .S7f.27, For 
more details or reservations (please In- 
clude an SASE), write CFARC. PO Box 6, 
Cuyahoga Fails OH 44222. Table reserva- 
tions may also be made by calling Bui So- 
vtnsky K8JSL at (216^923-3830 and wili be 
held until 9:00 am 



MM HELP 



We are nappy to provide Ham Hefp hst* 
mgs tree, on a space available basts. We 
are not happy when we nave to take time 
from other duties to decipher cryptic 
notes scrawled iltegibfy on dog-eared 
postcards and odd-sued scraps of paper, 
Pieese type or print your request (neatly f k 
doubte spaced, on an $'j 'k n" sneer of 
paper and use upper- and lowercase let- 
ters where appropriate. Aiso, please make 
a ,4 r look tike a % H not an 7," which 
could be an "e/ N or an "eye." and so on. 
Herd as it may be to betieve, we are not ta- 
rn 1 tier with every pfece at equipment man- 
ufactured on Earth tor the last 50 years* 
Thanks for your cooperation. 

I need a schematic and manual for La- 
fayerce FFT multimeter #99-50533 I will 
pay copying costs. 

Keith Heryford 

PO BoxF 

Cecarville C A 96104 



I would like to hear from anyone who 
has successfully interfaced a Commo- 
dore VtC-1525 printer to a Hal CT-2100 
communications terminal either to the 
ASCII printer or RS-232C serial output of 
the Hat terminal. 

Karl Thurber W8FX 

317 Poplar Drive 

MHIbrook AL 36054 

Our club station (VE2GLL) needs sche- 
matics and service manuals for the Halll- 
cratters HT>45 linear and PAS power supply. 

Harold Carmlcftael VE2ELN 

257 St. Leen St. 

Quebec City 

Quebec G1K IBS 

Canada 

I need an up-to-date lube-checking list 
for a B&K Dyna-Quik Model 500 tube 
tester, I have the list that is attached to 
Ihe top of the case but I need a more 



modern iist. The manufacturer says that il 
Is out of print. Drop me a line letting me 
know what you have. 

Gene V. Mock W4RHD 

R1 9, Sox 64-5 

Fa yett evil I* Aft 72701 

I need any and alt technical information 
and manuals on the Central Eiec Ironies 
Model TOGV transmftter I also am inter- 
ested in salvage units for parts, I will pay 
all expenses. 

W, Van Lennep 

PO Box 211 

Ptppereli MA 01463 

0|17>433-6031 

I need a copy of the tech manual/ 
schematic of the Tektronix 535 A oscillo- 
scope. I will copy and return, or quote 
price for a good copy. 

Hank Dean N8DOE 

408 Brisbane Ave. 

Westervilla OH 43061 

I would like to hear from anyone who 
has successfully changed the early Yaesu 
101 6JSB finals to 6146s. 

R. F. Bricker K4CSV 

PO Box 295 

Fori White Ft 32038 



MICROWAVE PREAMPLIFIERS 

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• 1.6 to 18 GHz 

• 25 tfB gain 

• 30 dB noise figure 

• N connectors standard 

» Use on GOES & METEOSAT systems 

Ampire 2001 ; 

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• 20 dB gain 

• 3.5 dB noise figure 

• BNC connectors standard 

• DC & RF cables included 

• Use with microwave TV converters 

Ampire 1690N ,- # , '139 

Ampire 2001 , , M29 

Ampire 2001 N M49" 

Shipping: USA . . *2" Foreign . . *1D" 

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vertical load. 450 in/lbs starting torque Mounts in- 
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Orlando, FL • Wickitffe, OH • Las Vegas, NV 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 95 



mm 



CIRCUITS 




NOTCH FOR 
GROUND LEAD 



Do you have a technique, modification, or easyto-duplicate cir- 
cuit that your fellow readers might be interested in? If so, send us a 
conctse description of it (under two pages, double spaced) and in- 
clude a clear d tag ram or schematic it needed 

In exchange for these technical gems f 73 offers you the choice of 
a book from the Radio Bookshop, to be sent upon publication Sub 
mil your idea (and book choice) to: Circuits, Editorial Offices, 73 
Magazine, Peterborough NH 03458. Submissions not selected for 
publication will be returned it an SASE is enclosed 



ft* 22011 

azon 



#<2 WIRE 
ISOLDES TlftMRtt 



FILE / 

NOTCH~-^ 





-Off- 

TRICOLOR LED 
<RS 276-035) 



»«£|H 




*£□ 



(M 



* 



DS< 



\ 



i f 



K| 



m 



Si 



h 1 

Kin. 



WORLD'S CHEAPEST tC TEST PROBE: The wire and resistor as- 
sembly should be about 4 inches long; work it into a ball-point pen 
case and glue the LED to the top. Witha560-Ohm resistor, this probe 
will handle up to 16 V — Jim Hyde WB4TYU Waycross GA, 




LOAD 




TRANSFORMER 
273-I3Q3 



50V 
6* 

276-tiBO 



i lOVAC 



ICt MOT 
USED* 



*!*¥ 



RELAY FLIP-FLOP: Here is a way to make two inexpensive DPDT re- 
lays act like an R-S flip-flop. One press of push-button switch S1 sets 
it; a second press resets it. Indicator DS1 shows when the circuit is 
set Use contacts K1B to control the load. The two relays must have 
the same coil-voltage rating, which must be equal to one-half of the 
supply voltage, Vs. Choose Rt to reduce holding current if de- 
sired.—Tetry Simonds WB4FXD, Edgartown MA. 





IK 



*TI*-I2*x STR 

27* -2 025 



IM 
{271-0591 



n 



4O0V 



REMOTE HQ CONTACTS 
ifiEWAIN SHUT FOP 
| 120 SECONDS ONCE EVE97Y 10 NHNUTES k 

I 



i^ RELAY 

# / I60D CQlL 

IWl 1 m 1 i l * 2 75-214 



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n, 



cwn 



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1-2 SEC "PULSE' 
TO COMPUTER 



ADOEO 

DiODf 



BLUE 



REMOTE-SWITCH TIME LIMITER: This circuit will produce a 1-2 second pulse when the remote switch con- 
tacts are closed for any length of time. When the remote switch closes, the 220-uF capacitor charges 
through the base-emitter junction of the transistor. The Ik resistor limits the current flow. As the capacitor 
charges, the current drops off until the transistor stops conducting. The on/off cycling pulls the relay in and 
then drops it out again. The 1meg resistor discharges the capacitor when the remote contacts open 
again.— Jeffrey Biackmon W2YI, Beavercreek OH, 



SOLQCflEO TO CHASSIS 



ENLAAGED VIEW OF £jfT SAC* «A SOCKET 
AS SEEN fROM INSIDE CHASSIS 



MEMORY SAVER FOR THE 
KENWOOD TR-7800: The Ken- 
wood has nicad batteries to 
keep the memory intact when 
you unplug the rig. However, if 
you leave the power switch on 
when the rig is unplugged, the 
batteries will also fry to power 
the rig — resulting in a very short 
memory life. To keep this from 
happening, ffrst locate the blue 
wire connected to the "EXT 
BACKUP" socket Remove this 
wire from the socket and insert a 
small diode between the end of 
the wire and the terminal to 
which it was formerly connect- 
ed. The cathode end should be 
hooked up to the wire. Any small 
diode wilt do, provided it has no 
significant reverse current at 20 
volts and as little forward resis- 
tance as possible.— H. F. Viney 
VE3AZX, Nepean, Ontario, Can- 
ada. 



TUB* LAMP 



1 T 



TURN 510 f 

SWITCH 



/77 



*h 



HEAODTES v*L»TE 

SWITCH 



ut 



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LAMP 



OIL LITE SWITCH 



3SK 



EM BRAKE 

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ZOO A 
— "ww 



TRANSISTORS -SILICON- SMALL SIGM4I. 

DIODES- SILICON SWITCHING 
3lST0*5-l«w*TT 



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TONE 



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?-"ER* 



1 



AUTOMOBILE EARLY-WARNING SYSTEM: Hook this up to your car and you will never leave your lights 
on again. The circuit also provides an audible turn-signal indicator, as well as warns you when your 
emergency brake is on. Another connection to the oii-pressure light will tell you when the pressure Is 
tow.— Keith Barrigar W7KQD, Lebanon OR. 



96 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



FUN! 



John Edwards KI2U 

PO Box 73 

Middle Village NY 11379 

REPEATERS 

This month's column is dedicated to 
the memory of WR2APG, a fine machine 
that died of neglect because it operated on 
220 MHz Instead of 2 meters. Funny; at the 
time I thought a repeater that specialized 
In RTTY, SSTV, and FAX would be suc- 
cessful. 

ELEMENT 1 — 
MULTIPLE CHOICE 

1} What is a station master? 

1) A brand of repeater antenna 

2) Slang for a repeater control operator 

3) The name of Motorola's repeater line 

4) A type of phone patch 

2) In moat ham applications, Motorola's 
HT-220 operates on: 

1)50 MHz 
2} 145 MHz 
3} 220 MHz 
4} 440 MHz 

3) The Private Une aubaudioie tone sys- 
tem was invented by: 

1) General Electric 

2) RCA 

3) Motorola 
A) Kenwood 



4) in which year did the amateur 6-meier 
band open? 

1)1969 
2)1919 
3)1923 
4) 1345 

5) Who invented fU7 
1) Colonel Perkins 
2} Major Armstrong, 

3) Captain Andrews 

4) General Stupidity 



ELEMENT 2— MATCHING 

Match the past and present 2-meior 
transceivers with their manufacturers. 
Column A Column B 

1) Car tone A) Icom 

2) Brimstone 144 B} KLM 

3) Marker-Luxury C) Swan 
(ML-2) D) Azden 

4) Voice Com- El Motorola 
mander III F) Yaesu 

5) HR 2A G) Santec 

6} Mult I 11 Hi General Electric 

71FM-DX Tempo 

01HW2O36 J| Kenwood 

9) IC2AT K) RCA 

10) Metrum H L) Satan Eiec- 
11JPCS-4500 tronlcs 

12)TM-201A M)Heathkit 

13)144uP NlClegg 



141GTX-202 

15) FM-2X 

16) VHF-1 
17)TRX-144 
18) 1402 SM 
19)FT-221 
20M3-510A 



Q> VHF Engineering 

Pi Drake 

Q) Midland 

R) FM Laboratories 

S) Genave 

T> Wilson 

U) Regency 



ELEMENT 3— 

SCRAMBLED WORDS 

Unscramble these examples of repeal- 
er terminology: 

RMMEJA PUSR 

TCHAPTOAU PLUOXE 

PERTfiEEA TILSP 

LENKCHA QUELCHS 

FOFEST PIMXSLE 

THE ANSWERS 

Element t; 

1—1 Made by Phelps-Dodge and very 
popular. 

2 — 2 Doesn't make much sense, does 
It? 

3 — 3 Ever notice how many "subaudible M 
tones really aren't? 

4—4 Hrnmm Just a couple of years 
before TV. 

5—2 Major Edwin H. Armstrong, who lat- 
er killed himself when the boys at 
the radio networks tried to cheai 
him out of his royalties 

E/eme/tf 2: 

1-K 2L 3-P. 4-H. 5-U, 6-B, 7-N, B-M. fr-A, 

10-E, M-O, J2-J, 13-G, 14-S, 15-C T W. U-O, 

18-T, 19*F, 20-O 

Element 3: 

{Reading from left to right) JAMMER, 

SPUR, AUTOPATCH, DUPLEX. RE- 



PEATER, SPUT, CHANNEL SQUELCH, 
OFFSET. SIMPLEX 

SCORING 

Element i: 

Six points for each correct answer 
Element 2: 

One and one-half points per match, 
Eiement 3: 

Three points for each word unscrambled. 
How well do you repeal? 
1-20 points— Have never ventured be- 
yond 14 MHz 
21-40 points — Think that 2-meter radia- 
tion is harmful 
41-60 points — Use 2 meters when the 

CB Is broken 
61-60 points— Take your HT along on 

dates 
61 + points— Hopelessly add ret ed 



AUTHOR'S CORNER 

In these last Tew tinea of this month's 
column I would like to respond to a point 
raised by Mark Regan of Reynolds burg. 
Ohio. In a tetter appearing in the August. 
1983. "Letters' column. Mr. Regan claims 
that my comments In response to a 
"FUN1" poll question on religious nets 
proves that I wish "to deny the right of free 
speech to those who like lo talk about 
Ideas of a religious nature " 

Not true, Mr. Regan. I certainly have no 
objection to bible discussions or any oth- 
er sort of on-air religious activity that con- 
forms to FCC rules. If my comment gave 
an ant i- tree-speech impression, as Mr. 
Regan asserts, I'm sorry. To set the matter 
straight, I believe in free speech for all. 



RTF/ LOOP 



Marc L Leavey, M.D. WA3AJR 
6 Jenny Lane 
Pikesvifie MD 21208 

Happy New Year! I don't know how long 
I have been waiting for this year to finally 
a r rive. I guess it has been ever since I read 
the book— George Orwell's, that is. But 
this year seems no more frightening than 
last, even though the technology for some 
of Mr. Orwell's more frightening machin- 
ery does exist. Hopefully, however, we will 
use this techno logy for good, progressive 
communication. 

We do have a touch of "newspeak," 
however Ever hear of a CBBS? How about 
an ABBS, Tariooard PMS. or other such 
cryptic phrase? To the computer buff, 
these butfetift-board systems (BBS) repre- 
sent the "Citizens Band" (if you will for- 
give the expression) of computing. They 
offer a source of bullet Ins, a pipeline for 
programs, and a kind of public soapbox 
and maiidrop that is available tor ihe cost 
ot a phone call. It shouldn't surprise you, 
then, that we hams have our own form ol 
BBS On the air— usually called a RTTY 
mailbox system. 

Made possible by any of a number of mi- 
crocomputers, these versatile fusions of 
Hardware and software create a kind of, 
well 'el s call it a repeater, which can be 
called up, accessed, and used much as 
our computer buff's BBS can. But ours Is 
on I he radio, not the telephone! 

I know that you all are interested In 
these systems, with a representative let- 
ter this month coming from Bob Wallace 



W9STA/2, in New York City. Bob writes, 
"Do you have any Information regarding 
the RTTY mailboxes such as frequency, 
location, and how these things are ac- 
cessed 7 ' 

Well, Art S ant el la K1VKO passes along 
the following information about one such 
system, the WAiGOO mailbox, in Roway- 
ton. Connecticut. Art tells me thai! the Sys- 
tem is On 146,580 MHz, twenty-four hours 
a day, idHng at B0 wpm. A user accessing 
the machine can switch It to 100-wpm 
Murray or 110-baud ASCII. The machine 
covers a large area of Long island and 
Connecticut, being located on (he 
coastline of Long tsland Sound. Oper- 
ating simplex, with a Station Master an- 
tenna. Art tells me that plans are in the 
mill to raise the antenna to 100 feet, using 
a hardline feed, and a linear may be added 
to boost the output even more. Further 
down the line, a twenty-meter mailbox 
may be added, with a link to the VHF ma- 
chine. This would give a super way to 
reach in and out of the Long Island area 
for locai and DX si at ions, 

A look at the directory on line recently 
shows about thirty files, including listings 
of computer nets, an RBBS directory. 
Miami weather frequencies, a W1AW 
schedule, various ARRL and other bul- 
letins, several articles on RTTY and com- 
puters, and other items ot interest, Even 
recent DX stations worked are listed, with 
times and frequencies, to aid other oper- 
ators In their search for the rare country. 

The system uses the Super-RATT™ 
software that we mentioned here a few 



months back. Some ol the commands 
available include the ability to save or 
read messages on the system disk, scan 
recent news or weather bulletins, look at 
the user hie, set mode to Murray code at 
45 baud (60 wpm], 74 baud, 110 baud, or 
ASCII at 1 10 baud, even I he ability to look 
at four analog-to-digital converters, I don't 
know what you would use that for! 

If you are Interested In I his system. Art 
would be happy to send you a full list of 
commands and such Just send a busi- 
ness-Slze SAS£ to Art Sanlelfa K1VK<X 43 
Seavtew Avenue. East Morwaik UT 06855. 
and ask for the Information on the 
WAIGOO mailbox. Be sure to tell him you 
saw it in "RTTY Loop. " 

A look at the mailbox on my front curb 
produces this letter from Roy D. Thomas 
KA4VVJ, Roy would like to find a source 
for in-depth information on several of I he 
microprocessor chips around. He relates 
having Information on the 6800 (a fine 
chip!) but wants to team more about the 
8080, 240. 6502. and others. He also 
wants to know where you can buy any of 
these chips. 

Well Roy. let's cover that last question 
first Any good computer center or parts 
house should stock those CPU chips men- 
tioned above, along with the support 
chips needed to build a functioning 
system. I would caution, however, that It 
takes a fair piece more than a chip and a 
power supply to make a computer. So, 
before you go out and buy a chip for ten 
bucks or so. it would do you well to read 
quite a bit and decide on just what you 
want to accomplish 

There is a raft of books out there, 
ranging from highly technical master- 
pieces ot obf usee lion to primers that 
spend hundreds of pages to teach a few 
elementary facts. The best bet is to read a 
few ol the computer magazines which 
cover all bases, such as Microcomputing, 



and took at back issues, which should be 
in any reasonably sized library, to pet a 
grasp on the hardware involved. In the ads 
in these magazines you will find a great 
number of books on microprocessors, and 
many of these books will be reviewed in 
the magazines as welt. Look them over; I 
am sure you will find enough Information 
to Keep you busy for some time to come. 

Above all, please realize that, wilh few 
exceptions, it makes little difference 
which microprocessor chip is ultimately 
used. How well and flexibly the software 
is written, how well the system, once con 
figured, writ do the task at hand, and what 
the upward compatibility is (will it become 
obsolete next year?) are all valid con- 
siderations. 

A thank you to you &M» the readers of 
'RTTY Loop," is sent along by way of 
Barry Travis N4FNZ. Barry, you may recall, 
needed a hard-to-hnd CRT for his oscillo- 
scope. Well you all came through, and 
Barry is watching dancing green lines 
once again 

A new request comes from Henry Klrcrv 
rner KF4L/W. Henry Is looking for help m 
putting a Yaesu FT-107 on RTTY, He also 
would like to find a RTTY interface for the 
Timex/Sinclair 1000. I did not find any 
T/S-1000 Interfaces In my review last 
month, Henry. But I am sure that any 
reader wilh information would be glad to 
drop you a note at 30 Patrick Lane, 
Rock ledge FL 32965. Send me a copy, too. 
folks— 1 hanks. 

Another ham looking for help is Tom 
Guilders WA5ZVZ. Tom has purchased a 
Teletype 4 Model 35 and p fans to use it as 
a printer for his TRS-80C 1 He is looking 
for help m connecting ihe loop supply of 
the teleprinter to his computer. Well, Tom + 
I have zip in the way of information on the 
Modal 35; I am sure that at least one of our 
readers does, however, maybe even hav- 
ing hooked up the thing as you want to, If 

73 Magazine * January. 1984 97 



— 



so. I am sure that you will receive a note at 
7189 West branch, Oh*e Branch MS 38654. 
very soon. If I hear anything here, 111 let 
you know 

In case any hams in I tie southern Cali- 
fornia area have never heard of SCATS 
(the Southern Counties Amateur Tele- 
printer Society), and I find that hard to 
believe, the club operates a two-meter re 
peater on 146.10/146.70 MHz, located In 
the north San Fernando Valley and another 
repeater on 223 12/224 72 MHz on the Palo 
Verdes hills. These are Murray RTTY re- 
peaters, open to all. The current president 
of the dub is Sid He/man WBfiFFW Inter- 
ested amateurs are invited to drop a note 
to the editor of SCATTER, the society's 
newsletter, Hugh Washburn WA81EX, 
5772 Garden Grove Blvd., Sp 415, West- 
minister CA 92683 T for more information, 

I would like to take a moment to ad 
dress a ratner select group of readers. Any 
of you who are using 8800 or 6609 systems 
under the Smoke Signal DOS68 or DOS69 
systems are invited to drop me a line wit n 
your name; address, and whatever system 



details you care to offer. I am looking to 
get a sense ot how big the QOS6B/DGS80 
group is compared with the FLEX bunch 
so that we can see some more of our sys- 
tem's stuff in print. Thanhs. 

As 1 have said before, t always enjoy 
hearing about your experiences with the 
newer RTTY equipment. This months lot 
me present one man's experiences. 
Ronald Kenneady N2DWH writes: 1 have 
been reading "RTTY Loop' for Quite some 
time now and with the advent of comput- 
ers, interfaces, printers and solid-state 
rigs, I have finally decided to plunge in. 

"And when t plunge in I piunge tn* I've 
acquired a Kenwood TS130S. a Kantron- 
ics Interlace, and a VIC-20 computer, 
along with the VIC data set, disk drive, and 
dot matrix printer. Right out of the box 
everything worked, except the Interface, 

"But, not to worry, the folks at Kan- 
tronics are great people and Mr. Tf*rt* 
Brann stayed on the telephone with me 
quite some time trying to figure out why 
every time I plugged in the computer-torn, 
terface cord the Kenwood went into trans 



mit mode. He finally decided that i) must 
be a defective cable and said thai he 
would send me a new cable 

"Not wanting to wait for the UPS truck. I 
pulled the cap off the game-pon end of the 
connector and began to experiment The 
wire-io-ptn scheme that Travis Brann had 
given ma said that I should be looking at 
the brown wire to pi n 1 , the red wire to pin 
2, white to pin 3. green to pin 6, and black 
to pin 8 Not so and it's not ^Centronics' 
fault! Itt the connector itself. Pins t, 2 + 
and 3 (on the top side} are correct, how- 
ever, on the bottom, It's a different story. 
The numbering order has been reversed. 
Therefore, by placing the green wire fn the 
connecior slot marked tor pin 8 and the 
black In the slot for pin 6, all systems be- 
come a GO! The black wire in this cable Is 
a double wire attached to shield, and 
therefore, somewhere along the line, to 
ground. Grounding pin B will activate the 
PTT circuit in the Kenwood and lump to 
transmit mode. If other hams are having 
problems of this nature they would do well 
|o check the wiring to the pin in the game 
port. 



"If you decide to use the Kantronics In- 
terface, be careful with the operating volt 
age and current. If the input is not at least 
12 volts at 1.5 Amps, it Just won't work It 
the interlace can't pull enough current 
from the source, the entire bar graph and 
LED tuning light will light up and signals 
will not pass In either direction. Another 
hint for operation troubles hooting: All 
power must be on in order to operate. The 
monitor, computer, Interface, transceiver, 
and printer (If attached) must all have 
power on in order to operate. Turn one of 
them off and the whole system will go 
down. According to Travis Brann if* a 
built-in feature." 

Well, I really appreciate iheae Impres- 
sions of the Kantronics unit, and I am sure 
that those readers considering putting a 
computer on the air do as well. I will try to 
cover more Of the material you ask about 
In the coming months Please remember, 
if you would like a personal reply to a let 
ter, enclose an SASE. Thanks. So long for 
now— stay tuned lor nexl month's "RTTY 

Loop:' 



LETTERS 




WINNER! 



3 



In my opinion, your recent Introduction of 
the "73 International" column has set your 
publication apart from all the others. 

The use of correspondents *in country" 
makes the contents believable. The use of 
futi-ceJor nahonaJ Hags in the headings Is a 
stroke of genius. 

It seems to me that beyond I he reaJ service 
that this column provides to worldwide am- 
ateurs, 1 1 provides an insight to the corre- 
spondenls' countries to the non-amateurs 
who may come across II. The Lord knows the 
world needs ail the help it can get l Hope 
springs eternal that before long you will have 
correspondents in TA-, CN-. 4S~, 5R-. and per- 
haps even SP- and (dare I wish ?) tMands. 

Finally, it is obvious that me inputs from 
some of the non-Engilsh*peakrng corre- 
spondents have been tmitelitefated. rather 
then translated The difference is best illus- 
trated by ihe tine from the song; "Throw 
Mama from the train a kiss" (trans//feratlon). 
The German when trans/a red would be: 
"Throw a kiss to Mama from the train." To 
the thinking person. I believe this enhance* 
the credence of the correspondents. Please 
don't edit them, except possibly for length 

Wayne, you have another winner 1 

Thomas L Bowers HI WD4CQY 

EustisFL 



OFF-BASE COLUMN? 



] 



I am not given to writing letters to the 
editor, but after reading a column in the 
August issue ol 73, i am moved to put in 
my two cents worth. The column i am 
referring to was part of "T3 International ' 
and was written by Hoy Watte W9PQN 
concerning his view* on amateur radio in 
Japan, .and other non-related items. 

Mr. Waite's comments made lot Inter- 
est Ing reading. Unfortunately, his state- 
ments were somewhat incomplete, incor- 
rect, and outdated Some were nol even 
relevant to amateur radio. 

There is a general statement that tor 



signers living in Japan often make that ap- 
plies: Nothing in Japan Is easy. It is a bu- 
reaucratic, red-tape, paperwork night- 
mare. It also makes for full employment! 
Mr WaSte attempted to Lie Japanese pro- 
cedures, rules, and regulations to the 
American way of doing business. That is 
like comparing apples to oranges. We 
have an outstanding country, but in my 
opinion, we have too liberal rules and 
regulations covering a wide range pi 
rights accorded to visiting foreigners, 
both ihe legal and illegal type. But Japan 
is the subject here, not America. 

First, It Is not easy for a foreigner to ob- 
tain a license and permission to operate 
an amateur-radio station In Japan, but It 
can be done. The number doing so is quite 
large, surprisingly so. However, tor the 
short-term fourisi. it is almost impossible 
Anyone having a valid amateur license is- 
sued by another country can ape ty tor per 
mission to operate on the correct form ob- 
tained from the Telecommunications 
Commission, The next, and often most 
difficult, step Is finding a radio club that 
will allow you to use their club callslgn. 
Only one individual at a time can use the 
club callslgn The other way for a 
foreigner to get on the air is to take the 
written exam in Japanese. Do that and 
you get your license and call sign like any 
other amateur. The last time I checked, 
the American exam was not given In Jap- 
anese—only English— so anyone who de- 
sires a regular American license must 
know our language. 

In Japan, there are four classes of li- 
cense: first class, second class, telegra- 
phy, and telephony. First and second 
class can operate 100 Watte. The strict 
government inspection that Mr, Waste re- 
ferred to pi us the Si 00 charge are things 
of the past JARL has been given the 
authority to inspect and approve 100-Watt 
(and rot first class, op to 500-Watt) sta- 
tions. The modem equipment used by 
most amateurs makes the Inspection 
roullne. 

Much has been made by Mr, Waits and 
others of the large numbers of Japanese 
who hold the lowest -class license* They 



attempt to equate it to CB and a lack of 
technical expertise. Actually, this Is not 
the case. The level of technical know-how 
among average Japanese amateurs is 
higher than that of the average American 
Novice. What ts more important, technical 
ability and knowledge or the ability to 
copy CW at 12 words per minute (9 wprn 
for the second class, which is about equal 
to our General class)? In technical ski Us 
and knowledge, the holders of the lowest 
level license In Japan are nor Novices. 

I also disagree with the statement that 
in Japan amateur radio Is merely an exten- 
sion of the Citizens Band, including its 
numerous abuses, bad manners, over 
crowding, and lack of what amateur radio 
is all about. What is amateur radio all 
about anyway? it is a hobby, II is fun. It is 
communicating with others who enjoy the 
same thing. There is no requirement \q do 
research or experiment or build home 
brew equipment. The general consensus 
of opinion Is that the more people In- 
volved with amateur radio (or any other 
hobby), ihe better off It is. More people In- 
volved means band crowding. It also 
means an increased I i kef i hood of more ex- 
perimenters and developers, more domes- 
tic equipment, a larger market, and a fresh 
infusion of "new blood to prevent stag- 
nation, I've heard my share ot pileups and 
bad manners from English-speaking oper- 
ators. One additional point needs to be re- 
membered (and recognized): The holder of 
the license, even the telephony class. 
must clearly demonstrate technical knowl- 
edge. . .something that the stateside CB 
operator does not have to do. As a matter 
of fact, Japan has a new "sport band" in 
the 900- MHz range that requires no li- 
cense Putting CB up there makes more 
sense than in the upper HP range where 
ours Is. 

One small but Important (to Ihe few in 
volved) aspect of amateur radio In Japan that 
was not covered by Mr. Waite Is the KA call- 
sign Under an agreement between the gov- 
ernments of Japan and the US, amateurs 
who are stationed with the US military in 
Japan and who reside on a US military in- 
stallation can be issued a special license and 
a KA callsign. The callsign consists ot the KA 
prefix, a number corresponding to the part of 
the country where the radio is located, and by 
a two4etier suffix. The interesting part is that 
the operating privileges accorded the 
amateur are the same tor the holder ot the 
Novice-class US license as they are for the 
holder of the Exira~dass ticket. In addition, 



they are expanded over what Is authorized in 
the US, For example, KA stations are granted 
permission to operate voice from 14.000 to 
14.350 and from 21.000 to 21 450. Therefore, 
the holders of Ihe KA call can legally talk 
with foreign stations on freouenoes well out- 
side of those normally authorized Even a 
Novice, something Mr. Warte seems to tnink 
is not worth much, can talk to his hearts con- 
tent with any station outside of Japan on fre- 
quencies even a US Extra ticket holder can- 
not use. Tm sure that must rub some "real 
hams" the wrong way! The two noteworthy 
limitations to the KA callslgn are (1) the sta- 
tion must be ftxedoase, no mobile opera- 
tions allowed land, of course, hie station 
must be on a US facility! and no contact 
with Japanese stations and no tturd-pany 
ops are aliowed. 

Unfortunateiy, even though the KA call- 
signs are often listed in the call sign dime- 
lory, many amateurs are not tamiliar with 
them and (1) think we are stateside or (2) 
donl realize thai we can legally operate oul- 
slde of the normal limits foHowed by US 
hams stateside 

One aspect of Mr. Waite's column that I 
Objected to the most was the voicing ot his 
opinions of the policies of Ihe Japanese 
government Japan is not Anienca- His com- 
ments are best directed toward his congress 
man, I don't necessarily agree with many of 
the official or unofficial policies practiced by 
Ihe Japanese government or the population 
at large. However, amateur radio Is supposed 
to transcend politics. Describing Ihe living 
place of the average Japanese as a "rabbit 
hutch" or "hovel" has no place in your 
magazine nor do discussions of hts opinion 
of their attempts to protect Japanese domes- 
tic production I have lived In Japan for the 
past six years and do not agree with his 
assessment ol the living conditions of the 
local population. . .but my opinion really 
should not show up in print in an amateur- 
radio magazine any more than his should 
We want to Improve International relations 
and increase goodwill between hams, not 
torpedo ft. 

I hale to say it. but the July issue of that 
unnarneaoie magazine, on page 60. gave a 
better summation ot the Japanese license 
than did Mr, Waite No politics or opinions, 
just the correct facts. 

Thank you for your time 

Cdr. William W. Radican N7CAD/KA2VVR 

San Francisco CA 

/ wouldn't want fo say that I am mow 
qualified fo comment on amateur radio (or 



98 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



anything else in Japan) than Cdr. Radtcan 
after his six years in Japan, but i would think 
that my 20+ years in Japan, having asso 
dated with Japanese hams of all classes as 
weft as foreign hams, might give me a shght 



Cdr Radican begins his essay by stating 
that my statements were incorrect and out- 
dated. No way! In rechecking the column in 
question, I find no misstatement of fact ot 
any kind, nor is the information outdated. My 
friends in The JARL {including Pmstdent 
Hara^. Ministry of Posts and Tetecommunica- 
Irons, and CO Ham Radio wouldn't let me 
down. The only tact that has changed since 
the column appeared (which Cdr, Radican at- 
tempts but tails to explain correctly} oc- 
curred after 73 went to press. This was tne 
change in the rule which eliminates station 
inspection for stations of TOO Watts or less 
(previously TO Watts or fessk And this was 
brought about only because the American 
side would not sign a reciprocal agreement 
that reoui/ed a station to be inspected poor 
to issuance of a ttcense The JARL success- 
tuity negotiated that point with the very stub- 
born Ministry of Posts, it has now become 
more probable that a reciprocal agreement 
will be signed, but the Japanese side stili 
wants to charge 7JQQQ yen per application 
{equivalent to about £2#> This is not exactly 
reciprocity, or course, because as far as I 
know, most (if not all) ot the mator nations 
make no charge at all, or onty a nominal 
eharge at most. But maybe we can live with 
thai i am not sure the US wilt agree, though. 

Cdr. Radican states that the JARL has 
bean given permission to inspect first-class 
stations up to SCO Waffs: mt true. The JARL 
has been given authority to waive inspec- 
tions tor any stations of too Watts or lass 
(output power}. Incidentally, inspections are 
not necessarily as routine as Cdr Radican 
wouid have us believe it depends on the in- 
spector, the weather, rf he ttMes the way you 
comb your hair, etc Several ot my Japanese 
friends hove told me some hair-ratsmg tales 
about these inspections, And you have to 
wait as long as $t* months for the inspectors 
to come before you can operate. A short-term 
visitor to Japan wouldn't even be hen* that 
long! 

Cdr. Radican also states that "anyone hav 
ing a valid amateurradio license issued by 
another country can apply for permission to 
operate. H Wrong! Only amateurs from 
Amenca, Germany, Fintand, and Ireland can 
do that 

Cdr, Radican states that aft a foreigner has 
to do is to take the written Japanese exam, 
and If he passes it, he will get a license and 
caff sign tike everyone else. Wrong agamf He 
wiii get onfy an operator's permit. The station 
and operator's ttcense are separate m Japan 
He still needs a trtendfy Japanese who ts witt- 
ing to fend a dub catlsign to htm. But no call- 



Sign will be assigned to the foreigner The 
club catlsign is owned by the Japanese, and 
the Japanese is in charge. The foreigner only 
becomes a member of that particular club. 
Under Japanese law, only Japanese citizens 
can have a calf sign. Four non-Japanese have 
taken the Japanese test and passed, but they 
stilt had to search for a club to operate from 
Cdr. Radican disagrees with the statement 
that in Japan amateur radio is an extension 
of the Citizens Band OK he can disagree it 
he Ukes. But that doesn't change anything. 
He ought to listen to 2 meters or 15 meters 
some night or weekend. Maybe he would en- 
joy the sex tapes played on the main catting 
channel, deliberate repeater blocking, an- 
other "ham" telling ait who wlft listen that he 
is going to masturbate on the air as he goes 
ttvough afi the sounds, the jeers and mock- 
ing when two English speakers want to have 
a QSO. guitar playing, singing, etc Does Cdr. 
Radtcan have his head buried in the sand? 

Cdr Radican refers to the Japanese Den* 
wakyu (whom t property called "'Novice" op- 
erators, in English} There is no doubt that the 
Novice operators in Japan have tn the long 
run added new numbers to the ham popula- 
tion, but perhaps Cdr. Radican does not 
know that 42% ot these new operators fail to 
renew their station licenses upon expiration. 
Ot those that do renew, upon the second ex- 
ptratton. any 53 V* renew After that the rate 
continues downward, it ts a case of diminish- 
ing returns. We have just a lot of people 
"passing through" the amateur gates and 
never returning after they tire of screaming 
and shouting and cany tog on. The mason? 
No incentive. One can nsmain in the depths 
of the Novice world forever if he or she so 
chooses. Too easy to get m in the first place. 
Remember that anything acquired too easily 
is usually not cherished tor long, Incidentally, 
many people think the large number of hams 
hem Has some real meaning, but actually, 
catlsJgns are never reissued; counting cail- 
signs is futile, since many operators are 
counted who have long ago dropped out. No 
one knows tor sure what the real number Is. 
Technical skills superior to the US Novice? 
Yes, the Questions do seem on a higher level, 
but nsmember that they are multiple choice. 
Memory courses are fun for these budding 
hams the year around, 

I think Cdr. Radican is correct in his stale 
ment about the new 900-MHz sport band, ft Is 
a good idea But I am not planning to cover it. 
as tt is outside the malm of ham radto. 

Now about the US military KA stations. I 
covered this in the October issue ot 73. Cdr. 
Radican seems to think that Japan and 
America have an agreement permitting these 
stations to operate. Quite the contrary. The 
JARL and Ministry of Posts have made it 
known to Japanese hams that KA stations 
are not hams at all and have prohibited ait 
Japanese hams from contacting them, sub- 



ject to penalties- The agreement that seems 
to be contusing Cdr, Radican is the Status of 
Forces Agreement that allows the US mili- 
tary to establish military communications. It 
is for that reason that Japan considers KA 
stations to be military father than ham sta- 
tions, tl is not a kind Japanese government 
that is permitting the American KA stations 
full-band operation, even for US Novices. 
Quite the contrary. 

Cdr. Radican thinks that ham radio should 
transcend politics. No, not when it comes to 
reciprocity, unfortunately. Thts is the real 
world. 

Car, Radican states that "Nothing In 
Japan ts easy, it is a bureaucratic, red-tape, 
paperwork nightmare, ft also makes for full 
employment*" So. from thai statement, I 
gather that Cdr. Radican would have the US 
imitate Japan in this regard: more red-tape 
and paperwork nightmares, and we will have 
full employment How simple lite could be, 
indeed! It isn't possible that some of thai red 
tape and bureaucracy is keeping American 
products out of Japan, is It? 

Cor. Radican reminds me that "Japan is 
not America. " Yes, I've noticed. 

Cdr. Radican mostly objects to the voicing 
of my opinions of the policies ot the Jap 
anese government Why is that 7 Are we to be 
afraid of the truth in these matters? Are my 
comments irrelevant to amateur radio** They 
certainty are not. Mr. Nakasone, the Prime 
Minister of Japan, does not deny me my right 
to criticize the government, f have written two 
times to Mr. Nakasone and received replies 
from him both times, (He answers all of his 
matt I l am a member ot Japanese society 
Hate, pay my taxes {heavily >). and obey the 
taws. Of course, I complain, and t shall con- 
tinue to do so. I praise many things here, too. 

My comments about Japanese lite, etc, 
are known as "perspective sketching. " and 
it's useful to set things in proper perspective 
in order to understand why things are tike 
they am. We must not hide from the truth t 
witi continue to tell the truth as long as I have 
the strength to do so. 

Cdr. Radican tells us about the various 
classes ot Japanese licenses, etc but we 
know ail of that already. I hope Cdr. Radtcan 
will read the September and October issues 
of 73 for a fuller understanding. 

Those ot my Japanese friends who have 
read my columns so tar have congratulated 
me on "telling the lull story, " as they put it. 
They are looking forward to a reciprocal 
agreement with the US as much as I am. 

I enjoyed reading Cdr. Radican's tetter. I 
just wish he would get his tacts straight and 
put a little more trust in me Any column I 
submit to 73 has been checked and doubfe- 
checked carefully before submission. Items 
relating to taw were confirmed by one of the 
12 Japanese (English-speaking) attorney col- 



leagues in my office, Artdttionalty, these col- 
umns have been read by a Japanese and an 
American ham for ''reaction" before submis- 
sion to 73. / feel I owe that much to the 
readers ot 73 and to Mr. Green, t am not in- 
fallible, of course, but in rereading the col- 
umns I have submitted to 73 thus far. f find 
no errors. The columns stand. Cdr. Radican 
has struck out. 

As for that "unnameabfe" magazine, all i 
can say is that my mother stopped dishing 
up pactum when I was one year old. There- 
after, t haven't cared much tor it 

I am sony Cdr. Radican dtdnt like my Aug- 
ust column in 73L (Surety he wont cans much 
for my September and October columns 
either.) Many people did like the columns, 
however, fudging by my mail so far. Even my 
Japanese m-laws and my Japanese nephew 
{a budding hami enjoyed the columns. Cdr 
Radican's tetter ts the only negative voice I 
have heard. 

t hope Cdr. Radican will continue reading 
73 even though he doesn't find my writing to 
his liking. There is a targe selection of tine 
features in 73 every month, end I think he will 
find many interesting articles among them, 
perhaps more suited to his taste— Roy B 
Waite W9PQN. Tokyo, Japan 



ELECTRONIC LUNCH 



If you go to a fas! -service diner, order a 
radio tor lunch. Short-order cooks call 
poached eggs on toast Adam and Eve on a 
Raft, sometimes served with red lead 
(ketchup). 

A radio is a tuna-fish sandwich on toast. 
Does anyone know why? 

Carl S. Zelich AA4MI 
Memtt island FL 



RELOCATED BEACON 



Thank you for publishing the information 
on my ten-meter beacon Unfortunately, 
due to the lead time for publication, the in- 
formation was published after I moved. The 
KA1YBB beacon has been moved lo the 
Rochester NY area In western New York. It 
is about tO miles south ot the city at 43* 02' 
N, 77° 41' w. In grid square FN 13 ot the 
Maidenhead grid locator system. The 
power Is still 4 Watts, and the antenna is a 
dipole. The beacon is on 24 hours a day on 
28286 MHz CW 

W. Keith Hibtoert KA1YE 

527 Rush-Scottsvilte Rd 

Rush NY 14543 

{716^533-1369 



DR. DIGITAL 



Robert Swirsky AF2M 
412 Arbuckfe Avenue 
Cedarhurst NY T7576 

R. I. P. T OSBORNE 1 

I can still remember a QSO I had in April 
of 1981. There used to be a group of local 
hams that chewed the rag on 15 meters all 
night long. As usual, we were talking 
about computers. 

The I ales! issue of Byre had just come 
out which, second only to receiving one's 



issue of Kilobaud {now Microcomputing), 
was me most Interesting event In a com- 
puter hacker's life. (Hackers tend to lead 
dull lives,) in the editorial section, there 
was mention ot a new computer the Os- 
borne 1. I commented to the guys in the 
net: "Did you see the new computer from 
Osborne? It certainly is an Interesting 
ideal" 

"Bob, I can't believe you fell for that/' 
commented Marc WB2JUR "That thing is 
not rung more than an April Fool's joke!" 
Everyone on frequency had a good lau{ 



and 1 conceded to Marc that I had been 
taken. After taking a close look at the pic- 
ture of the Osborne hit looked as if it were 
a paste-up. And the silly things Byte said 
about it! Who in their right mind would 
want lo put a computer under an airline 
seat? 

After a few days passed and tne Wall 
Street Journal earned a story on the unit, 
it became apparent that it was Marc, not 
me, who had been fooled. By now every- 
one knows the Osborne story. For a while 
they were extremely successful, The 
design which could have been taken for 
an April Foot's |oke became a popular 
style of computer: the 'transportable 
computer." 

Unfortunately. Osborne didn'1 last. 
They announced their bankruptcy m late 
1963. Competition became fierce, and 
mistakes were made and not corrected 



until it was too late The death of Osborne 
also marked the end of another phe- 
nomenon: the "garage" computer. Now, 
with the big guns making personal com- 
puters, mijItimillionHdollar ad campaigns, 
and consumers looking lor brand names 
when they go computer shopping. H will 
be next to impossible for an individual to 
slart his or her own computer business. 
The shake-out has begun. 



WAKE UP, ITS 1984 

We finally made it to Orwell's infamous 
year. Win technology help us or ruin us? As 
computer hobbyists, we all have encoun- 
tered ant I -computer remarks and no doubt 
have been offended by I hem. How many 
times have you been told by a shop clerk that 
the computer "wont let" her do something, 
Or perhaps you experienced a delay at the 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 99 



1 SOUND 

2 SOUND 

3 SOUND 
1 SOUND 
10 READ 

IF A 
HT = 
HT - 
HT - 
LT = 
LT = 
LT = 
HTH 



11 
20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

100 

110 

120 

130 

200 

210 

7 7. 

230 

240 

250 

260 

27 

290 

300 

400 



1,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
2,0,0,0 
3,0,0,0 
A ,B 

THEN 400 
894895 - A x 7 
HT / A 

INT (HT + 0*5) 
894895 - & * 7 
LT / B 
INT (LT + 0.5) 



697 770 852 941 1209 1336 1477 1633 



HTL 

LTH 

LTL 

POKE 

POKE 

POKE 

POKE 

POKE 

POKE 

POKE 

FOR 



* INT 

# INT 
= LT - 

53768 
53762 

53760. 
53766, LTH 
53764, LTL 
53763,230 
53767,230 
== 1 TO 



(HT / 
(HTH 
(LT / 
(LTH 
,12 
,HTH 
,HTL 



256) 
* 256) 



256) 
X 2 



6) 



"I 



4 *7CT * 

,L i. vJ * 



NEXT T 



POKE 
GOTO 
END 
1000 REH 
1010 REM 
9999 DATA 



53763,224tP0KE 
10 



53767,224 



DATA STATEMENTS HERE 
LOW TUNE, HIGH TONE 
-1,-1 

Program listing t. Atari DTMF. 



bank because "the computer was down," rt's 
no wonder lhat gome people seem to be 
against new technology. Amateur radio 
seems to-be no different I have received all 
sorts of strange comments from hams who 
object to the "strange noises" they hear 
coming from my station over two meters. 
Usually the objection Is that the simplex fre- 
quency I am on (144.44) is for voice communi- 
cations only, established by a gentlemen's 
agreement. To their comments. I can only re- 
spond that I am not a gentleman' 



Bui by and large, hams are realizing mat, 
in order to keep up with the world, a knowl- 
edge of computers la essential. In fact, com- 
puters are discussed over ham radio almost 
as much as the weather. I hope this trend 
continues. 

One of the new things that computers 
have allowed is packet repeaters. Interest in 
this mode is gaining it is nice to be able to 
use our spectrum more efficiently. Combined 
with mailbox facilities, a packet repeater Is 
an excellent mode o* communlcatiori In the 



HAM HELP 



1 am converting a Teaberry Ranger T 
model 4012 CB rig for use on 10 meters. 
Can anyone supply a schematic or service 
manual? 

T. Sherwood WBSOGB 

P5C Box 4852 

5MFB NC 27531 



I need manuals and schematics for the 
Yaesu YO-301 monitor scope and the Fire 
Bird F-200-M linear amplifier. 

Mario BLadoeg 

PO Box S60343 

Suralco Depl. 53 

Miami FL 33156 



I need the manual {or a copy of it} for the 
Haliicrafters SR^SOO. 

Doug Fonrilfe 

3805 33rd Street 
Lubbock TX 79410 



Wanted: Two YDB44-A desk micro- 
phones for Yaesu radios, 

John R. Bell KA9JYZ 

350012th St. 

East Molina- IL 81244 



I need the following coils for a National 
SW3 receiver: 31 A {2Q meters); 33 A (40 
meters); and coll 32. I also need National 
XR6 coil forms and winding information. 

Watt Hill NM6L 

ftl 2, Bom. 323 AM so Circle 

Bishop CA 93514 

Wanled: schematic and manual for the 
Motorola model L43GGB-11 »OA. I would 
also like to hear from anyone who has 
converted this set lo two meters. 

Ben Irvine N3CNH 

Box 653 Blue Church Rd, 

Cooper sburg PA 18036 



1 


X 








2 


X 








3 


X 








A 


X 








4 




X 






5 




X 






6 




X 






B 




X 






7 






X 




8 






X 




9 






X 




C 






X 




X 








X 











X 


# 








X 


D 








X 



Fig t DTMF frequencies in Hz. Xs tndic&te tones tor the digits and characters on the left. 



St Louis area, packet radio is thriving. Pete 
Eaton W9&FLW. president of St Louis Area 
Packet Radio, reports lhat 'packet radio is 
growing rapidly. . .in the Midwest, as well as 
the rest of the country." His dub publishes 
an informative newsletter, SLAPR Protocol, 
For more information about the club and 
me newsletter, write trx SLAPft Protocol. 
SL Louis Area Packet Radio Club, 1309 
Gloucester Dr.. Edwardsville IL 62025. 

ATARI DTMF 

Atari home computers incorporate a built- 
in sound synthesizer With commands from 
Basic, it is possible to make a wide range of 
musical notes and weird noises. As the tones 
are specified with an &oit (Q-2S5) quantity, 
resolution is limited. For applications which 
require an accurate tone, a higher resolution 
is required Atari realized that there might be 
a need for accurate tones and provided a way 
o* creating them. 

Atari sound is generated wiih a custom 
chip known as POKEY. Normally, one corv 
irols sound production from Basic using 
SOUND commands of the form SOUND 
ajj.cd where a is the voice (1-4)l b ts the 
pitch (0-2561. c is the distortion parameter 
and d is the amplitude (O-lSi The POKEY 
chip, however, serves other functions and 
has other capabilities which are not dire- 
accessible with Basic statements. These 
functions can be used from Basic with |he 
help ot some POKE commands 

The program in listing 1 will generate the 
tones for DTMF signaling: Program logic is 
as follows lines 1-4 serve to initialize the 
POKEY chip. All sound generation in the pro- 
gram is done with POKE statements, not 
SOUND statements. Unes 10 through 130 
read in a pair of lone frequencies, From these 
numbers, a value is calculated wftcft corre- 
sponds to a 16-bil integer. These numbers 
are split mio two segments; since a byte can 
only hold B bits, 2 bytes are needed to hold 
the 16-bil number The stateroom in line 200 
tells the POKEY chip to link the sound gener- 
ators in pairs: Oil and 2/3, Each pair becomes 
1 voice that Is controlled oy a 16-bit (D-6563S) 
number instead of an B-bit 10-256} number In 
addition, this POKE also makes the POKEY 
switch to a higher clock frequency, thus pro- 
viding even more accuracy. The tones are ac- 
tual (y switched on by lines 250 and 260. After 
a short delay provioed by the FQWNEXT in 
line 270, the tones are switched off ai line 
290 Line 300 starts the process all over 
again. 

To enter the tone data, the frequencies 
must be placed on data statement. For ex- 
ample, if you wanted to have the computer 



"dial" the code '911. add me following data 
statements: 
1500 DATA 941 ,1209 
1510 DATA 770,1477 
1520 DATA QS7.1 209 
1530 DATA 667,1209 

Those numbers are, of course, the tone fre- 
quencies used In ihe DTMF code (see Fig 1 
for the complete codet 

This program can be used to create any 
tone that you may need. Accuracy Is certain- 
ly good enough for any amateur-radio pur- 
pose. Simply put the lone frequencies you 
want generated on data statements. To gen- 
erate single tones, eliminate the following 
tines: 50, €0, 70, 120. 130. 230, 240, and 2®, 
Change line 10 to "HEAD A" and line 290 to 
"POKE 53763,224" And, of course, create 
your data statements accordingly. It should 
be possible to generate accurate RTTY and 
SSTV tones with the Atari— perhaps even to 
take a graphics screen and convert it into the 
proper SSTV tones. (Basic would be too 
slow for this; assembly language would be 
needed.) 

For those of you who want to experiment 
with Atari sound, memory local Ions 53761, 
53763s 53*65, and 53767 will be o* interest to 
wjy; ihay are the auo^ochaoneJ control 
re gis te r s - The mosl-significani three bits 
determine the distortion parameter, the next 
oil is the "fracfld-outpur bit. and the least 
significant three bits are the volume-level 
oils When the forcedoutput bit is set to a 
one, the output is controlled direct ty with the 
volume hit; the speaker can be set to any one 
oJ 16 positions. Using |h«s bit. cuslom wave- 
forms can be created. 

Frequency Is determined with ideations 
53760, 53762, 53764, and 53766. The value in 
these registers controls the frequency of the 
corresponding audio generator. When two 
races are linked together, the locations are 
taken In pairs wtth the higher address taking 
the most -significant portion of Ihe 16-bit 
number. 

The way to coordinate tone generation Is 
with location 53768. For our purposes, we 
would be concerned with bits 6, 5, 4, and 3 
When bit 6 is set to T r channel 1 is docked 
with a 17944Hz frequency; bit 5 does the 
same (or channel 3, Setting bit 4 high will join 
channels 2 and v, bi 1 3 Joins channels 4 and 3. 
These addresses were used to produce the 
tones for the DTMF routine. As you see. the 
Alan wilt allow for some elaborate tone 
generation. 

I certainly appreciate all the mail I have 
been receiving. So far, I have received a few 
interesting proposals for an amateur-radio 
graphics standard— I would like to hear from 
some more of you on this matter f 



100 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



MM HELP 



Geloso (Italy) genera I coverage (.5-30 
MHz} receiver, model no. G 4/2 18 using 9 
tubes — would anyone out there have a 
schematic? 

Maverick 6m hlter, 5-section adjust 
able, by Gavin Instruments. Somerville 
NJ— I need adjustment in formation on 
this TVl fiiter- 

I wilt gladly pay postage and copying 

C03IB. 

John Sehnng WB2EQG 

PO Box 235 

Oakland NJ 07436 

I would like to correspond with anyone 
who has converted a Bunker-ftamo Tele- 
quote MDS-7 or 2210 series computer MO 
station lo some practical use, e.g., oscillo- 



scope, mi iV monitor, etc. I also need 
schematics tor the Hewlett-Packard 400 A 
ac VTVM, and Hal Communications 2550 
keyer . I was also totd that the circuit board 
has provisions for adding a memory func- 
tion and would like information on I his, 
I! so. 

Barry Fuerst 

21 e Floumoy St. 

Oafc Park 1L 60304 

I am looking for a manual for (he OR 
Astro- 200 and a parts list for the Edoecom 
System 3000A, 

Jim Fylas WBtCZl 
620 El Paso Blvd. 
Denver CO 80221 



I would like to contact someone who 
knows how to convert the computer pro- 
grams for the TBS-80 which have ap- 
peared in 73 Into programs for the Com- 
modore 64. 1 also need schematics for an 
Ampex stero amp; ASR 100, catalog 
0772-005601. sta #5200445. 

AJI copying and postage will be paid, 
but please notify me of costs in advance. 

DuWain Brundage 
2316B Little Valley Ct 
Birmingham AL 35216 

I need manuals and schematics for ihe 
Hammarlund SP #600, the National NC 
#400, and the Collins R 390 'URR 
(TM-0J967-Q63-2OV0L I will pay for copying 
and postage. 

Raul L Marline* KA4UAT 
PO Boc 44-1707 
Miami FL 33144 



I am looking for a service manual for the 
Panalyzer S83 model T-200 panoramic 
adapter. 

Keats A. Putlen W3G0M 

2607 Jerusalem Road 

Kingsville MD 21087 

t would like to hear from anyone who 
can help me Interface my VIG-2Q to the 
Icom 720 transceiver. I would like to use 
the VlC-20 as a frequency coni roller and 
scanner- 
Robert F. Cann W4G8B 
1606 Loch wood Df. 
Richmond VA 23233 

I am looking for information on how to 
install disco lighting in stereo speakers, 

Francis Turcot!* 

601 N. Tibb* 

Indianapolis IN 46222 



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commercial 15 volt rNlcati packs, $139.00 plus 

same snipping and module cost a* the QMS 401. 




The GMS 401 is a complete automatic N 1CA0 condi- 
tioner and rapid charger. Never before has this been 
offered anywhere at any price and it's so good it's be- 
ing patented, (Mi CAD memory characteristics must be 
dealt with otherwise your battery pack is not delivering 
all it could. The GMS 401 will automatically erase and 
rapid charge any type NICAD pack from 1 to 10 cells. 



CONTROL PRODUCTS UNLIMITED, INC 
P.O. Box 10, Downinglown, PA 19335 
215-383-6395 ^ 25 



*-5ee trirf of A&vetttsers on page i u 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 101 




1 B7.&Q7 VEC Qunlincaiion* 
t 97-SO0 Conflict* of interest 




Reprinted from the Federal Register 



Amendment of the Commission's 
Rules To Allow the Use of Volunteers 
To Prepare and Administer Operator 
E xamJnattona In trw Amateur Radio 
Service 

AQENcy: Federal Communications 
Commission 

action: Finn I rule. 

Summary: This document amends FCC 
Rules to permit the use of Volunteer* to 
prepare and administer amateur radio 
operator examinations These 
amendments are necessary in order to 
maintain a viable examination program 
for amateur radio operators in light of 
FCC budgetary constraints, With a 
volunteer examination program, 
applicants will have more opportunities 
available to them to obtain amateur 
radio operator licenses. 

UHC i ive date; December 1. 1963. 



PART 0—[ AMENDED J 

1. The Table of Contents for Part La 
amended as follows: 

(a) A new | 0,4*4 entitled "Amateur 
radio operator examinations," Is added. 

fb) The Heading of | 0,485 ii revised 

to read "Commercial radio operator 

examinations" 

• • • • * 

2. A new § 0.484 is added to read: 
| 0.484 Amateur mow operator 



Generally, examinations for amateur 
radio operator licenses shall be 
administered at locations end times 
specified by volunteer examiners, (See 
1 97.26(a)). When the FCC conducts 
examinations for amateur radio operator 
licenses, they shall take place at 
locations and times designated by the 
FCC. 

3. Section 0.445 is revised to read: 

§ Q.4&5 GonwrwcHB radio ooaf alor 
examination*. 

Written examinations and 
International Morte cade telegraphy 
examinations for commercial radio 
operator Licenses are conducted at 
prescribed Intervals or by appointment 
at locations specified in the 
Commission's current examination 
schedule, copies of which are available 
bom any Commission field office or 
from the FCC, Public Service Division, 
Field Operations Bureau, FCC, 
Washington. DC, 20554, 

PART 1— (AIIEKDEDJ 

4. The Tabic of Contents for Part 1 is 
amended as follows- the heading of 

| 1,925 is revised to read "Application 
for special temporary authorization, 
temporary permit or temporary 
operating authority," 

5. Paragraph (a) of I IMZ is revised to 
read: 



Gettysburg. Pennsylvania 17325. Only 
one copy of the application is required, 
• * » ■ * 

& The beading and paragraph f e) of 
1 1.925 are revised to read: 

f 1.925 AppOcaUon for special temporary 
authorisation, temporary permit or 
operating authority . 



fi i.i 12 Where spptcaoon* are to be fled, 

(a) Applications for any class of new 
or upgraded amateur operator License 
shall be submitted to the examiners 
prior to the examination. (See | 07-26.) 
The examiners are required to submit 
the applications of persons passing their 
respective examinations to the 
Commission (for Novice Class operator 
licenses) or to the Volunteer-Examiner 
Coordinator (for all other amateur 
operator licenses), AH other applications 
for amateur radio Licenses shall be 
submitted to the Federal 
Communications Commission. 

102 73 Magazine • January, 1904 



(e) Upon successful completion of an 
Amateur Radio Service operator 
examination, an applicant already 
licensed In the Amateur Radio Service 
may operate his/her amateur radio 
station pending issuance of his/her 
permanent amateur station and operator 
licenses by the Commission for a period 
of 90 days or until issuance of the 
permanent operator and station 
licenses, whichever cornea first, 
consistent with the rights and privileges 
of the higher operating class for which 
the applicant has passed the appropriate 
examination elemem(s), provided that 
the applicant retains the certifies tela) 
issued by the examiners for successful 
completion of the examination 
eiement(s) at the station location, and 
provided that the applicant uses an 
identifier code provided by a VEC aa a 

suffix to his/her present call sign- 

* « ■ * • 

7. Section 1.034 is revised to read: 

f 1.144 Procedure wrth r uap e ct to amateur 
radio oparator sceose. 

Each candidate for an amateur radio 
license which requires the applicant to 
pass one or more examination elements 
must present the examinees] with a 
properly completed FCC Form GIG prior 
to the examination. Upon completion of 
the examination, the examinerfs) will 
immediately grade the test papers* If the 
applicant is successful, the examinees] 
will forward the candidate's application 
to: (s) the Commission's Gettysburg. 
Pennsylvania facility for an application 
for a Novice Class operator license, or 
(b) a Volunteer-Examiner Coordinator 
[VEC] For all other classes of operator 
licenses, The examiners will then issue 
a certificate for successful completion of 
an amateur radio operator examination, 
A VEC will forward the application to 
the Commission's Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania facility, 

PART 97-1 AMENDED] 

& The Table of Contents for Part 07 is 
amended as follows' 

(a) A new | 97,26 entitled 
"Examination procedure/' is added. 

(bl The heading of I B7.Z7 is revised to 
read "Examination preparation/* 

(c] The heading of I 97.28 is revised to 
read ''Examination administration," 

{d| A new | 97.28 entitled 
"Examination grading." is added 

(e) The heading of i 67.31 is revised to 
read 'Volunteer examiner 
requirements." 

(f) Section 97 32 and its heading are 
removed. 

(g) The heading of I ©7,33 is revised to 
read "Volunteer examiner conduct/ 4 

(hf A new | 97,35 entitled 'Temporary 
operating authority/' is added. 

[i J A new Subpart I is added, as 
follows: 

Subpart 1 — Volunteer- Examiner 
Coordinators 



Voiimtaer- EUambw 

| 97.SH Agreement required 

| 97.51 3 Scheduling of «xa mtna lions. 

| 97-51$ Coord tru» tins volunteer guiminara. 

| A7.517 Written sxaaunatioiUL 

I 97.519 Examination procedures, 

| 97.521 Evaluation of questions 

| 9742a Identifies ti on of s p pi Scant* pasu rig 
exammsUDiii 

Authority: Sees 4(i} and 303 of the 
Communications Act of 1934. «■ amended, 47 
USC I54{i] and 303, 

9. Section 97,11 is revised to read: 



|«T,11 .Application for operator St 

(a) An application [FCC Form BIO) for 
a new operator License, Including an 
application Tor change in operating 
privileges, which wilt require an 
examination shall be submitted in 
accordance with the provisions of 

(b) An application (FCC Form G10) for 
renewal and/ or modification of license 
when no change in operating privileges 
Is involved shall be submitted to the 
Commission's office at Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 17325. 

10. Paragraph (b] of I 97.25 Is revised 
to read as follows: 

I 87.3S Exafiunauoci crvdfL 

fb] A certificate of successful 
completion of an examination will be 
Issued to applicants who successfully 
complete an examination element. Upon 
presentation of this certificate for 
telegraphy examination elements 1(A)* 
1(B] or 1(C), examiners shall give the 
applicant for an amateur radio operator 
license examination credit for the code 
speed associated with the previously 
completed element. For purposes of 
examination credit this certificate is 
valid for a period of one year from the 
date of its issuance, 



I 97.501 Purpose. 

I 97409 Deration*. 

1 97 J05 Appbcebiljty of ruiea. 



11, A new f 97.26 ts added bo read; 

t 17,3* Examination procedure. 

(a I Each examination for an amateur 
radio operator license snail be 
admitusterud al a location and a tune 
specified by the examinerfs). Public 
announcement before examinations 
shall be made for elements 1(B), 1(CJ, X 
4(A) and 4(B). 

(b) The Examinerfs) must be present 
and observing the candidate througboal 
the entire examination. 

|cj The exuminer(s) will be 
responsible for the proper conduct and 
necessary supervision during each 
e nami nation. 

Id) Each candidate for an amateur 
radio license, which requires the 
applicant to pass one or more 
examination elements k must present the 
examtner(&) with a properly completed 
FCC Form B10 on or before the 
regislriition deadline dale for those 
examination sessions for which 
registration is required; otherwise, 
applicants shall submit FCC Form 610 at 
the examination session before the start 
of the examination(s). In cases where a 
registration deadline is required, ti ahaJJ 
be specified by the VEC thai issues the 
examination papers to the examiner. 

fe) The candidate shall comply with 
the instructions given hy the 
examinerCsl. The examuierisl must 
immediately terminate the examination 
upon failure of the Candida ta to comply 
with the ejuminerlsr tnatru ct iona. 

(f) At the completion of the 
examination, the candidate shall return 
all test papers to the examinerfs), 

(g) A candidate whoee plryaical 

d 1 &a hull tie* require special procedure* to 
allow participation in examination 
seasiuoa shall albica « statement to bis/ 
her application. For examinations other 
than Novice Class the statement ssseH be 
retained in the files of the VEC thai 
issues the test papers. The statement for 
Novice Class ■*■"»««>*»*« snail be 
retained by the examiner for 



The statement shall include: 

(1) A physician's certifies boo 
indicating the nature of the cusfltiiury: 
and 

(2) the name[r) of the person(a) taking 
and transcribing the applicant's 
dictation of lest questions and answers, 
if such a procedure ia necessary. 

fh) An applicant who faila an 
examination element required far ass 
amateur radio operator license shall not 
apply to be examined for the same or 
higher examination element within 
thirty days of the date the examination 
element was leiied. 

12, Section 07-27 la reraised to read; 



5 97.27 

(a) Element 1(A) shall be prepared by 
the examineT.The preparer must hold an 
Amateur Extra. Advanced, or General 
Class operator license. The lest shall be 
such as to prove the applicant's ability 
to transmit correctly try hand key and to 
receive correctly by ear texts in the 
international Morse code at a rate of not 
less than five (&] words per minute 
(Special procedures may be employed in 
cases of physical disability. See 

I 9?,2B{gj.) The applicant is responsible 
for knowing, and may be tested on, the 
twenty-six letters of the alphabet lite 
numerals B-9. the period, the comma, the 
question mark, AR, SIC BT and DN, [See 
I 97.29(c).) 

(b) Elements 1(B1 and 1(C) shall be 
prepared by the examiners or be 
obtained by the examiners from the 
VEC The preparer must hold an 
Amateur Extra Class license The leal 
shall be such as to prove the applicant's 
ability to transmit correctly by hand key 
and to receive correctly by ear texts In 
the international Morse code at not leas 
than the prescribed speed {Special 
procedures may be employed in cases of 
physical disability, See 1 97.26jg),) Tins 
applicant is responsible for knowing, 
and may be tested on, the twenty-six 
letters of the alphabet the numerals 0-9, 
the period, the comma, the question 
rmirk, AA. SIC BT and ON, (See 

1 97^c].J 

(c) ELeanent 2 shall be designed by the 
examiner from PR Bulletin 1U35A (Luteal 
date of issue), entitled Questions far the 
Element 2 Amateur Radio Operator 
License Examination. 

[d j Elements X 4(A) and 4(B) wtU be 
designed by the FC£L The FCC will 
select question* for each teat from the 
appropriate hat of questions approved 
by the Commits log (either PR Bulletin 
103S aCorD. Latest date of issuel- The 
FCC will provide each VEC with 
examinatimi rUrums The VEC ia 
required to hoid current examination 
designs in confidence. 



(e) PK Bulletin* 1Q3S A. BL and C 
D will be composed of questions 
originated by the FCC and questions 
submitted by amaieur radio operators In 
ajxiordunce urtfh the usalrnciions ba (nc 
Bulletin, Amateur radio operator* 
betiding Amateur Extra Ciaas Licenses 
may submit questions for any written 
examination elesnent- Amateur radio 
operators holtsne. Advanced Qaaa 
licenses may only submit questions for 
Element 2 and 3* Amaieur radio 
operators holding General Class or 
Technician Class Licenses may only 
submit questions for E l e men t Z. 

13. Section 97.28 is revised to read: 




(a) Unless otherwise prescribed by the 
Commission* each examination for an 
amateur radio operator license (except 
the Novice Class operator h cense} shall 
be a dm mistered by three accredited 
volunteer examiners. The examiners 
must huld Amateur Extra Class operator 
licenses, unless: (1) They are 
administering telegraphy element 1JAJ, 
in which case they may hold Amateur 
Extra Class, advanced Class or General 
Class radio operator Licenses, or (2) they 
are admimstermg written examination 
elements Z or 3. in which case they may 



hold Amateur Extra Class or Advanced 
Class radio operator licenses. 

f b) Unless otherwise prescribed by the 
Commission, each examination for the 
Novice Class operator lkeci&a shall be 
administered by one volunteer 
examiner. The examiner doe* not have 
to be accredited- The volunteer 
examiner must hold a current General 
Advanced or Amateur Extra Oast 
operator hennae Lamed by the 
Commissi oft. 

(e) Upon completion of an 
pyjmTnjtii-m element, the cxajuioeris) 
shall immediately grade lb* teal papaa* 

(d) WW the candidal* does not 
score a f" 1 "'"^ gradejui an *«^"'^**^** 
element the exaioiaerfs) akaii ao taJonn 
the candidate by providing the 
percentage of question* answered 
correctly, and by returning the 
application (fee i 97 JM) to the 
candmatt Far eumuubau otfaer than 
Notice Class examinations, the test 
papers, including umw sheets, shall 
be returned to the VBC that lamed tfaem. 
For Scrjce Claea exMiin*tk*ML. the teal 
papers, eachariing aarwer 
be retained as pari of the 
examiner's station records far oat 
from the date the exaeimarinn is 
administered. 

I e ) When tee candidate scores a 
passing gratis on an rxansinatjon 
element, the exaamer* (except fur 
wMiiMtw §ar tee Novke Class 
operator boons* | anat issue a 
Of BUCCeeeful comp4rt]cm of (he 
examination This certificate must 



the VEDipsaed examination Identifier 
cone (see f 97323). This certificate is 
required for aLread?-bcenacd eopUcaets 
opera ting with prrvllef as of an amatenr 
operator class higher than that of their 
permanent amateur operator license 
[See 9 f 1 -925(e) and ff7<B*J. Within one 
year (his eertrficafe may also be used Tor 
examination <redHl for element! 1(AJ< 
1[BJ or l(q (Bee | 37.25), 

(f) When the candidate scores a 
passing grade on all examination 
elements required for the operator 
license dees sought [see I 97.23). the 
examiners shall certify to the Following 
Information on the candidate's 
application form (see ( 97+26]; 

(1) Examiners' names, addresses and 
amateur radio station call signs; 

(2) Examiners' qualifications to 
administer the examination (see 
t 97.31); and 

(3) Examiners' signed statements that 
the applicant has passed the required 
examination elements. 

(g) Within ten days of the 
administration of a successful 
examination for the Novice Class 
operator license, the examiner shall 
submit the candidate's application to; 
Federal Communications Commission. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 1732S. 

(hi Within ten days of the 
administration of a successful 
examination for the Technician* 
General. Advanced or Amateur Extra 
Class operator license, the examiners 
shall submit the successful candidates' 
applications end all teal papers to the 
VEC that originally Issued that test 

(i) The FCC reserves the right without 
qualification, to: 

[l] administer examinations itself; or 

(2] re administer examinations itself or 
under the supervision of an examiner 
designated by the FCC to any person 
who obtained an operator license 
through the volunteer examination 
process. 

14. A new | 97,29 ia added to read: 

§ 17 Je Examination grsrtflno. 

(a) Each examination element shall be 
graded separately by the examiners 

(bj An applicant passes a written 
examination if he /aha answers al least 
74 percent of the questions correctly. 

[c] An applicant passes a code 
element examination if he/she proves 
his/her ability to transmit correctly by 
hand Itey (straight key. or, if supplied by 
the applicant, any other type of hand 
operated key such as a semi-automatic 
or electronic key. but not a keyboard 



keyer] and to receive correctly by ear 
texts in the international Morse code at 
not less than the prescribed speed for 
one continuous minute during a five* 
minute test period. Each five characters 
shall be counted bb one word. Each 
punctuation mark and numeral shall be 
counted as two characters. 

15. Section 97.31 is revised to read: 

| 97.3 1 Volunteer examiner requirements* 

(a) Each volunteer examiner 
administering an examination for an 
amateur radio operator license must: 

(1) Beat least 18 years of age; and 

(2) Not be related to the candidate, 

(b) Any person who owns a 
significant interest in. or ia an employee 
of. any company or other entity which ia 

engaged in the manufacture or 
distribution of equipment used in 
connection with amateur radio 
transmissions, or in the preparation or 
distribution of any publication used in 
preparation for obtaining amateur 
station operator Licenses, ia ineligible to 
be a volunteer examiner for purposes of 
administering an amateur radio operator 
examination. However, an employee 
who can demonstrate that he/she does 
not normally communicate with that 
part of an entity engaged in such 
manufacture or publishing is eligible to 
be a volunteer examiner. 

(c) Each volunteer examiner shall be 
uncompensated for bit/her services. 

(d) Each volunteer administering an 
examination for the Technician, 
General. Advanced or Amateur Extra 
Class operator license must be 
accredited by the Volunteer-Examiner 
Coordinator (see Subpart I}. 

fe) The FCC will not accept the 
services of any person seeking to be a 
volunteer examiner if that person's 
amateur radio station license or amateur 
radio station operator's License baa ever 
been revoked or suspended 

16. Sec bo n 97.33 is revised to read 

1 17.33 Volunteer examiner conduct. 

A volunteer examiner who has given 
or certified examinations fraudulently or 
for monetary or other consideration la 
subject to revocation of his/her amateur 
radio station license and suspension of 
his/her amateur radio operator license. 

17. A new fi 97.35 is added to read; 

§ 97.35 Temporary operating authority. 

Upon successful completion of an 
Amateur Radio Service operator 
examination, an applicant already 
licensed in the Amateur Radio Service 
may operate his/her amateur radio 
station pending issuance of his/her 
permanent amateur station and operator 
licenses by the Commission for a period 
of 90 days or until issuance of the 
permanent operator end station 
licenses, whichever comes first, 
consistent with the rights and privileges 
of the higher operating class for which 
the applicant has passed the appropriate 
examination! s]. provided that the 
applicant retains the certificate^) issued 
by the examiners for successful 
completion of the examination^) at the 
station location, and provided that the 
applicant uses an identifier code 
provided by a VEC as a suffix to his/her 
present call sign. 

IB- Paragraph (f) of | 97.84 is revised 
to read; 

I 97 S4 station ktonttftcauon, 



(f) When operating under the 
temporary operating authority permitted 
by 1 1.925(e) with privileges which 
exceed the privileges of the Licensee s 
permanent operator license, the station 
must be identified in the following 



transmission of the station call sign, 
followed by the fraction bar DN. 
followed by the identifier code{s] shown 
on the certifies fe(s) for successful 
completion of an amateur radio operator 
examination, 



ifl A new Subpart I is added to Part 
97 to read as follows; 



Subpart l^Vc4unte#r-Examlner 
Coordinators 

General 

S 97.501 Puree**. 

The rules in this subpart are designed 
to provide for the establishment of 
volunteer-examiner coordinators to 
coordinate the efforts of volunteer 
examiners in preparing and 
administering examinations for amateur 
radio operator licenses. 

S 97.503 DennttfonsL 

For the purpose of this subpart, the 
following definitions are applicable 

(a) Volunteer-examiner coordinator 

| VEC) An entity which has entered Into 
en agreement with the Federal 
Communications Commission to 
coordinate the efforts of volunteer 
examiners in preparing and 
administering examinations for amateur 
radio operator licenses, 

(b) Volunteer examiner An amateur 
radio operator who prepares or 
administers examinations lo applicants 
for amateur radio operator licenses {see 
I 07.30). 



[1] On radiotelephony. by the 
transmission of the station call sign, 
followed by the word "temporary*** 
followed by the identifier codefs) shown 
on the certificate(s) for successful 
completion of an amateur radio operator 
examination. 

(2) On radio telegraphy, by the 



S 97.50$ A0pU 

These rules apply lo each entity thai 
serves as a volunteer examiner 
coordinator. 

j 97,507 VEC Qualifications. 

tn order lo be a VEC, an organization 
must: 

(a} Be organized at least partially for 
the purpose of furthering amateur radio; 

(b) Be at Least regional in scope, 
serving one or more of the following 
regions; 

(1) Connecticut, Maine. 
Massachusetts. New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island and Vermont; 

(2) New Jersey and New York: 

(3) Delaware, the District of Columbia. 
Maryland and Pennsylvania; 

(4) Alabama, Florida, Georgia, 
Kentucky, North Carolina. South 
Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia; 

[5] Arkansas. Louisiana. Mississippi, 
New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas; 
[6| California; 

(7) Arizona. Idaho, Montana, Nevada. 
Oregon, Uluh, Washington and 
Wyoming; 

(BJ Michigan, Ohio and West Virginia. 

[9) Illinois. Indiana and Wisconsin; 

[10] Colorado. Iowa, Kansas. 
Minnesota. Missouri, Nebraska, North 
Dakota and South Dakota; 

(11) Alaska; 

(12) Caribbean Insular areas; 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. United 
States Virgin Islands (SO islets and cays) 
and Navaasa Island: and 

(13) Pacific Insular areas; Hawaii* 
American Samoa {seven islands). Baker 
Island, Commonwealth of Northern 
Mariana Islands. Guam Island. HowLand 
Island farvis island Johnston Island 
(Islets East. Johnston, North and Sand). 
Kingman Reef, Midway Island (Islets 
Eastern and Sand), Palmyra Island 
(mote than 50 islets) and Wake Island 
(Islets PeaLe* Wake and Wilkes). 

(c) Be capable of acting es a VEC in 
one or more of the regions Listed in 
paragraph (b); 

(d) Agree to coordinate all amateur 
radio operator examination elements for 
all amateur radio operator license 
classes; 

(e) Agree not to accept any 
compensation from any source for its 
services as a VEC; and 



(f) Agree to assure that for any 
examination every candidate qualified 
under these rules is registered without 
regard In race, sex, religion, national 
origin or membership (or lack thereof) in 
any amateur radio organization 

§97.509 Conflicts of in tirsi! 

An entity engaged in the manufacture 
or distribution of equipment used in 
connection with amateur radio 
transmissions, or in the preparation or 
distribution of any publication used in 
prepare tion for obtaining amateur radio 
station opera Lor licenses may be a VEC 
only upon a persuasive showing lo the 
Commission thai preventive measures 
have been taken to preclude any 
possible conflict of interest. 

Volunteer-Examiner Coordinator 
Functions 

§ 97.51 1 Agreement required. 

No entity may serve as a VEC until 
that entity has entered into a written 
agreement with the Federal 
Communications Commission to do so. 
The VEC must abide by the terms of that 
agreement, 

$ 97.513 ScheoUlnQof examlnaUooa, 

A VEC will coordinate the dales and 
times for scheduling examinations (see 
! 97.26} throughout the areas where 
communications are regulated by the 
Federal Communications Commission A 
VEC may also coordinate the scheduling 
of testing opportunities at other places. 
A VEC shall notify the Engineer -in 
Charge of me Field Operations Bureau 
(FOB) District Office having jurisdiction 
over the area where an examination is 
to be held of the time, place and 
registration requirements for any 
examination. If no FOB District Office 
has jurisdiction over the area where an 
examination is to be held, a VEC shall 
notify the Chief of the Public Service 
Division of FOB in Washington, D.C 
instead. In either esse, this notification 
must be made at least 30 days in 
advance of the registration deadline. 

5 97,515 Coordinating volunteer 
exarntnenj, 

A VEC will accredit amateur radio 
operators! licensed by the Federal 
Communications Commission! as 
volunteer examiners [nee j 97.30]. A 
VEC will seek to recruit a broad 
representation of amateur radio 
operators to be volunteer examiners. A 
VEC may not discriminate in accrediting 
volunteer examiners on the basis of 
race, sex. religion or national origin. A 
VEC may not refuse to aucrcdii a 
volunteer on the basis of membership 
(or lack thereof) in an amaleur radio 
organization. A VEC must not accredil 
an amateur radio operator volunteering 
to be an examiner if: 

(a) The volunteer examiner does not 
meet minimum statutory qualifications 
or minimum qualifications as pre sen bed 
by the rules; 

(b) The FCC refuses to accept the 
voluntary and uncompensated services 
of the volunteer examiner 

(cj The VEC determines that the 
volunteer is not competent to perform 
the function for which he/she 
volunteered: or 

(d) The VEC determines thai 
questions of the volunteer a integrity or 
honesty could compromise the 
examination^}. 



$•7,517 written ei 

A VEC will assemble, print and 
distribute written examinations 
designed by the FCC (see I 97.37[dJ). 



6, 97.511 

At the completion of each 
examine lion, a VEC will collect the 
candidates' application forms, answer 
sheets and test results from the 
volunteer examiners (see 1 97^S(hJ). A 
VEC will: 

[a] Make a record of the date and 
place of the test: the names of the 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 103 



volunteer examiners and their 
qualifications; the names of the 
candidates: the test results; and, rein ted 
information. 

(h) Screen the application for 
comple t e ne$* and authenticity. 

[cl Forward the application within ten 
days of the date of the most recent 
examination lo: Federal 
Communications Commission. Licensing 
Division. Private Radio Bureau* 
GcityaWirg, Pennsylvania 17325. 

(d) Make available to any authorized 
FCC represent a live any requested 
examination records. 

fi 97.521 Evaluation of oxim1 I on » 

A VEC will be expected to evaluate 
Ihe clarity and accuracy of examination 
epilations on the basin of experience! 
and to bring ambiguous or Inaccurate 
questions to the attention of the 
Com mi as ion. with a recommendation on 
whether to revise the question or to 
delete the question from the 
Commission's list of examination 
questions. 

I S7.5-23 KMnoncsnon o4 



A VEC must establish i unique 
identifier code for each testing session. 
This code must be a slant (/| followed 
by two letters from one of the following 
letter groups: WA through WZ. KA 
through kZ, NA through NZ. or AA 
through AL, The id en li Her code* must be 
shown on the certificate for successful 
completion of an examination. The 
identifier code(s) applicable must be 
appended as a suffix lo Ihe licensee's 
call flign when the licensee operates 
under temporary authority granted to 
amateur radio operators who have 
passed the appropriate examination^] 
for a higher class (see j Q 1.925(e) and 
97.e4[i)]. 



Use of Volunteer* To Prepare and 
Adrrunlater Operator Examination* m 
the Amateur Radio Service; 
Correction. 



AOCWCy: Federal Communication 
Commission 

actiOM! Pinal rule; correction 

tUHM4Rvr This document corrects an 
FCC Rule regarding Volunteer-Examiner 
Coordinators (VECa] in the Amateur 
Rjjdio Service. This correction is 
necessary in order to clarify that VECs 
will not be required to coordinate 
amateur radio operator examinations for 
the Novice Class, 

worn further information contact: 
[ohn J BorkojAfiki. Private Radio Bureau. 
Washington. D.C 20554 [Z02) 032-4964. 

Erratum 

En the mo I tor o Tarn end merit of parti G, 1 
and 97 of th* cDitimisaion i rules la nllflw the 
use at volunteers to prepare and nrfrniniHlpr 
operator examination* in the Amateur Rudio 
Service: PR Docket No. 83-27. Ebn-4220 

Released October 12. 1983. 

I On September 29. 1963, the 
Commission released a Report and 
Order. FCC 83-433. in the above 
captioned proceeding. En the Report and 
Order, the Commission emended Parts 
0. t and 97 of its Rules to allow the use 
of volunteers to prepare and administer 
operator examinations in the Amateur 
Radio Service. 

Z. At paragraph of the Report and 
Order, the Commission indicated that it 
wan adopting new rides to apply above 
the Novice Class, while retaining rules 
recently adopted in another proceeding 
for thi- Novice Class. See Report and 
Ordvr. PR Docket No, 82-727, 46 FR 
32560 (July 18, 1983). However, 
paragraph [d| of newly added Section 
97.507 of the Rules in the Appendix 
would appear to require Volunteer- 
Examiner Coordinators [ VECsJ to 
coordinate examinations for ail da sacs, 
including the Novice Class. This was not 
intended. 

& Accordingly paragraph id\ of 
Section 97 507 of the Rotes in the 



Appendix la corrected to read as 
follows; 

ft 97 JOT VEC Quatflcatlons. 

* * * • * 

Id} Agree to coordinate all amateur 
radio operator examination elements for 
all amateur radio operator license 
classes except Novice Class: 



Federal Communication! Commission 

William J- Trfcarioo, 

Secretary. 



Amendment of the Rules To Authorize 
Tan Year License Terms In the 
Amateur Radio Senile* 

agency: Federal Communications 
Commission. 

a en oh: Final rule. 



SutfSiAJtv; The Commission is amending 
Pari 97 of its Rules to authorize ten year 
operator and station license terms and 
two year grace period for renewal of 
expired operator and station licenses in 
the Amateur Radio Service. The 
Communications Amendment Act of 
1982 authorized license terms not to 
exceed ten years in the Amateur Radio 
Service. This change is necessary in 
order to eliminate a burden on 
Commission resources and a paperwork 
burden upon the public. 

dates: Effective December 15. t&m 



PART 97-1 AMENDED] 

1, Section 97.13(d) is revised to read 
as follows: 

5 97.13 RsrmaJ or modification of 



(d) If a license is allowed to expire. 



application for renewal may be made 
during a grace period of two years after 
the expiration date. During this grace 
period an expired License t* not valid A 
license renewed during the grace period 
will he dated carremly and will not be 
backdated lo the date of its expiration. 
Application for renewal shall be 
submitted on FCC Fores 610 and shall be 
accompanied by the applicant a expired 
license or a photocopy thereof 

Z Section 87.47(h) is revised to read 
as follows: 

§ 97.S7 Rswwwsd and/or modrftcsbdn of 
amateur station Keens* 
t • * « * 

(bj If a license is allowed to expire, 
application for renewal may be made 
during a grace period of two years after 
the expiration date. During this grace 
period, an expired license is not valid- A 

license renewal during the grace period 
will be dated currently and will not be 
backdated lo the dale of its expiration. 
An application for an individual station 
license shall he submitted on FCC Form 
610. An application for an am a tear club 
or military recreation station license 
shall be submitted on FCC Form 611KB 
In every case the application snail be 
accompanied by the applicant's expired 
license or a photocopy thereof. 

3. Section 97.59 [a) and fbl are revised 
to read as follows: 

§ 97.59 License term. 

[a] Amateur operator licenses are 
normally valid foT a period of tea years 
from the date of issuance of a new, 
modified or renewed license, 

(b] Amateur station licenses are 
normally valid for a period of ten years 
from the date of issuance of a new. 
modified or renewed license. All 
amateur station licenses, regardless of 
when issued, will expire on the same 
date as the licensee's amateur operator 
license. 



/WARDS 



Bill Gosney KE7C 

MieroSQ. Inc. 

2665 North Busby Road 

Oak Harbor WA 93277 

DX AWARDS FROM 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

1 1 you've never seen the beautiful DX 
awards available to licensed amateurs 
from the Central Radio Club of Czecho- 
slovakia, then you're in tor a real treat. It 
has been my pleasure ihla pasi month to 
have received the full details of their en- 
tire awards program and I hey are de- 
scribed In the paragraphs to follow. 

SeS Award 

The S6S Award is a Horded those am- 
ateurs who have had a OSO since January 1, 
i960, with at least one station located In 
each of the six continents as defined by 
the IARU. Awards wilt recognize those 
contacts on CW. phone, and RTTY. either 
all band or single-band achievement*. 
Mixed-mode contacts are recognized 

P75P Award 

This, award is Tor ha vino worked at 
least 75 ITU zones as deli nod by the ITU 
Geneva Conference of 1959. AM contacts 



moat have been made since January V 
i960, and awards are available In ihree 
levels of achievement; 1st class— 70 
zones. 2nd class— 80 zones, and 3rd 
class —50 zones. Zones may be deter- 
mined in accordance with a special map 
made available by the Central Radio Club 
for a cost of 3 IRCs. Also, it is important 
to note that alt contacts must he made 
with fixed stations only. 

ZMT Award 

To qualify for the ZMT Award, appli- 
cants must have confirmed contact 
since April 26 r 19*9, with at least one sta- 
tion located In each of the following 39 
areas: OKI, 0K2, QK3, HA. LZ, UA1 f UA2, 
UA3 t UA4. UA6, UA9. UA9. US, UC, UD, 
UF> UG t UK Ul. UJ, UL, UM, UN, UO, UP, 
UQ. UR, 0M (3 different regions deter- 
mined by the last letter of the eel I sign), 
SP (3 different districts), YD (3 different 
districts), YU (3 different districts) 

ZMT 24 Award 

For those interested in pursuing the 
ultimate in DX endurance, the ZMT 24 
Award is fust for you. The requirements 
are exactly the same as for the basic ZMT 
Award detailed above, with the axcep 
lion lhat ail contacts must be made 
within a 24 -hour period. Sound I m possi- 



ble? Absolutely not but don't be 
discouraged if it takes you several at- 
tempts using the stopwatch! 

100 OK Award 

Check your OSL cards. If you can find a 
total of 100 OK stations, then you will 
qualify for the 100 OK Award- All con 
tacts, however, must have been made on 
or after January t, 1954. Endorsement 
stickers are available tor every addi- 
tional 100 stations confirmed, up lo a 
total of 500. Stations may be worked any 
band, any mode. 

OK SSB Award 

This award requires the applicant to 
have two-way SSB contact with different 
Czechoslovak stations totaling 25 
points, without a date limitation. 1 point 
will be scored for each QSO on the 2S- r 
21-, or 14-MHz bands and 2 points for 
each QSO on the 7- or 3.5-MHz bands. 
There are no mode restrictions. 

As an added tip to those wishing to 
pursue these very respectable awards, 
this editor recommends that you keep a 
close eye on the "Contests" column in 
73 magazine and consider making a few 
corn acts during the annual OK DX Con- 
test. Oales and times will be announced 
at least a month in advance of the 
scheduled event- The Awards Manager 
of the CRC also mentions that OSOs 
made during the contest w'ift not require 
OSL confirmations. There is one stipula- 
tion, however: Application must be sub- 
mitted along with your logbook entry for 
(he OK OX Contest. 

All the certificates are issued free of 



charge for members of clubs or associa- 
tions which accept this rule reciprocally. 
The fee for all others IS 10 iRCs for the 
P75P Award and 5 IRCs for all the other 
awards offered by the Central Radio Club 
of Czechoslovakia. General certification 
rules apply by which contacts may be 
verified by two amateurs of a local club, 
a club official,. Or a notary public. 

Applications shall include details for 
each contact, i.e., caJIsign, GMT, date, 
frequency, mode. RSfT), and any addi- 
tional information required for the 
award. Send to Central Radio Club. 
Awards Manager PO Box 68, 113-27 
Ptatta 1, Czechoslovakia. 

Slovensko Award 

The DX Club of Radio Amateurs of Slo- 
vakia offers this award to alt licensed 
amateurs who can show proof of contact 
with stations In the different districts 
(OKR) of Slovakia (0K3, OL8, OL&, OL0; 
districts listed below) after January 1. 
1946. 

Stations in countries which have a 
common border with Slovakia must con- 
tact 35 districts, 30 districts are required 
of stations In other European countries, 
and 10 districts are required for stations 
outside the European continent. 

There are no band or mode restric- 
tions Applications with a GCR list and 
award fee of S IRCs may be sent to: Cen- 
tral Radio Club, PO Box 69. 113^27 Praha 
1 , Czechoslovakia. 

Districts which qualify are: Banska, 
Dysirica. Bardejov. Bratislava, Brati- 
slava-Vidiek, Cadca, Qolny Kubin. 
D una (ska St reds. Gal ant a. Hmenne, 



104 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



Komarno, Kosice, Kosice-Vidie*. Lev ice. 
Uptovsky, Mfkuias. Lucenec, Martin, 
Michaiowce, Nitra, Nova, Zamky> Poprad. 
Povazska Bystrica. Presqv, Pnevidza, 
flimavska S boot a, Roznava, Sen lea, 
Spisska Nova Ves, Star a Lubovna, Svrd- 
nik. Topolcany, Trebisov. Trend n, 
Tntava, Velky Krtis. Vranov, Zvolen, Ziar 
nad Hronorn. and 2i Una 

TEN-TEN INTERNATIONAL 

NET AWARDS 

For I hose of us who frequent the ten- 
mater band, a minute doesn't elapse that 
you don't hear reference being made to 
I he Ten-Ten International fraternity 

The 10-lQ organisation was formed in 
1962 by a group of amateurs in southern 
California. To this date, better than 27,000 
amateurs have joined their ranks. The 
unique awards program for this Interna- 
tional group was founded and managed 
for years oy Frank Orcuit W4J0, who is 
now a silent key. 

To qualify lor membership in Ten-Ten 
International and to move up on their 
•wards ladder of achievement, you first 
must make contact with ten Individual 
Tan-Ten members on the Len-meter band. 
From each QSO, you must obtain ihe sta- 
tion's call, 10-10 number, name, and exact 
QTH Once this has been achieved, you 
may submit your list along with your 
check for U5S4DG {includes fee for the 
quarterly 10-10 publication) to one of the 
following area or district vice presidents: 
Eerie W1NC, Larry WA2SUH, Jim 
WA3RBO, Clint K4EKX, Grace KSMRLL 
Dick W6ANK, Plon WB7ADO, Del W9SPU, 
John NftADJ Mac ZL3RK (New Zealand), 
Art VK2BXN {Australia). August DK5UG 
(Europet. Jim K6PJO <DX at largej 

Your application is checked against the 
10-10 net rosier, and If Found correct, you 
will be Issued your very own 10-10 number 
and Black Cat Certificate. 

Once you obtain your ^0-10 number, you 
may begin work toward various "bar" 
awards. The bar awards are Issued in mul- 
tiples of 100 individual 10-10 contacts To 
apply for any bar award, you must not du- 
plicate contacts previously claimed. In 
each case, submit only 100 contacts per 
application— no more, Each must show 
the callsign of the station worked, the 10- 
10 number, name, and exact QTH 

Award applications must show con- 
tacts in 10-10 number sequence Applica- 
tions received in any other order will be re- 
turned. There is no award fee for "bars"; 
however, an SASE sent along with your 
application is appreciated. Send to: Bill 
Risher WB60MH 10542 Lock Avon Drive, 
Whittle* CA 90606. 

This same process is repealed for the 
200. 300. and 400 bar awards Where it will 
end. nobody knows, for the most numbers 
Collected to date is by Grace K5MRU who 
now has 8200 confirmed. 



When you reach the 500 bar. serial num- 
bers are then assigned to each bar issued 
thereafter Once the applicant reaches 
1000, he or she reaches the first step in 
which award plaques are Issued. Plaques 
are Issued also for 2500. 5000, and 7500 
Contacts, 

1* 10 WAS Award 

This award requires an applicant to 
make at least one contact in each state 
with another member of Ten-Ten Interna- 
tional, DSL cards and sufficient postage 
for their sate return are to be sent with 
your application to WB6QMH This award 
Is Issued only for contacts made after 
January 1, 1973. on arty authorized mode 
on the ten-meter band 

The VP Certificate 

To qualify for this award, a net member 
must have earned his or her '500 bar/' at 
which time a VP number and certificate 
were assigned The idee for Ihe VP certifi- 
cate issued here is to work at least 100 
other net members who have achieved 
their 500 bar and who have been issued a 
VP serial number To be valid, all contacts 
must be made between 28,500 and 2B.550 
MHz or above 29 MHz, with the contact 
lasting at least 5 minutes. As with all 10*10 
awards, application must indicate the lO 
10 number, call sign, name, frequency, and 
exact QTH, Also, a definite requirement is 
to list the stations VP serial number 

All contacts must be made on or after 
October 15, 1979, to qualify. Send your ap- 
plication to: Grace Dun lap K5MRU, Box 
445, La Ferl* TX 78559- 

To the best of our knowledge there is no 
award fee. 

Lucky 13 Award 

The Lucky 13 Award Is to prove that 
your station is capable of working the en- 
tire 10-meter band. This Is not a fre- 
quency-measuring test and it is not nec- 
essary to stay exactly on Ihe prescribed 
frequencies. The idea here is to make 
contact with 13 different VP members on 
each i004iHz segment of the band: 
28.500, 28.600, 28700. 28,800. 28900, 
29,000. 29J0O, 29200, 29,300. 29,400. 
29,500, 29.600. and 29.690 (29.700 is the 
band edge, so be careful) Any mode or 
mixed mode la permissible. As with all 
awards, you must log the callsign. the VP 
number, Ihe first name, the QTH, end In 
this case, the dale and lime of each con- 
tact claimed, It is not necessary to send 
QSLs, but you should have your list 
verified and mailed to; Rich Richardson 
OBftFOD, 960 E. Cottonwood Avenue, Lit- 
tleton CO 80121, 

FEARL AWARDS 

I received award information from a per- 
sonal friend of mine, Glenn KABGW 
(WB7SPD), who used to reside here on 



Wnidbey island and is stationed with the 
US Navy in Masawa. Japan. Glenn urges 
those seeking the awards being offered 
by the Far East Auxiliary Radio League 
(FEARL} to be careful to only count con- 
tacts with KA stations in Japan and not to 
Include those in the continental United 
States 

Glenn mentioned a couple of nets 
which may assist those wishing to meet 
the award requirements in a minimum of 
time. 14.284 MHz Is the golden frequency 
on Sundays at 0200Z and Wednesdays at 
1200Z. 

All FEARL awards are available for 
$1.00 or 7 IRCs, which must be sent with 
your application to: Far East Auxiliary 
Radio League, Attention: Awards 
Manager, c/o Sam Fleming KA2SF. GARH- 
I0-GS-M MCS Japan, APO San Francisco 
CA 98343. 

Worked Fifteen KA Stations 

To qualify for the VVFTKAS Award, ap- 
plicants must work a minimum of at least 
15 KA stations located in Japan or Oki- 
nawa, Stateside KA stations do not count. 
There are no mode or band restrictions 
nor &m there any date limitations. General 
certification rules apply, with proper 
logbook data, 

KA Rag-Chewers Club 

This award certifies that the applicant 
has presented evidence of having had a 
rag chew with a KA station Jn the Orient 
for a period of not less than thirty minutes. 
There are no band, mode, or date limita* 
tions To apply, merely give general log- 
book data including the time your QSO be- 
gan and ended GCP apply. 

Rag C hewer Supreme 

Should you be long winded and were for- 
tunate enough to enjoy an hour-long QSO 
with a KA station in the Orient, then the 
Rag-Che war Supreme award is designed 
especially for you. To apply, merely pro- 
vide logbook data and the appropriate 
award fee of Si. 00 or 7 IRCs. GCR apply 

KA Roundtable Award 

To qualify for this award, the applicant 
must establish and maintain two-way am- 
ateur-radio communication with at least 
two KA stations in the Orient on the same 
frequency at the same time for a minimum 
of thirty minutes. There are no special 
band or mode endorsements. Date is not a 
factor. GCR apply. 

Shortwave Listener Award 

For the shortwave listeners, FEARL pre- 
sents this award for having heard and ren- 
dered a signal report to the operators of at 
least two KA stations in the Orient Appli- 
cants merely send general logbook data 
and the appropriate award fee when ap- 
plying. 



UTICA NY 

The Utica Amateur Radio Club will oper- 
ate special-event station K2IQ, commem- 
orating its 50th anniversary, from 1700Z 
February 11 to 220QZ February 12. on SSB. 
25 kHz from the upper edge of the 4Q-, 20-, 
and 1&-meter bands, and 25 kHz from the 
upper edge of the 40-meter Novice band 
QSL with S ASE and contact number for an 
attractive certificate to: K2IQ, PO Box 71, 
Utlca NY 13503. 

SNOWFLAKE MADNESS 

The Michigan Technological University 
Amateur Radio Club and the Copper 
Country Radio Amateur Association an- 
nounce a radio celebration of their Winter 
Carnival festivities m the northernmost 
part of Michigan's upper peninsula. 

Tech's Winter Carnival is probably Ihe 
most spectacular winter festival In Amer- 
ica with snow sculptures, ice hockey, dog- 
sled racing, skiing, and other festive 
events. 

In association with the Copper Country 
Chamber of Commerce, we are issuing a 
certificate to all amateurs who make con- 
tact with any participating ham In the 
Copper Country between 0000 February 2 
and 0000 February 8. 1964. 

Only one contact is required to get a 
certificate. Frequencies aw 3,630. 7.090, 
and 14 096, RTTY, 3705. 70B5 T 14.085, 
21.085. and 2&1S5. CW; and 3930, 7.265. 
14.305, 21 3B5, and 28.686. phone. On CW 
listen for CQ Winter Carnival, 

Send your QSL along with three 20c 
stamps (for postage and handling) toe 
Howard Junkin N8FHF. 106 W. South Ave- 
nue, Houghton Ml 49931. 

HOSARC SPECIAL-EVENT 

STATIONS 

The Hall of Science Amateur Radio 
Club will issue a commemorative certifi- 
cate to anyone working a HOSARC club 
station on January 15 from 1400 to 2300 
UTC. in conjunction with HOSAftC's lllri 
anniversary. Stations using the call 
WB2JSM will operate CW in the first 25 
kHz of Ihe Novice bands of 40, 15. and 10 
meters. Stations using the call WB2ZZ0 
will operate SSB in the first 25 kHz of the 
General phone bands of 40. 20, 15. and 10 
meters. QSL with a large SASE (40c or 1 
IRC) to HOSARC, PO Box 131. Jamaica NY 
1 1415, or to WB2YXB, club QSL manager. 

PUNXSUTAWNEY PA 

Tne Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, Ama- 
teur Radio Club will commemorate 
Groundhog Day on Sunday, January 29. 
1964, from 10 am to 5 pm on 7 230 and 
14.290. For a certificate send an SASE to 
Clif WB3GAD, RD #6 8ok 21 1, Punxsutaw- 
ney PA 15767. 




Chod Harris VP2ML 

Box 4881 

Santa Rosa CA 95402 

HAPPY NEW YEAR 

The start of a new year brings reflect Eon 
and anticipation: reflection on the events 
of the past twelve months and anticipa- 
tion for the coming year. It is a time to 
think back on coveted successes and 



missed opportunities, a time to consider 
what you win be doing over the next year. 

1983 was a good year for DX. Not a great 
one; the suns pot numbers continued to 
fall, shortening band openings and weak- 
ening signals. But 19&3 also saw some ex- 
cellent DX from many corners Of the 
globe. 

Among the DX highlfghts were not one 
but fwo DXpedilions to inhospitable 
Heard Island, the disaster in the Sprat ly 



Islands, a highly successful assault on 
Maipeio, increasing activity from China, 
and dozens of other amateur operations. 

What do we see ahead for 1064? Radio 
propagation will continue to decline. The 
suns pot numbers are already well below 
their, peak levels of the late '70s and early 
80s. and they will fall still further this 
year. This regular pattern of worsening 
propagation is familiar to DXers of more 
than 10 years standing. The old-timers will 
remember the stow days of the mid-TQs 
when sporadic E and trans-equatorial 
propagation provided what little DX ex- 
citement there was, and DXIng hours were 
spent fighting Ihe static on the lower fre- 
quencies and calling long CQs on ap par- 
ent ly dead bands. 

1964 probably wilt not be the bottom of 



the current suns pot cycle. The 1986-B 
period is a more likely candidate for that 
dubious honor. However, the sun can be 
fickle, and it can decrease activity dramat 
lea lly or flare up and provide some good 
DXIng. Bui the overall irend in 1984 will be 
down. 

Those DXers bitten by the DX bug in the 
past few years, however, will be hard 
pressed. The tremendous increase in the 
number of amateurs worldwide and espe- 
cially the number of DXers, since the last 
sunspot minimum, is unprecedented. 
Many thousands of amateurs turned on to 
DX at a time when 10 Watts Into a wet noo- 
dle could be heard around the world. The 
amateur radio equipment of today Is sig- 
nificantly advanced over that of ten years 
ago, facilitating such communications. 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 105 




Jim Smith VK9NS pfans 3 1984 QXpeditron to Kermadec island, north of New Zealand 
Jim fed the Heard island DX A&soctatton mp to Heard las* year. {Photo vta The DXers 

MwpiJmi) 



The effects of these factors of declining 
sunspots and largo numbers of avid DXers 
can be seen already. When a DX station 
comes on The band, a piieup often begins 
even if the siaiion is not particularly rare. 
The large number of DXer mice chasing 
the increasingly elusive DX cheese makes 
it very difficult for foreign stations to have 
satisfying contacts. This trend will only 
worsen. 

For the many thousands of amateurs 
who have started chasing OX since 197S, 
1984 will be a year of decision. Should I 
upgrade my station to remain competitive 
in the <ncreastngiy -difficult DX world? 
Should I try to lough it out with my present 
equipment, meekly accepting diminishing 
results? Or should t forget about OX for a 
few years and turn to satellite operation or 
Stamp collecting? 

The hard-core DXer will rise to the chal- 
lenge, improving his station and oper- 
ating techniques to ensure DX success. 
And the DXer will have considerable as- 
sistance in this task Again in 1fl84, as in 
the past years, a number of hard-working 
and dedicated amateurs will be traveling 
to Choice DX local ions around l he world 
to hand out contacts to the "Deserving 
DXers/ 1 

THE DX ADVENTURE 

Some of the most rewarding aspects of 
DXmg are the wonderful people who 
devote so much of their own time and 
money to sponsor, organize, and operate 
on DXpedit ions 10 the rarer amateur spots 
In the world. Without the dedicailon and 
persistence of these amateurs, the DX 
world would be dull indeed. And a fine ex- 
ample of this respected breed Is Jack 
Binder KB7NW 

An avid traveler, Sack had moved to 
Australia in 1969 with his English wife. 
J ode A few years later, the Binder family, 
including two young sons, set sail in their 
home-buifl Banyandah (which Is Aborigi- 
nal for Home on the Water' 1 ), And that's 
what the yacht was to the family of four: 
their only home. For eight years the family 
cruised the Pacific, covering more than 
60.090 miles. Jack and J into took turns 
teaching their boys using materials from a 
cooperative stateside school The parents 
supplemented the traditional curriculum 
with extra lessons In marine biology, 

106 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



botany, and geography, based on their 
travel s + 

The Binders kept their expenses to the 
minimum (there was no need of clothes on 
the boat or uninhabited islands, for exam 
pie), but they did need a source of cash 
for foodstuffs, supplies, and repairs. 
Sometimes Jack worked on land for a 
short time, bul in 1973 he turned to charter 
trips for income- And one of his early char- 
ters was a expedition to Mellish Reef, oil 
Australia, 

Jack's next expedition would be 
enough to turn most hams away from this 
pastime; Jack's yacht was tired upon as il 
approached Amboyna Cay, In the Sprairy 
islands, In 1979- The Binders escaped 
without being hit. unlike the Germans in 
the more recent attempt, Several mem- 
bers of that DXpedit ion ligured Brunei 
VS5 was exciting enough, but Jack and 
two other hams returned to the Sprat I ys, 
setting up and operating on Bare Canada 
Reef Since then, Jack's wanderlust and 
DX spirit have i&i him to Palmyra, 
Kingman. Tofceiau, and back lo Methsn 
Reef. 

The Binders called a temporary halt to 
their odysaey in 1982 and placed their 
sons in a regular school for the firs! time 
in their lives, Meanwhile, Jack earned 
some much needed funds by piloting a 
Charter vessel around the Great Barrier 



gp6QL f/ tf> 



J •'» 



?JW7KG ft'4K£ GC5ACH/W6KG 
r§# 



t?. v»« *&"-« ws *°: ..:'vi&6* 



E2HU <ve,t5 a4V '^f^ vaj- 

J3ABV J *L0o VW2S*X H/€ 



\ r* 



Upyd W6KG and iris W&QL Colvin swing through South America on the 1983-4 Yasrne 
trip, {Photo via The OXer s Magazine/ 



Reef "It's an unalterable fact of life that it 
costs money to 1 1 ve. no matter how idyllic 
the lifestyle or how basic and down-to- 
earth one lives/" Jack explains. 

Jack makes it very clear that this land- 
baaed existence la not permanent. "My 
one and only true love will always be ex 
^editions There Is something about them 
that's hard to put down in words. Some- 
thing about conceiving the idea, then put- 
ting it into action, following it through in 
every liny detail until the speck of land 
shows on the horizon and the operators 
get down to business. It's out and out 
adventure, but with a purpose," 

Now, 1984, ihe Four Js (Jack. Jude, 
Jerome, and Jason) are on the open ocean 
again. The planned itinerary includes the 
Solomon Islands (H441 the Philippines 
(DUK Singapore (9V). and the Seychelles 
(S7) on the way to the western Indian 
Ocean. The OX targets there are Mayotte 
(FN), Glorloso £FB). and Juan de Nova 
(FH), in I ale spring or early summer, 

A host of other DXpedit Ions are 
scheduled for early 1984. A group of 
Venezuelan amateurs intend to land on 
tiny Aves island in ihe Caribbean. Aves 




De&echeo from the air Two Puerto Rican amateurs hope to activate KP4/D this month. 
1WP4ATF photo} 



(YV&I, about 125 miles southwest of Mont- 
serrat, is so low to the water that high 
waves and tides preclude landing for 
much of the year. Also on tap for the com^ 
Ing year is another trip to GlJpperton 
Island (FOJ by a collection of Tahitian and 
stateside hams, And Jim Smith VK9NS 
(see photo) of Heard Island tame is pul- 
ling together a sc ien tilic and amateur op- 
eration on Kermadec Island (ZUK). Closer 
to home, the Corvins are on the move 
again, and a couple of Puerto Rican ama- 
teurs are shooting for Desecheo 
(KP4/D)— see details, below 

YASME SAILS AGAIN 

Once again, Uoyd and ins Coivm, 
W6KG and W6QL (see photo), are DXped* 
honing, this year concentrating on South 
Amer«ca where contacts may be plentiful 
but QSLs rare The Golvins are sailing 
under the auspices of the Yasrne Founda- 
tion, the nonprofit group which has been 
sponsoring DXpedit ions for many years. 
The name, Yasme, comes from the yachi 
of that name on which Danny Weil sailed 
for many DXpedit ions twenty years ago. 

The Ooivlns customanty set up a sub- 
stantial station m each country where 
they operate, including beam antennas 
and amplifiers. They thus present a con- 
sistent signal and are quite easy to work. 
Also, the Corvins stay at each location For 
several weeks, working 5-10,000 QSOs. 
which gives DXers with very modest sta- 
tions ample opportunity for a contact 
And the Yasrne Foundation GSL system is 
excellent 

Look for the Cofvins <with portable calls 
or calls ending In KG Of QU toward the low 
ends of the bands, especially the lower 
frequencies. Send QSLs to Yasrne Foun- 
dation, Box 2025. Castro Valley GA 94546, 

DESECHEO 

Two amateurs from Puerto Rico plan a 
DXpedit ion to tiny Desecheo Island in Ihe 
Caribbean this month Jose Maldonado 
WP4ATF and Rodollo HI3RST/KP4 are 
aiming for the lirst week in January for 



their three-day operation, They will use 
their own caiisigns with the designator ID. 
They solicit contributions and OSLs via 
Box 449 T Palmer PR 00721. 

Desecheo was one of the last DXCC 
"countries" admitted under the "separate 
administration" rule which has since 
been eliminated. The island is a wildlife 
refuge only a tew miles west of Puerto 
Rico. Its refuge status was the reason for 
its separate-country designation by the 
ARRL but this same status also restricts 
travel to the island. The Fish and Wildlife 
people don't wani dozens of hams swarm- 
ing over their island, littering with beer 
cans and coax cable bits. Consequently, 
only a lew amateur expeditions nave 
opera ted from the island, starting with 
Bob Denmson WfiDX. 

The well-run International DX Founda- 
tion DXpedition to Descheo two years ago 
cleaned up moat of the demand for KP4/D. 
but then, the definition of a rare country is 
"the one you don't have,*' regardless of 
how easy It is to wonY Hopefully, the op- 
erators will spend some time on the lower 
frequencies to take advantage of the good 
propagation from that part of the world 
and to meet the Increasing demands for 
40-. SO-, and ISO-meter DX contacts. 

KEEPING INFORMED 

There is a major difference between 



wonting a DXpedition versus contacting a 
resident of the country, in the latter case, 
the timing probably is not very Important, 
If you don't work him this time, you might 
tomorrow, or next week, or next year, But 
you don't get a second chance with many 
DXpedrtions How long do you think it will 
be before hams return to Heard I si and? 

QXpedJtions give DXers a great shot at 
the DX contact, and in many cases pro- 
vide the only way for radio contacts. 
After all, many of these DXCC "count ries" 
are totally uninhabited. Many are unin- 
habitable over the long term, and only the 
limited stay of a DXpedition provides DX- 
ers with a shot at them. 

So the DXpedition wilt not be there next 
week,, or next year. It may be years before 
that particular "country" again attracts a 
DXpedition. Thus the DXer cannot afford 
to miss the contacts offered by the DX 
pediti oners If you hibernated through the 
Heard Island activity la$! year, you prob- 
ably won't gel another shot at it for many 
years. 

Real DXers understand that Keeping in- 
formed on a timely basis Is an essential 
part of successful DXing, especially as 
the sunspots decline and the pileups in- 
crease on the few remaining DX stations. 

The chief way of keeping abreast of the 
DX world IS Ihrouigj! the radio; active 



amateurs who taJfc to and fist en to their 
fellow DXers will know who is on now, who 
is supposed to be coming on P and where. 
There is no substitute for activity. But 
there are aids which make DXing more ef- 
fective and enjoyable 

You local radio club can be an excellent 
source of DX information. Keeping m 
touch with other DXers in your area is like 
having extra pairs of ears You can be 
keeping an eye on 20 meters while a fellow 
DXer across town is watching 40. A quick 
call over VHF FM keeps both hams in- 
formed 

Many areas of the country have taken 
this a step further by organizing DX clubs. 
The larger DX clubs sponsor repealers 
dedicated to DX and DXers. Mow with doz- 
ens of ears out, littie DX si Ips by. A DX sta- 
tion can tell when his presence is broad- 
cast over a DX repeater easily. He First 
works one station in an area, say ^ an 
Francisco, Then, a couple of minutes 
later, another DXer from the same region 
calls. Then stations from all over the Bay 
area are In the pileup! 

Of course, the flow of information must 
go both ways The DXer should share his 
success with the other members of the 
club and not simpty take advantage of the 
hard work of others. Arid the DX club prob- 



ably has many other tasks which need 
help: meetings, newsletters, repeater 
maintenance, etc. So one way you can 
continue your DX success is to join and 
support your local radio club. 

Other useful sources of DX information 
are the DX bulletins DX columns in the 
major amateur radio magazines {such as 
this onel have lead times too long for the 
kind of timely information needed in the 
DX world. You need to know what is on 
now, and for that a weekly DX news sheet 
can be wet I worth the money 

So to help you keep up-to-date in the DX 
world in 1964. the two major weekly DX 
bulletins are offering a free subscription 
(o a couple of lucky readers of this col- 
umn. Send your OSL card (and maybe a 
photo of you and your shack) to VP2ML. 
Box 46fl1, Santa Rosa CA 95402 by Jan- 
uary 31, 1964. I'll pull a couple of cards out 
of my hat and present the lucky winners 
with a one-year subscription to The DX 
Bulletin or QRX DX 

H you can't wail and you aren't lucky 
enough to have your card pulled out of the 
hat. you can subscribe directly. Send 
S28.00 tor a one-year subscription to 
QRX DX, Box 4072, Richardson TX /5030, or 
to The DX Bulletin. Box S73, Vernon CT 
UoUdq, 



REVIEW 



THE HEATH KIT SS-9000 

From the lime about two years ago that 
t had the opportunity to try out a prototype 
of the SS-9000, 1 have looked forward nrttti 
anticipation to seeing It on the mar- 
ket. While the unit has many features 
attractive to the SSB operator, it should 
have spec fa I appeal to the computer- 
oriented operator who likes to Jump from 
band to band and frequency to frequen- 
cy in search of a good QSO or rare 
DX. The CW operator can take advan- 
tage of two extremely effective narrow fil- 
ters in addition to the above-mentioned 
computer capabilities. 

A floppy disk that demonstrates some 
ol l he capabilities of the units controller 
i$ shipped with II. The disk utilizes inter 
action between the compute^ the opera- 
tor, and the SS-9000 during the demorv 
stration, The program that controls the 
unit during operation is within the unit it- 
self, in me controller circuit, however As 
a consequence, only a terminal is re- 
quired, and any computer used must be 
reconfigured as a terminal if it is to be 
used to control the SS-9000. I used a 
Heath* it H-99 computer to run the demo 
disk and then had to go into the cabinet to 
change a Jumper cable to use a as a term* 
nal. In effect, I was dedicating the com- 
puter to use with the SS-9000 alone, My 
guess Is that anyone who wants to control 
his unit with a keyboard will opt for some 
i ne* pensive terminal rather than restrict- 
ing the use of his home computer to trans- 
ceiver control 

Terminal Functions 

The unit is programmed to remember 
and display both Ihe frequencies last 
shown on the 1 wo frequency displays and 
the one stored In memory on each band. If 
t inadvertently bandswHch to one of these 
bands, the displays land terminal print- 
out) will return to the appropriate band 



limit and the stored frequencies will be 
lost. In order to be used, the frequencies 
must be retrieved by the terminal 

The terminal also controls and indi- 
cates the frequency within each band to 
which the receiver and transmitter nave 
been toggled. Two push buttons centered 
under the middle of the two frequency dis- 
plays do this switching in the manual 
mode, The indicators tor toggling on the 
unit are red LEDs for transmit and green 
LEDs for the receive frequencies The dis- 
played and remembered frequencies for 
each band can be established by either 
terminal or manual control at any time. 

Some other functions the terminal can 
control and Indicate are: 

• Passband shift In 100-Hz steps— as 
many as 600 Hz down and 400 Hz up 
#Bandswitching 

• Scan rale 

• Transmit/Receive 

• Mode: LSB. USB. CW wide. CW medium 
|400 Hz), CW narrow (200 Hz), and RTTY 
(AQQ Hz) 

During operation on any given band, the 
operator has (he ability to preset alt of 



Ihese functions in anticipation of operat- 
ing on anolher band, 

Shared Functions: Pit Tuning 

The phase-locked-ioop tuning is deadly 
accurate to the 100-Hz steps by which it 
changes. No supplementary frequency 
standard is necessary. PLL with t00-Hz 
resolution Introduces a problem in bring- 
ing two or more transceivers to Ihe Identi- 
cal frequency, i can be as much as 50 Hz 
Off while attempting to zero beat another 
signal with the SS-9000 The other station 
with stepiess tuning might have to make 
up the difference. The SS-9000 CW opera- 
tor might become a Utile frustrated with 
this dependence on the other operator if 
he Is a purist. Fifty- or ten-Hertz resolution 
would lessen the problem of frequency 
matching:, but for most operators the high- 
er resolution is probably unnecessary 

Scan Rate 

PLL tuning makes it practicable for the 
manufacturer to offer tuning up or down 
the band at almost any desired rate. This 
tate can be determined tor the SS90O0 by 
the setting of four DIP switches St nee ac 
cess is gamed to these switches by re- 
moving the cover of the unit (nine screws), 
t probably won't change them often. On 
the other hand, if I'm operating with the 
terminal, I need only to punch S= 1 ito 16) 
to vary the manual scan rale through Its 
whole range 




Phofo A. The Heaihkft SS9OO0 



Memories 

The practicality of the memories comes 
out when I'm looking for a QSO on what- 
ever band is open. I'll flip the rig on to hear 
immediately a sector of a band that I have 
last used. Nothing new there, but I nave 
also two other segments of the band that I 
can check out with two punches of a but- 
ton. This happens without my losing the 
first frequency In the process, I can tune 
up or down from any of the three spots it 1 
near nothing interesting ft t hear a station 
in QSO that I might like to talk with when 
he finishes, J commit his frequency to 
memory— not my memory but the memory 
of the SS-9000— and resume searching for 
a CQ or someone finishing a QSO. If I 
don't find either, I can check back on the 
QSO with a punch of a button, and if it's 
still underway, resume searching with 
another punch. 

If somehow I hear a second hot pros- 
pect tor a later QSO, i can leave the one 
display on that second station and toggle 
the receiver over to Ihe other display to 
continue searching Then if I wani to take 
a Quick listen tor activity on the other 
band, the three selections are preserved 
in memory 

Bands witching 

On the SS-9000, changing bands with 
the front-panel bandswltch can be made 
to activate an antenna switch tor each se- 
lection. There is a plug on the back that 
will connect the unit directly to the Heath- 
kit antenna switching relay. This function 
can. of course, be adapted to other anten- 
na switches. 

Bands witching by computer or terminal 
control is another capability of Ihls unit. A 
motor switches bands as well as anten- 
nas if this Is desired. 

On this unli, the bands witch hung up at 
rimes when t attempted to rotate it coun- 
t ere lock wise manually. This could have 
damaged the switch if I had strong-armed 
it. This is because the teeth thai engage 
during computer-controlled oandswitch- 
Ing are not quite separated adequately on 
this particular moior assembly. I expect 
that a call or a letter to the company could 
bnng a new assetvbty in the mail. Since 
the assembly is located in a housing that 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 107 



Jf. 




' tr 




Photo B Bottom view of the SS9000 



Photo C. Tap wew of the SS9000. 



e* lends from the hack ot the unit behind 
the bands witch shaft, it would not be di Hi 
cult for me to replace. 

Receiving. 

True to the numbers given in the man- 
ual, the bandpass fillet and CW filters are 
extremely effective. The effectiveness of 
the SSB bandpass filler can be demon 
sua ted easily w>th a turn ot the bandpass 
shift switch dunng reception with a 
strong interfering signal parked close by- 
All I sacrifice for this filtering are some of 
the lows of the received Operators voice, 
or some ot the highs. Being able to drop a 
strong unwanted signal off Ihe side of the 
bandpass plateau can result in a stgriifl* 
cant increase In intelligibility of Ihe 
wanted signal 

CW Operation 

Using the CW narrow filter. I can drop a 
strong mtetermg signal 100 Hz or more 
away down to a level at which I can copy a 
desired signal through <t This means, too, 
thai the strong Signal is far enough down 
the filter passband skirl thai Ihe age is not 
triggered to ihe poinl lhal [he weak signal 
doesn't gel amplified adequately. In fad, 
the filtering is such i hat I am able to copy 
CW with the comfort of age leveling of Ihe 
desired signal almost without exception 
since the CW filtering renders harmless 
the signal-killing effeel of the age Irom 
strong stations. Another nice feature of 
the narrower filters is the tack of ringing I 
experienced Tnss is an especial advan 
tage while copying high-speed CW. The 
SS-9000 s intering is the cleanest I have 
heard in Ihls regard. 

Since I'm not a musician and don't have 
perfect pilch, I have the same problem 
with the SS-9000 that I have with any other 
transceiver I can't tell by ear when I have 
the desired signal at the offset frequency 
of 800 Hz, It's easy to tell by peaking toe 
signal with the S-meter with the narrow 
CW filter switched in it there is no interfer- 
ence and/or fading. It's almost impossible 
otherwise to tune the transmitter exacily 
to the frequency of the received station 
without an outside reference tone. 

Being able to tune as closely as possi- 
ble to another signal with one's own trans- 

108 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



mitter is important. It minimizes the 
amount of band space taken up, it's easier 
for others lo break in b one doesn't have to 
retune for each signal in a round robin, 
and it minimizes leap-frogging. I attempt 
to minimize my contribution to the prob- 
lem by using a cheap audio frequency 
standard: a musician's pitch pipe I tune 
the note of the desired signal to F sharp, 
800 Hz. Then my signal and at least one 
other are on the same frequency. 

Transmitter 

Front panel controls in addition to the 
shared transceiver controls of band and 
frequency are: power output, VOX delay, 
speech compression, and microphone 
gain. Power output can be read directly 
from the multi-function meter as the pow- 
er control is varied. These are all that are 
needed to Control SSB transmissions 
from contact to contact, Speech compres- 
sion, if desired, is switched on and turned 
up until compression indicated on the me- 
ter on voice peaks gives the same excur- 
sion of the needle as depressing the tune 
button while the meter is switched to read 
power. That's probably the most compn- 
cated maneuver necessary to learn to be 
able to lake full advantage ot the SSB fea- 
ture of this unit. Microphone gain also IS 
turned up on voice peaks until the meter, 
switched to ALC indication, shows some 
ALC action, 

VOX delay, compression, and micro- 
phone gain may need to be varied from 
operator to operator, juslifying the loca- 
tion of the controls on the front panel. 
Three other controls will need to be set, 
but not adjusted as frequenily as the 
front-panel controls. These are: CW side- 
tone level, anti-trip, and VOX gain. Adjust- 
ment of these Is made through the righl 
side panel 



Power Suppty 

The companion power supply to the 
SS-9000 will operate with inputs in the 
120- and 240-V ac ranges to provide 13.8 V 
dc with sophisticated regulation and pro- 
tection. It has high-temperature protec- 
tion from heat, sink sensing, surge-cur 
rent protection, and short protection. Trip- 
ping the fast of the three will require reset- 
ting the on -off switch. The first two react 
by reducmg power-supply output to safe 
levels until the condition reverses itself 
The power amplifier transistors of Ihe 
SS-9000 are provided protection from ex- 
cess current flow by these power-supply 
circuits as well as by power-out put -con- 
trol I Ing circuitry that Is heatslnk tempera- 
ture dependent, and by high vswr cutback 
Circuitry, 

The power-supply cabinet contains the 
speaker for the unit and two clocks, each 
settabfe by Its own two front-panel but 
tons. The docks will operate with either 
12- or 24-hour format. The readouts are 
green vacuum flou res cent tubes, as are 
the frequency displays on Ihe SS-9000. 

Summary 

Setting the SS-9000 up for operation on 
SSB and CW was as straightforward as 
could be. I did not make use ot the RTTY 
mode, but RTTY sending and receiving 
should be optimally simple also. A 400- Hz 
flTTY filter position is provided in the 
mode switch as well as the usual LSB. 

The several controls that must be dealt 
with in order to operate SSB are easily se| 
using the owner's manual. Front-panel 
control changes, such as power output, 
VOX delay, compression, and microphone 
gain are extremely simple with Ihe multl 
function metering provided at the touch of 
a button. 



WHAT DO yOU THINK? 

Nave you recently purchased a new product lhaf has been reviewed In 73? It 

you have, write and tell us what you think about it. 73 will publish your comments 
so you can share Ihern wilh other hams, as part of our continuing eltorl lo bring 
you the best in new product informailon and reviews. Send your thoughts to 
Review Editor, ^3 Amateur Radio's Technics Uou me/, Peterborough NH 03458. 



Opera i ing the SS-9000 with an amplifier 
is easily arranged. After stringing a 
phono-plugged cable for the relay and the 
AtC voltage, I just punched the tune but 
ion and screwdriver-adjusted the ALC lev 
el in the back panel to limit me amplifier 
current properly by limiting drive power. 

I had to get used to operating CW with 
out QSK, coming from a rig thai has a car 
rier-operated relay (COfl) it was gooddis 
cipiine for me to attempt to keep my trans 
missions short. Rumor has it that it was 
(eft (he frequency synthesizer loops might 
be too unstable while using the COB in 
this unit with high-speed CW As you can 
tell from the advertisements, only very re- 
cently have manufacturers developed 
confidence enough In their designs to of 
fer full break-In operation with PLL tuning, 
Heathkit included. 

Conclusion 

I very much enjoyed indulging in fanta 
sies about how I could take advantage of 
the unique features of this rig, One idea 
most appealing was to buy some cheap 
h^gh lying property in my local telephone- 
calling area or within UHF range and set 
up the SS-9000 right in the middle of a 
huge antenna farm. A terminal with mo- 
dem could control the unit and I could op- 
erate from any convenient room in the 
house. 

The capability of terminal control rathe* 
than computer and software control ap- 
peals to me. I'm eager io develop applica- 
tions tor personal computers in my life. 
but I'm not enthusiastic about dedicating 
a PC to a single use. If the feature of ter- 
minal control and the concept of a quality* 
built, sensitive, selective, adaptable 
transceiver appeal to you. give the 
SS-9000 serious consideration. 

For further information, contact the 
Heath Compahf, Benton Harbor Ml 49022. 
Reader Service number 484, 

Dave Learned W8DFI 
Benton Harbor Ml 

A BOOK ON AMTOR; 
WHAT, WHY, AND HOW 

AMTOR means AWateur Teletype Over 
ftadio and provides almost error-free 



transmission and reception of messages, 
A form of RTTY that uses a seven-bit 
(Moore) code, TOR has been in use by 
both land-based and sea-based stations 
for several years but has been adopted by 
amateurs only recently. 

The international Telegraphic Union 
Report CCIR 476-2(1978) formed the basis 
for the 1983 FCC approval of AMTOR, and 
provides a set of operating standards and 
procedures. 

And now, because of the relative new- 
ness of AMTOR to the amateur-radio fra- 
ternity and because some of the introduc- 
tory articles that appeared in amateur 
magazines have been missed by ama- 
teurs who may be Interested In trying out 
this new mode of communication, Phil An- 
derson WfflXl has put out a neat, soft -cover 
publication called Introduction to and the 
Operation ot AMTOR. 

The table of contents lists a preface 
and introduction and chapters entitled 
Why AMTOR, Basic Equipment, Basic Op- 
erating Procedures, An Operating Exam- 
ple: AMTORSOFT (Copyright 1983 by Kan- 
tronics, Inc.), and Theory of Operation, 
AMTQfl; there a) so is an appendix which 
includes chapters on a 'Brief History of 
AMTOR," a table of the AMTOR code, and 
references. 

The author uses cartoons in an early 
chapter to relate the reader to the idea of 
AMTOR, showing how interference can be 
minimized through repetition of the 
message and how an acknowledgement 
of message received is an important ele- 
ment of the system. 

The booklet describes how essentially 
error-free comunication can res u ft in spite 
of fading, interference, and the use of low 
power by either or both stations in a two- 
way circuit, it shows the reader what equip- 
ment is required, basic operating proce- 
dures 1 where to find and how to tune AM- 
TOR, how to establish contact, how to 
send and receive messages, and provides 
dozens of other vital pieces of information 
that one will want to know when begin- 
ning, Retail price of this 37-page bookiet 
is $3.50. 

For further informal ion t contact Kan- 
tronics, inc., 1202 East 23rd Road, Law- 
rence KS 66044. 

JtmGrayWIXU 
n Staff 

THE J. C. LABS 
ACTION MONITOR 

The first thing you'll ask yourself— as I 
did— is, "Why hasn't someone done that 
before?" 

The Action Monitor is one of those de- 
vices that is simple, neat, and effec- 
tive. , , besides which it is needed! Let me 
give you an example. 

How many of you have a scanner or 
monitor that has to be left unattended 
much of the da/ (or night)? There may be 
something that comes over the monitor 
that you want to know, or even have to 
know. . yet you can't be there. 

How about a OX station that you have 
been waiting for on a spot frequency, but 
you have to go to work and may never 
know whether it ever showed up? 

If you've ever worried about not getting 
that vitai message, or capturing that sig- 
nal that you wanted, the Act Son Monitor by 
J. C, Labs is for you. Here's how ft works. 

The Act \ on Monitor is actually a VOX 
unit that operates a built-in switch to turn 
on a tape recorder or other recording de- 
vice. You attach the speaker output of 
your receiver or scanner to the input termi- 
nals of the Action Monitor by a pair of 
wires. These can be audio wire, zip cord, 
or even a shielded pair, although it isn't 




vHmMB 



Photo A. The yardstick held by Aiex Torres indicates size of the discone hefd by Joan 
Torres, 



necessary to go to shielded wire unless 
you want to. 

Next, you attach one of the output leads 
of the Action Monitor to the tape 
recorder's push-to-talk input jack by 
means of the mating plug already fur- 
nished; and finally, you attach the other 
output lead to the tape recorder's micro- 
phone input jack by means of the mating 
plug also furnished. Now you are ready to 
record. 

There is an ON-OFF switch on the Ac- 
tion Monitor. In the OFF position, the Ac- 
tion Monitor is not functional and your 
scanner or receiver functions normally— 
that is t without recording anything. Now 
comes the good part- You turn the switch 
to ON and you set the tape recorder to the 
RECORD position. Then tune in a signal 
on the receiver and watch what happens. 
As soon as the signal is received, the Ac- 
tion Monitor automatically turns the tape 
recorder on. and it records the received 
signal. 

In case you wonder about it turning oft 
too soon and missing a reply, Jim Casa- 
massa of J. C Labs has that all figured 
out: He provides a two-second delay in the 
Action Monitor so that it doesn't shul the 
recorder off Immedfately. Thus, if there is 
another signal following the first one by a 
short delay it also Is picked up. Neat, huh? 



Okay, how well does it work, you'd like 
to know? it works just great? My thin g, for 
instance. Is monitoring the aircraft bands. 
I like to listen to the commercial airliners 
call in to the Boston Air Traffic Control 
Center, so I merely hook up my aircraft 
monitor receiver to my tape recorder 
through the Action Monitor, and let it re- 
cord while I am away from home. 

In case you wonder why I do that, let me 
say that ft's not mere curiosity. I happen 
to be a pilot who uses radio communica- 
tions in my aircraft. Aircraft radio proce- 
dure Is short f terse, clipped, and fast. It 
takes a btt of getting used to, and you 
have to mentally gear up to understand it 
...particularly when you receive instruc- 
tions to make a complicated approach. I 
find that the only way for me to be able to 
understand these rapid-fire contacts is to 
practice, practice, and practice listening, 
and the Action Monitor is the perfect way 
to do it simply and painlessly. I can get a 
tape fuH of information over a period of a 
day's time, so that when I get home in the 
evening, I can listen to the tape and hear 
what has happened while away. Best of 
all, I can replay the tape again and again 
tc get that important practice. 

Your use of the Action Monitor may be 
somewhat different than mine, of course, 
but that doesn't mean it will be iess use- 




JVHV^HHH 



Photo B. Top view of the discone. 



fill. A friend of mine listens to those 'se- 
cret' 1 frequencies where nothing happens 
for hours— even days— at a time. Then, 
suddenly, there is a burst of information. 
The Action Monitor is there, ready as al- 
ways, to catch and record the transmis- 
sion. Clandestine-radio monitors will find 
the Action Monitor to be absolutely nec- 
essary for their purposes— It is a valuable 
tool that saves time and money. 

Speaking of which, you ought to Know 
that the Action Monitor costs only $39.95 
{plus S2.00 shipping and handling) — an 
extremely affordable price, in this writer's 
opinion, for something that is as useful 
and simple as this device. As I said In the 
beginning, why hasn't it been done 
before? 

Oh, yeSi one more thing: The Action 
Monitor comes complete with 9-V battery 
for powering the VOX circuit. While the 
battery seems to iast forever, it is possible 
to use an ac adapter to furnish the neces- 
sary direct current. J. C. Labs furnishes 
one that is suitable for use with the Action 
Monitor for $6.96, as an optional acces- 
sory, pius a $1.00 shipping and handling 
charge. 

For more information, contact J. C. 
Laos, PO Box 183, Wales Wf 531 S3; (41 4h 
547-7987. Reader Service number 4B2. 

Jim Gray W1XU 
73 Staff 

A NEW DISCO HE ANTENNA 
FOR AMATEUR SERVICE 

For the past twenty years, the dispone 
antenna has been a very popular item 
among military communicators, and until 
recently, the only source for such anten- 
nas was the military surplus business. But 
things are changing, and in the last few 
months. TET (Taniguchi-Engineering- 
Traders, Yokohama, Japan) has intro- 
duced a discone antenna for amateur use. 

The useful frequency range of the an- 
tenna is an impresssive 50 to 4B0 Mega- 
hertz continuous. That's one of the big- 
gest payoffs of a discone: about an octave 
worth of bandwidth. TET claims that the 
swr anyptace in the useful frequency 
range is less than 1.5:1. Let me tell you, I 
tested the antenna at 146 MHz. 220 MHz 
and 450 MHz, and the worst swr obtained 
was 1.3:1— a very impressive perfor- 
mance. 

The gain of the antenna is given at 3 
dfii, and in a quick comparison between a 
quarter-wave vertical whip and the dis- 
cone, the discone came out ahead by 2.8 
dB. Considering that the measurement 
was relatively crude {even though it was 
done in an anechoic chamber), I probably 
would go aiong with the specifications 
given by TET. 

Maximum power limit on this Jewel is 
500 Watts- The most impressive part of 
the antenna is the way it was built. The 
metal used is high-quality aluminum and 
the hardware used is all stainless steel. 
Assembly of the antenna took me about 
one hour (that includes two long-distance 
telephone interruptions) after figuring out 
the conversion from metric to inches (my 
tape measure is in inches). Mechanically, 
the antenna is about as strong as a mule, 
yet the unit only weighs 6.5 pounds. 

The longest element, part of a radial, is 
2200 mm (3Q.B"). This seven-foot radial is 
needed for 50-MHz operation. Photo B 
shows the top of the discone* and Photo C 
shows the insulator between the driven 
elements and the refiectors. It fs made of 
a very hard and durable piastic, soiid H and 
about 2 inches in diameter. 

The antenna can be mounted on top of 
an HF monobander or tribander. It has 
about the same performance as a Ringo 
Ranger but much wider frequency operat- 
ing range. This antenna witi work very well 

73 Magazine * January, 1984 109 




Dl SCONE A*lGLE OF RADlATiON vS l/4i *HlP 
75 



Photo C. The two discs of the dt scone, top tradtator, ana bottom (ground-plane reflectory 



on 2 meters. 220 MHz. and 450 MHz; it is 
vertically polarized, which makes it com- 
patible with repeaters and FM simplex 
operation 

The angle of radiation is relatively low, 
at approximately 15° Irom the horizontal 
plane. Fig. 1 shows the angle of radiation 
relative to a quarter*wave vertical anten- 
na. The GDX-2 Is made with a metal cou- 
pling that mounts on the top of the 50-239 
connector to protect such a connector 
from the weather. 

For those of you willing to take the 



plunge, the antenna is now available from 
US TET distributors. (1 bought this one 
from Sul Ironies. Inc.. Xema. Ohio.) The an- 
tenna was bought by DARA (Dayton Ama- 
teur Radio Association) for evaluation 
purposes; it was given as a door prize at 
one of the association meetings. 

We paid the standard price of $79,95 lor 
the antenna. Considering I he wide band- 
width, the rugged construction and Its 
performance, the price la very good. The 
alternative would be to build three anten- 
nas and three feed lines plus connectors. 




20 40 m -.. IOC 

fllLD ST»EK6TH PEL*TjVE CZ* vmF tx, H6-52 Vhj AT lOO'i *A*GE> 

Fig. 1. Angle of radiation relative to a quarter-**** vertical 



The discone comes ahead financially af- 
ter making the tradeoff. 

For further information, contact TET 
Antenna Systems, W24-E LV, Mission 
Road, Escontfldo CA 92025; {714}-743- 
7025, Reader Service number 483 

Al Torres KP4AQI 

Technical Chairman 

Qeyton Amateur Radio Assn. 



References 

1. TET Antenna Systems, GDX-2 instruc- 
tion Manual, 

2. ARRL Radio Amateur Handbook, 1983 
edition, p. 20-16 lo 20-18. 

3. Kraus, J. D., Antennas. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co.. New York NY. 1950, p. 420-422 
4 ARRL Antenna Handbook, 1976 edition, 
p,57. 



HBM PRODUCTS 



AEA RTTY SOFTWARE 

AEA has released several new RTTY 
software packages for the Commodore 
machines, The MBAText Is an advanced 
Morse, Baudot, and RTTY package for the 
VIC -20 or C-64, and includes a keyboard 
overlay for easy operation. The program 
includes RTTY and ASCtJ speed-estimate 
mode, as well as automatic speed track- 
ing and lock -on capabilities Dedicated 
function keys, message buffers, and hard- 
copy and magnetic media storage all 
make for easy, full -capability operation 

The AEA Mieropatch™ is a low -cost 
Morse. Baudot, and ASCII softwares 
hardware interface package, The Micro- 
patch incorporates the MBAText software 
ROW, and adds dual-channel mark and 
spece Chebyshev active fillers, Auto- 
matic threshold correction makes for 
good copy when one tone is obliterated 
by QRM or selective fading. Several shifts 
are switch selectable, and the tripie-LED 
indicator creates an easy tuning environ- 
ment. 

AEA has also produced two AMTOR 
products, the AMTORTeat™ and the Mi 
croAMTOR Patch™ AMTORText will 
allow the Commodore €4 to be used as an 
AMTOR terminal with all the features. The 
memnj riven program makes it easy to 
run, and comes complete with SELCALL. 
AflO. and break-in operation capabilities. 

Combine the AMTORText program with 
nigh-quality hardware, and you get Micro- 
AMTOR Patch Four pote active filters, 
automatic PTT, and an EXAR 2206 sine 
generator make this interlace capable of 
copying through severe ORM. 

For more information, contact Advanced 

110 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



Electronic Applications, Inc., PO Box 
&2160, Lynnwood WA 93036, {206^775- 
7373. 

BHCTS NEW BHC— 
THE BIG HAM CLOCK 

BHC Inc., has Just introduced their Gig 
Ham Clock, the latest of targe I i quid-cry s- 
tal-dispiay clocks In small packages, The 
clock has two large (5/8" tail! LCD mod- 
ules, one for local time 112 Of 24-hour 
type) and one for GMT, Each clock module 
can be programmed for your desired com- 
bination ot: month/day hours* minutes, 
seconds, and set to WWV ihacJq. 

Each of the big modules will run one to 
three years on the replaceable baitery. 
Both modules are mounted in a black 
anodized desk-top frame. 

The Big Ham Clock Is available from 
amateur radio dealers and distributors, or 



may be ordered directly from &HC. toe , 
17 W Woodhead. Houston TX 7701 §. 
Reader Service number 477, 



NEMAL'S SATELLITE 
CONTROL CABLE 

Nemai Electronics International, Inc., 
has just Introduced a new type of combin- 
ation cable designed for the satellite 
television Industry. As a supplier ol cable, 
connectors, and SMATV products to the 
satellite television market for over seven 
years. Nam a I has responded to a need for 
an all-purpose cable for TVRO Installa- 
tions 

Consisting of nine individual conduc- 
tors plus a 96 Va copper-shielded RG5MJ 
coaxial line, the Nemai SCC (Satellite 
Control Cable) provides for all the require- 
ments of most TVRO equipment in on* di- 
rect burial cable On the nine conductors, 
there are five f22-gauge standard copper, 
two 22 -gauge shielded with a third drain 
wire, and two f" IB-gauge wires, At I wires 
are color coded to industry standards tor 
easy Identification. 

Nemal SCC Is available in 500- and 
1000-foot rolls, as well as by the foot. For 




BHC's Big Ham Clock. 



additional information, piease contact 
Hemal Electronics International, inc, 
12240 HE Uth Avenue. North Miami FL 
33167; f305rSB3-3924 Reader Service 
number 47B 



INFORMATION PACKETS BY 
H. STEWART DESIGNS 

H. Stewart Designs recently announced 
the availability of Its design-Information 
packet for a unique indoor antenna called 
the DX Hidden Asset Loop Antenna. This 
antenna is Intended for use by apartment 
and condo dwellers, and others who are 
frustrated by antenna space restrictions. 
An antenna made from the information 
supplied has a vertically-polarized omnidi- 
rectional radiation pattern ideal for work- 
mg mobiles and for DXmg 

Intended for mounting In an attic or 
crawl space {and outdoors, too. if you 
should be lucky enough to have roof 
space available) a DX Hidden Asset Loop 
Antenna built for the ten- meter band 
would be only 40 inches tall and 55 inches 
in diameter, it is electrically balanced, in- 
dependent of ground, and does not re- 
quire radial s or a ground connection. 

Constructed from wire and other sim- 
ple, readily-available materials, the DXHA 
looks like two four-foot halos arranged in 
a horizontal plane, mounted one above 
the other and separated by a little over 
three feet. The two loops are joined by two 
vertical wires spaced a few Inches apart, 
and the coax feedline attaches to the cen- 
ter of one of the wires Radiation is mainly 
from the verticals and, possibly, the 
antenna, could be thought of as top-and- 
txmom loaded radial ore, although thai 
has not been suggested by the literature 

If made from aluminum tubing and sup- 
ported by some PVC pipe, it would appear 
as if the antenna could be self -supporting 
and well suited to outdoor mounting, H 
Stewart Designs gives the construction 
tor a wire-end -wood antenna but suggests 
that other possibilities exist. The informs- 



lion package contains drawings, tables of 
dimensions, diagrams, and assembly 'tun- 
ing instructions for several popular nigh> 
freq u enc y amateur bands from two through 
fifteen meters. 

We at 73 mm be putting tooatner a ten- 
meter version for evaluation and will re- 
port results in trie Product Review section 
within a few months. Meanwhile, for fur- 
ther information, contact H. Stewart De- 
signs, PO Box 643, Oregon City OR 97045. 
Reader Service number 43 1 . 



GUIDE TO RTTY FREQUENCIES 

Interest In monitoring RTTY signals in 
the shortwave spectrum has caught the 
fancy of thousands of hams and SWLs. 
Receiving RTTY signals has been greatly 
simplified through the use of computer 
technology end stable HF receiving equip- 
ment, in keeping pace with this explosive 
growth, the second edition of the Guide to 
RTTY Frequencies has double the amount 
of i nformatr on and number of pages as 
the 1980 first edition 

Compiled and edited by O. P. FerraJi, 
the Guide to RTTY Frequencies details 
the frequency, call sign, location, power, 
speed, and shift, plus schedules of over 
5000 RTTY stations and frequencies in 
use. The booh is con ven lent iy divided into 
two separate lists: the first by frequency, 
the second a reverse list by callslgn. In- 
cluded in the lists are military, weather, 
aeronaut leal, embassy, press, traffic, and 
coastal RTTY stations and nets. This is 
the most comprehensive ii sting pf RTTY 
stations ever published. 




******* 









pfl 



Micro tec's do-tic converter 



The introductory text provides an over- 
view of the techniques of RTTY reception 
with short articles on Russian Cyrillic. 
Hell sen re i bar teat signals, and an ex- 
planation of how to use the station lists 
RTTY newscasts are given specie' consid- 
eration in the Guide. For the first time in 
print, the Guide to RTTY Frequencies 
gives definitive schedules, details on 
beam headings, "silent days/ 1 special 
shift patterns, etc. The author gives some 
advice on buying equipment just to copy 
RTTY newscasts, pointing out that the 
number ot RTTY newscasts that can be 
monitored in North America has been 



steadily decreasing although activity In 
ill other services is expanding. 

For more information, contact Git far 
Associates, inc., 52 Perk Avenue, PO Box 
239, Park Ridge NJ 07656. (201/-391-7S37. 
Reader Service number 476. 

A 25 W AMPLIFIER 
FOR TWO METERS 

Ham Industries. Inc., which recently ex- 
panded its product line, has announced 
the availability of Its first ham product, the 
PA 25. a very compact 25- Watt amplifier 
for the 2-meter band. 



Weighing B ounces, the PA-2S can be at* 
tacned to a hand-held or mounted to a car 
dashboard with the accessory mounts in- 
cluded. It will boost outpui power up to 6 
times for a hand-field transceiver. An 
adapter cord allows plugging into a ciga- 
rette lighter, or a separate power supply 
can be used. 

To order, or to obtain fun her informa- 
llon p contact Ham industries, fnc„ Inspec- 
tion Products Division, 83$ Highland fldl, 
Macedonia OH 44QSG. {2i2M67-4256> 
Reader Service number 479. 



THE MICROTEC 50DC1235 
DC-DC CONVERTER 

Magnum Distributors, fnc. f has intro- 
duced another power-conversion product, 
the model 50DC1235, designed and manu- 
factured by Microiec Inc. 

Tire model 50DC1235 Is a commercial- 
grade, high-efficiency, high-current, con- 
tinuous-duty, dc-oc converter Specifica- 
tions: l8-50-V<fc input, 138-V-oc output 
at 30 A. Continuous. 35 A intermittent (35 
A continuous with forced air cooling): 
regulation: line 0.1% temp. 0,5*4. output 
ripple and noise: less than 5 mV rms at 
max. load; efficiency: 83-90% input and 
output protection; size: 13.§"x3,25 HT x 
4 + 5"; weight 5 lbs.; construction: all non- 
ferrous, 1 year warranty. Complete speci- 
fications upon request. 

For additional information and pricing, 
contact Magnum Distributors^ inc., WOO 
5. Dixie My, W. #3, Pompano Beach FL 
33060; (3Q6h78$-2Q0Z Reader Service 
number 460. 



CONTESTS 



Robert Baker WB2GFE 
16 Windsor Dr, 
AtcoNJ0BO04 

3RD ANNUAL 40-METER 

WORLD SSS CHAMPIONSHIP 

00002 to 2400Z 

January 7 t 1984 

SPONSORED SV 

73 Amateur Radio's Tecnntcai Journal 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES: 

Work as many stations as possible on 
40-meter phone during the specified times 
of allowable operation The same station 
may be worked once Crossmode contacts 
will not count Singieoperator stations may 
operate a total of 16 hours. All multi-opera- 
tor stations may operate the entire 24-hour 
period. Off periods must be noted In your 
iog(s) and on your summary sheet Off 
periods are no less than 30 minutes each. 

OPERATOR CLASSES: 

(A) Single operator, single Transmitter, 
phone only (8) Mutiioperaior. single trans 
nutter, phone only 

EXCHANGE 

Stations wtthm the continental 48 United 
Slates and Canada transmit an RS report 
and slate, province, or territory Aft other 
stations, including Alaska and Hawaii, 
iransmit RS report and DX country, 

POINTS; 
5 QSO points Tor conlacts with VvWE sta- 



tions located within the continental 48 Unit- 
ed States and Canada. All other contacts 
score 10 points each List points for each 
contact on your log sheets) 

MULTIPLIERS 

1 muttiplier pomi is earned tor each US 
state. 48 mammum ia District of Columbia 
contact may oe substituted tor a Maryland 
multiplier}, each Canadian province or tew 



lory H3 maximum), and DX country (exclud- 
ing the continental US and Canada) 

FINAL SCORE 

Total OSO points times total multiplier 
points equals ctetmed score 

CONTEST ENTRIES 

Each entry must Include a contest log, a 
dupe sheet, a contest summary, and multi- 
plier checklist. We recommend that con- 
testants send for a copy of the contesl 
forms Send an SASE to the contest ad- 
dress listed below 

CONTEST DEADLINE 

Each entry must be postmarked no later 
than February 12 1964. 



NEWSLETTER OF THE MONTH 

'The A. R dub publication that tries to be different." That's the self 'proclaimed 
motto of Tne Triple States Radio Amateur Club's TSRAC BNT t this month's contest 
winner. How are they different from most other newsletters? 

Well p sure, they have news about club members and news about h amies. ts and 
special events. News about past and future happenings, "The Trading Post" classi- 
fieds- Some paid advertising. News (and a coupon) about a new Novice class. FCC 
and ARRL news. Articles (September issue) such as 'Simulated Disaster Turns into 
the Real Thing" and "Helping the FCC at Midnight!" News about the newsletter 
Itseif — editorial and subscription info, Letters to the Editor. News "From the 
Editor's Desk" for readers. Some photos of hams in action. ARES news, A League 
membership application. More news. 

Get the picture? News, news, news — crammed into this 24oege single-spaced 
issue. Editor Ralph McOonough KBAN's Club doesn't get this award for news, 
though They pel it tor taking the time and an awful lot of space to congratulate and 
recognize club members for their personal and club efforts. They try to be different 
by doing this and we feel that they more than succeed. 

Our congratulations go out to Ralph, his helpers {however unsung), and TSRAC 
for a job very weft done. 

To enter your club's news tetter In 73 s Newsletter of the Month Contest, send 
It to 73, Pine Street, Peterborough NH 03*58, Attn: Newsletter of the Month, 



DISQUALIFICA TIQNS 

Omission of any required entry form, 
operating in excess of legal power, manip- 
ulating of contest scores or times to 
achieve a score advantage, or failure to 
omit duplicate contacts which would re- 
duce the overall score more than 2% are 
all grounds for immediate disqualifica- 
tion Decisions of Ihe contest committee 
are final 

AWARDS: 

Contest awards well be issued in each 
operator class in each of the continental 
40 United States, Canadian provinces and 
territories, and each DX country repre- 
sented A minimum of 100 QSOs must be 
worked to be eligible for contest awards 

CONTEST ADDRESS 

To obtain entry forms or to submit an 
entry, contact 40-Meter Contest. Dennis 
Younger NE6t. 43261 Si nth Street East, 
Lancaster C A 93535. 



3RD ANNUAL 75-METER 

WORLD SSB CHAMPIONSHIP 

00002 to 2400Z 

January 8, 1984 

SPONSORED BY: 

73 Amateur Radio's Technical Journal 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 

Work as many stations as possitMe on 
7*KT>eter pixine during the specified times 
of allowable operation. The same station 
may be worked once Crossmode contacts 
will not count Single-opera to* stations may 
operate a total of 16 hours. All mulii opera- 
tor si at ions may operate the en lire 24-hour 
period Off periods must be noted in your 
loots) and on your summary sheet Off 
periods are no /ess Than 30 mtnutes each. 

73 Magazine • January, 1984 111 



OPERATOR CLASSES 

(A) Single operator sing>e transmitter 
phone only {By Mu Hi operator sjngle trans 
mine*, phone only. 

EXCHANGE, 

Stations wilhin the conllnenlai 46 United 
States and Canada transmit an RS report 
and stale, province, of territory. All other 
stations, including Alaska and Hawaii 
transmit RS report and OX country 

POINTS 

5 QSO points for contacts with VWE 5 la 
t tons located wilNm the continental *& Unit 
orj Stales and Canada All other coniacis 
score 10 points each List points for each 
contact on your log sheet ts) 

ktULTtPUERS: 

1 multiplier point is earned tor each US 
state, 48 rnaiimtim (a Oislnct of Columbia 
contact may he substituted for a Maryland 
multiplier!, each Canadian province or tern 
tory <13 maximum), and DX country {exclud- 
ing the continental US and Canada) 

FINAL SCORE: 

Total QSO points times total multiplier 
poinls equals claimed score 

CONTEST ENTRIES 

Each entry must include a contest log, a 
dupe sheet, a contest summary, and multi- 
plier check list We recommend thai con 
res I ants send for a copy of the contest 
forms Send an SASE to (he contest ad 
dress listed below 

CONTEST DEADLINE 

Each entry must be postmarked no later 
lhan February 12. 1964 

DISQUALIFICATIONS 

OmiSS*on ot any required entry form, 
operating in excess of legal power mamp 
utating of contest scores or times to 
achieve a score advantage, or failure to 
omit duplicate coniacis which would re- 
duce the overall score more than 2% are 
all grounds tor immediate disqualified 
tion Decisions of the coniesl committee 
are final 

AWARDS 

Contest awards wtli be issued m each 
operator class m each of the continental 
4£ United States. Canadian provinces and 
territories, and each OX country repre- 
sented A minimum ol 100 QSOs must be 
worked lo be eligible for contest awards 

CONTEST ADDRESS: 

To obtain entry forms or to submri an 
entry, comae*. 75-Meter Contest, Jose A 
Castillo N4BAA 1832 Highland Drive 
Amelia island Ft 32034 



RATS NEST AND CROOKED 
STICK IV 

21002 January 8 to 
0100Z January 9 

This antenna experimenter's contest 
sprint is sponsored by the Issaquah Ama- 
teur Radio Club. A Rats Nest and Crooked 
Stick antenna is 100 feet maximum of 
single-concucior wire isond or stranded), 
any configuration. Feedhne will not have 
to count as part of the 100 feet unless it is 
coaxial cable. Antenna height Is limited to 
20 feet at I he center of high current, i.e.. 
center of d I pole, center of quad, base of 
i/4-wave vertical. Transmitter power shall 
be 250 Watts or less (dc Input). 



CALENDAR 



Jan 7 

j*n a 

Jan 14-15 
Jan 14-15 

Jan 14-15 
Jan 20-22 

Jan 21 -22 
Jan 27-29 
Jan 28-29 
Jan 28- Fab 5 
Feb 4-5 
Feb 4-5 
Feb 4-5 
Feb 4-5 
Feb 11-12 
Fab 18-19 
Feb 18-19 
Feb 18-19 
Fab 24-26 
Feb 25 
Mar 3-4 
Mar 17-1 B 
Mar 17-18 
Mar 17-18 
Jul 13-15 
Aug 11-12 
Aug 24-27 
Sep 22-23 



73 40-Meter World SSB Championship 

73 75-Meler World SSB Championship 

73 180- Meter World 55 B Championship 

Hunting Lions in the Air Contest 

ARRL VHF Sweepstakes 

45 WAS SSTV Contest 

North Dakota QSO Party 

CO Worldwide 160* Meier DX Contest- CW 

Michigan YL QSO Party 

ARRL Novice Roundup 

South Carolina QSO Parly 

Arizona OSO Party 

Vermont OSO Party 

Zero District QSO Party 

Dutch PACC Contest 

American Radio Club International DX Contest 

YL-1SSB Commo System QSO Party— Phone 

ARRL DX Contest— CW 

CO Worldwide 1 80-Meter OX Contest— SSB 

RTTY World Championship 

ARRL DX Contest— Phone 

YL-tSSB Commo System QSO Party— CW 

Bermuda Contest 

Spring QRP CW Activity Weekend 

AS International SSTV-DX Contest 

New Jersey OSO Party 

AS North American UHF FSTV DX Contest 

Late Summer QRP CW Activity Weekend 



FREQUENCIES: 

CW— 21.060 to 21200 MHz. 
SSB— 21.350 to 21,450 MHz 

EXCHANGE 

Name, location (QTH), type of antenna, 
I ARC member— yes or no. 

SCORING 

CW contact— 21.060 to 21.099 MHz, 5 
points: CW contact— 21 100 to 21200 
MHz, 10 points; SS8 Contact— 21 350 to 
21 450 MHz 2 points. 

A station may be contacted once on 
SSB and once on CW. Each dope the con 
test committee finds Is penalized by a 
loss ot 10 points. 

Bonus points awarded as follows: each 
new stale worked, 3 points; worked all 
seventh-call -area states (8), 50 points: 
worked aft states (501 75 points; each new 
call area worked, 5 points: worked all ten 
US call areas. 35 points; 7 or more CW 
contacts, 25 points; 15 or more CW con 
tacts, 75 points: each DX contact (KH& 
KL7. VE, XE, JA, etc.). 5 points. 

CATEGORIES: 

1. Non-IARC member using a Rats Nesl 
and Crooked Stick antenna. 2. IARC 
member using a Rats Nesl and Crooked 



Stick antenna, 3. (ARC member using a 
conventional base-station antenna. 4 A 
station making contact with three IARC 
members during contest. 

AWARDS: 

In each of the above categories 1,2, and 
3: A. High overall score, B. High CW score 
(without bonus), C. High SSB score (with- 
out bonus), D. High Novice/Technician 
score. E- Participant (1 hour or more 
operation) 

In category 4: M flat Catcher" certificate. 

ENTRIES: 

By February 1, 1984, submit summary 
sheet-points per mode* bonus points 
earned, total points earned, name, call, 
address, complete description of antenna 
and equipment used, license class. Log 
sheet— lime, cell, frequency, mode, ex- 
change, 

For Rat Catcher entries, submit log 
sheet showing three contacts with Issa- 
quah Amateur Radio Club members 
during contest, 

At I correspondence must include an 
SASE sent to: Issaquah Amateur fladiu 
CJub, Bob Farnworth KB7NV, 6822 131 St 
Ave, S,E,, Bellevue WA 98006. All dec! 
stons of the contesi committee will be 
final. 





RESULTS 

1983 ARIZONA QSO PARTY 

Arizona Stations 




Call 


QTH 


Score 


'K6U 


Yuma County 


75,468 


-KB7K2 


Pima County 
Hon- Arizona Stations 


16,965 


•W5PWG 


Texas 


200 


W5WG 


Louisiana 


170 


* Certificate winner 







5TH ANNUAL 160-METER 

WORLD SSB CHAMPIONSHIP 

0OO0Z January 14, 1984 to 

24O0Z January 15, 1984 

SPONSORED BY 
73: Amateur Radio's Technical Journal 

OBJECT 

To worta as many stations as possible on 
160-meter phone m a maximum of 32 hours 
allowable contest time Muiii -operator sta 
lions may operate the entire 4&*iour contest 
period Stations may be worked only once 

ENTRY CATEGORIES 

(A) Single operator srrvgle transmitter 
phone only (B| Mull iopera lor single trans 
FTfcittef, phone only 

EXCHANGE 

Stations wttfen the continental US anc 
Canada transmit f*S report and state or pn> 
vYncertemlory Ail others iransrtMi RS report 
ami OX counify 

POINTS 

5 QSO pom Is tor contact with VWVE sta 
lions contacted waihin the continental 4fl 
Umied Scales and Canada AM other contacts 
earn TO points each 

MULTtPuERS 

1 multiplier point #iN be earned for each of 
I he continental United States 48 ma*tmum 
la Dtstnci ol Columbia coniact may be sub- 
stituted tot a Maryland multiplier), each ot 
the Canadian provinces;! err it ones ji3 max 
■mum), and each DX country i miMite the con- 
tinental 46 United States and Canada. 

FINAL SCORF 

Total OSO points times total multiplier 
points equals claimed score 

CONTEST ENTRIES 

Each entry must include »og sheets, dupe 
sheet tor 100 o* more contacts, a contest 

summary and a multiplier check sheet. 

ENTRY DEADLINE 

Ail entries must be postmarked no later 
than February t9. 19B4 

DX WINDOW 

Stations are expected to observe tne DX 
window from t 825- V83Q MH? as mutually 
agreed by Copland operators Stations m the 
US and Canada are asked not lo transmit in 
this 5* Hz segment of the band During the 
contesi, all W/VE stations are requested to 
uiiliie only those frequencies Irom 
l 806-1.B2S and 1 830-1. 300 MH.> 

DtSQUAUFiCATlQNS 

Disqualification may result it a contestant 
omits any requited entry form operates m en 
cess of legal power authorized tor hisAier 
given area, manipulates operaling times Co 
achieve a score advantage or tails to orrrn 
duplicate coniacis which reduce the overall 
score more than 2%. Oecisjona ol ihe con- 
test committee are Imal 

AWARDS 

Contest awards w<l" be issued in each en- 
iry category in each of the continental United 
States each Canadian pto¥incertemtory> 
and each DX country A mint mum of 100 
QSOs must be worked to qualify 

CONTEST ADDRESS: 

To obtain informal ion or entry forms (en. 
close an SASE) or to suborn a contest entry. 
contact: 160-Meter Contest. Harry Arsenauii 
KlPUt 603 Powell Avenue, Ene PA 16505 



112 73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 



HUNTING LIONS IN THE AIR 

CONTEST 

Starts; 1200 GMT January 14 

Ends: 1200 GMT January 15 

The contest Is sponsored by Uons 
Clubs International and coordinated by 
Uons Club F!lo da Janeiro Arpoador, 
Brazil. Participation in ihe contest Is open 
to ail duly licensed radio operators. Lion 
and non-Lion. There are two modes: 
phone and CW Participation in both 
modes is allowed but points are counted 
separately- All amateur stations particr- 
paring must operate within their licensing 
regulation Separate categories wMI exist 
(or single operators and radio clubs/so- 
cieties Multi-operators may participate 
as long as they do noi operate simulta- 
neously with the same callsign. However, 
each callsign used must be listed on the 

log 

Use all bands. 60, 40. 20. 15. and TO 
meters Only one OSO with the same sta- 
tion on each band may be counied Re- 
member that phone and CW are counted 
separately! 

EXCHANGE: 

RS(T1 and sequential QSO number. 
When a contact la made with any Lion, 
Lao. or Lioness, the name of the club con- 
Lac ted should be clearly identified, 

SCORING: 

OSOs within the same continent count 
1 point while those between different con- 
tinents count 3 points. Score 10 extra 
bonus points tor each QSO with a member 
of a Lion. Lioness, or Leo Club horn a dif- 
ferent country or 5 points within the same 
country. Score 20 bonus points for a QSO 
wllh a member of the Lions Club Rio de 
Janeiro Arpoador. Contacts between Bra* 
Hi i an stations and members of the Ar- 
poador club will count onty 5 extra points, 
Contacts between members of the Ar- 
poador club will noi count any bonus 
points. 

AWARDS: 

For single-operator entries. Lions Clubs 
International will present trophies for 
first, second, and third places on both 
modes- Fourth through tenth places will 
receive plaques. In addition, each partici- 
pant sending a log with a minimum of 5 
contacts wilt receive a special certificate 
The contest committee will at so select 
and reward the most active Lions Pub 
participating in the contest. 

ENTRIES: 

Keep a separata log for each mode. 
Each participant will note In the log the 
callsign and Information exchanged, Con- 
firmation of contacts will be made by 
comparing the logs of the participants. 
Participants should send their logs by a if 
mail no later than Feb. 5 to: Contest Com- 
mittee, Hunting Uons m the Air, Uons 
Club of Rio de Janeiro Arpoador, Rua Sao 
Francisco Xavier #246. Apt. 407, 22550 Rio 
de Janeiro, RJ. Brazil, 



AS WAS SSTV CONTEST 
Starts: 1800 EDT January 20 
Ends: 1800 EDT January 22 

This is the 3rd annual contest spon- 
sored by A5 ATV Magazine The object is 
to work as many different US states as 
possible on the video mode. All contacts 
must be in video form with a minimum of 
callsign and RSV signal reports sent and 
received. Count 10 points per SSTV QSO 
regardless of location, with 100 points 
awarded for each new state. Contacts 
with Alaska or Hawaii on SSTV count 500 



points. Top scorer will receive a free 
3-year subscription to A5 ATV Magazine 
with 1-year subscriptions going to District 
leaders AM entrants will receive a special 
gold speciaUzedcommun teat ions cer- 
tificate suitable for framing. Logs must be 
sent to: Contest Manager. ^5 ATV Maga- 
zine, PO Box H, Lowden IA 52265 Indicate 
state and score on the front of the enve- 
lope. Logs and photos sent will be re- 
lumed at the close of the contest judging 
period Results should be published in the 
March or April. 1984, issue of AS ATV 
Magazine 



NORTH DAKOTA QSO PARTY 
0000 to 0800 and 1600 to 2400 

GMT January 21 
0800 to 1600 GMT January 22 

Sponsored again by the Red fliver 
Radio Amateurs of Fargo ND Work sta- 
tions once per band and mode. 

EXCHANGE: 

RSfT) and state, province, country, or 
North Dakota county, 

FREQUENCIES; 

Phone— 1835, 3905, 7280, 14295. 213B0, 
285B0. 

CW— 1810. 3540. 7035, 14035. 21035. 
26035. 

Novice—3725, 7125. 21125. 28125 

SCORING. 

Phone contacts count 10 points. CW 20 
points, and RTTY 50 points. North Dakota 
stations count an additional 100-point 
bonus for working live Novices North 
Dakota stations multiply score toy total of 
stales, provinces, and countries worked. 
Others multiply by the number of North 
Dakota counties worked (max 53) 

ENTRtES& AWARDS 

Certificates to state, province, and 
country winners, Plaque to North Dakota 
winner and highest scorer outside North 
Dakota. Mail logs by February 28 th to: 
Mike Beaton KD9A. 2267 Flickertail Dr., 
FarflQ ND 58103. Include a large SASE for 
results. 



CO WORLDWIDE 160 METER 

CONTEST-CW 
Starts; 2200 GMT January 27 
Ends: 1600 GMT January 29 

Operating classes include both single 
and multJ-operator (maximum of 5 ops per 
station). 

EXCHANGE: 

RST pius QTH, and state for USA, prov- 
ince tor Canadian, 

SCORING: 

Con I acts with stations within own 
country are 2 points, other countries but 
same continent are 5 points, other con- 
tinents are 10 points KH6 and KL7 are 
considered countries. 

Multipliers are each US state, V£ pro- 
vince, and DX country. USA and Canada 
are not country multipliers. However, 
there are three VEi provinces: New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward 
Island. Final score is total OSO points 
times the sum of the multipliers. Mari- 
time-mobile scoring will be determined by 
the location. 

AWARDS; 

Certificates to the top scorers In each 
class in each US state. VE province, and 
DX country, Special plaques are also 



being awarded for top USA, Europe, and 
world scores. 

PENALT1ES; 

Three additional contacts will be de- 
leted from the score for each duplicate, 
false, or unverihabte contact removed 
from the log. A second multiplier will also 
be removed for each one lost by this 
action. 

Violation of the rules and regulations 
pertaining to amateur radio in the country 
of the contestant or the rules of the con- 
test, unsportsmanlike conduct, or taking 
credit for excessive duplicate contacts or 
multipliers will be deemed sufficient 
cause for disqualification. Disqualified 
stations or operators may be barred from 
competing In CQ contests for a period of 
up to three years. 

ENTRIES: 

Sample log and summary sheets may 
be obtained from CQ by sending a large 
SASE with sufficient postage to cover 
your request. It is not necessary to use the 
official form, you can use your own. Logs 
should have 40 contacts per page and 
show lime in GMT, numbers sent and re- 
ceived, and separate columns for QSO 
points and multipliers. Indicate the multi- 
plier only the first time It Is worked 

Include a summary sheet with your en- 
try showing the scoring and other essen- 
tial information, and a signed declaration 
trial all rutes and regulations have been 
observed Mailing deadline for CW entries 
is Feb 28. Logs can be sent directly to the 
160 Com est Director. Don McCJenon 
N4 IN, 3075 Florida Avenue, Melbourne FL 
32901, USA. Alternatively, they can be 
sent to CO 160-Meter Contest, 76 North 
Broadway, Hlcksvllle NY 11801, USA. 
Please Indicate "CW" on the envelope! 



MICHIGAN YL QSO PARTY 
Starts: 1800 GMT January 28 
Ends; 1800 GMT January 20 

Sponsored by The Auto State Young 
Ladles (TASYLs). No crossband nel, or re- 
peater OSOs are allowed, Each station 
can be contacted only once, 

EXCHANGE 

RSfT). QTH. and TASYL number (for 
members* 

SCORING: 

Score one point per OSO a\fui multiply 
by % If on CW, Multiply again by 2 if TASYL 
member. Multiply QSO points by number 
of different ARRL sections and DX coun- 
tries worked. 

ENTRIES: 

Send fogs to TASYL President Carol 
Nail WD6DQG, 4651 Cardinal Dr . Ml. 
Pleasant Ml 48856. Entries must be re- 
ceived by February 251ft 

The TASYL Certificate may also be 
earned during the QSO Party for working 
TASYL members. Charter members 1 thru 
50 count 2 points while all other members 
count 1 point. Michigan stations need 15 
points while others only need 10 points. 
To apply for the award, send a signed and 
dated log showing the date and time of 
contacts, caiisigns, frequencies. RST 
and TASYL numbers Certification giving 
date and QTH must be on the original ap- 
plication and signed by one of the fol- 
lowing: 2 licensed amateurs, Gener 
am lass or higher (n on- family), one official 
of a recognized club, or a notary public. 
Include S1 to cover mailing costs, etc.. 
and submit applications to Carol Hall 
WDdDQG. 4651 Cardinal Drive. Mt. Pleas- 
ant Ml 48858. 



3RD ANNUAL 

RTTY WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 

0000Z to 2400Z 

February 25, 1984 

SPONSORED BY 

73 Amateur Radio's Technical Journal 

and The RTTY Journal 

OPERATOR CLASSES 

fAi Single operator singte transmitter iQ, 
Mulh -operate single transmitter 

ENTRY CA TEGORJES 
(A) Single band iB) Aiipand lOnSO meters 

EXCHANGE 

Stations withm The 46 continental United 
States and Canada rnjjsi iransmii RST and 
stale or provincertemtory An others must 
transmit AST and consecutive contact 
number 



MISCELLANEOUS RULES 

The same station may be worked once on 
eacn band Crossmode contacts do noi 
count Singieoperator stations may work 16 
hourg maximum, while multi-operator sla 
uons may operate the entire 24 hour period 
Oft times are no less, I ban 30 minutes each 
and rmiSt be noted m your log(si 

QSOPOiNTS 

5 QSO points for contacts wrth WVE Sta 
lions located «tifwi me continental united 
Stales and Canada !0 OSO points for all oth- 
er contacts 

MULTIPLIER POINTS: 

i multiplier point is awarded lor each of 
the 48 con i menial United Slates (a District of 
Columbia contact may be Substituted lor a 
Maryland multiplier) Canadian provinces'! er 
ntor*es and DX counrrnes wonted on each 
band teidutfing US and Canada) 

FINAL PQtNTS 

Total OSO points limes iota* muih oners 
equals cta'/ned score 

CONTEST ENTRIES: 

Entries must include a separate log tor 
each band, a dupe sheet a summary sneel a 
multiplier cneckiisl and a list of equipment 
used Contestants are asked io send an 
SASE to the contest address For official 
forms 



ENTRY DEADLINE 

All entries must be postmarked no later 

than April 15, 1984 



DISQUALfFrVA TJQNS 

Omission of me required entry forms 
operating m excess of legal power, maoip 
giahng scores or times to achieve a score ad 
vantage, or failure to omit duplicate contacts 
which would reduce the overall score more 
than 2*p are all grounds for immediate dis 
qualification Decisions of the contest com 
mittee are final. 

AWARDS 

Contest awards will be issued m each en 
try category and operator class m each of the 
US call districts and Canadian pfovinces/ter 
manes as well as *n each DX country repre- 
sented Other awards may be issued at the 
discretion of the awards committee A mm 
i mum of 25 OSOs must be worked to be elig 
ible tor awards. 

CONTEST ADDRESS 

RTTY World Championship, c/o The RTTY 
Journal. PO Box RY. Cardifl CA 92007 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 113 



ADVERTISERS 



■PImm contact these taVertfMn dtrvcfly. 

To receive full information from our advertis- 
jrs please complete the postage-paid card. 



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To order, complete the postage-patd card, or itemize 
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114 73 Magazine • January, 1964 



CIRCUITS 



Do you have a technique, modification, or easy-to-dupiicate cir- 
cuit that your fellow readers might be interested in^ If so. send us a 
concise description of it (under two pages, double-spaced) and in- 
clude a clear diagram or schematic if needed, 

in exchange for these technical gems, 73 offers you the choice of 
a book from the Radio Bookshop, to be sent upon publication. Sub- 
mit your tdea (and book choice) to: Circuits, Editorial Offices, 73 
Magazine. Peterborough NH 03456. Submissions not selected for 
publication will be returned if an SASE is enclosed. 

STOP THAT ICOM BUZZ; If your IC-45A has been buzzing through 
the speaker or has been commanding itseit to start or slop scan- 
ning, here is a simple fix. The regulator (IC-2) on the main board is the 
power supply for the whole radio. If it is no! securely attached to the 
heat sink and if the board on which it sits is not firmly attached to 
the framework, the regulator filter will not function correctly. This 
will allow a buzz into the 8-V supply and will false the CPU into think- 
ing that there was a command. Buzz may also occur in the audio. By 
tightening the four screws holding IC-2 to the heat sink, the filter will 
be allowed to work again. Some of the screws have a tendency to 
loosen, so a periodic check of them is in order.— Rick Bates 
WA6NHC, Petal uma CA. 



TTl input 




>H5"232 OUTPUT 



SIMPLE TRANSISTOR TTLTQRS232 INTERFACE: This circuit can 
be used for driving an RS232 printer or RTTY interface from your 
computer or digital circuit. Transistor Q2 is the ± 12-V switch, which 
is driven by Q1. When the TTL input is low (mark condition), Ql is 
turned off, which allows Q2 to be turned off. The RS232 output rests 
at -12 volts (mark condition). When the TTL input is logic high (5 V) f 
Q1 turns on and drives the base of Q2. turning it on. The RS232 out- 
put will then go to approximately + 12 V (space condition), Resistor 
R6 maintains a current limit tn the event of an RS232 output short cir- 
cuit. If the output were shorted without R6 in the circuit, 'he switch 
transistor Q2 would quickly burn out. The total cost of this simple in- 
terface is 32 cents.— Scott M. Freeberg WA9WFA, Ft. Atkinson Wl. 



FROM 
COMPUTER 

M«- 



AN* 3IUCON 

SWITCHING 

TRANSISTOR 



cz 

APPRO* 001 

J TO BE SELECTEE* 



1 - M 






HAND 



c 



)\-r 



C 



fiOCfl 



6LUE 




*5 TO 9VDC 



SIMILAR 



CI 
001 



Nil 

AUOlO 

OUT 



BLACK 



rn 



RTTY OSCILLATOR FROM ORGAN PARTS: Using a tapped coil from 
the tone generator in a Conn organ r this circuit will generate the nec- 
essary 1275 and 1445 tones for RTTY. The coil I used (no. 57013) pro- 
duced F sharp in the sixth octave; it should be available from a Conn 
organ repairman. Other coils may be used instead, but you must 
change the value of 02 to get the correct frequency. The circuit itself 
is a standard Hartley oscillator, and the coil adjustment is a stan- 
dard &32 nut, Be sure to finish tuning in the tightening mode to en- 
sure mechanical stability.— Wm. Bruce Cameron WA4UZM Temple 
Terrace FL 



INPUT P ROM 
PHONE LINES 




9 V 

tBATURv 
MA* »E 
5H3V0LT51 



TELEPHONE OFF-HOOK INDICATOR: How many times have you 
started to dial a phone number only to find that the line was already 
in use? This visual indicator will signal when another person is dial- 
ing or talking on an extension and also provides a visual ring indica- 
tor. The LED flickers when the phone is ringing or being dialed. It 
glows steadily when the phone is off the hook. R1 and R2 isolate the 
system from the phone lines. They form a voltage divider with R3. 
The divider output feeds switch Q1-Q2* The switch senses less than 
2 uA which the system draws from the phone fine. That small current 
drops about three volts across R2 which keeps Q2 turned oa That 
keeps the second switch, Q3-Q4, and the LED turned off. But when 
the phone is taken off the hook t the tine voltage falls, Q1-Q2 turns 
off, and Q3-Q4 turns on and lights the LED. Voltage changes caused 
by ringing and dialing also affect the switching, causing the LED to 
flicker.— Evert Fruitman W7FtXV T Phoenix AZ. 



**v 



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OI3 
2N£?£ZA 



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flOK 



FAST-ATTACK SQUELCH: This circuit was designed to provide a 
high-performance squelch for a nearby repeater which uses an IC- 
22A as a receiver, The Schmitt trigger provides a tittle hysteresis 
where it takes more signal energy to open the squelch than it takes 
to close it. Replace Q13 with a 2N222A in a TO-18 package, and leave 
the base lead out of the circuit board so that a wire can be attached 
to it later. C1 must be greater than 100 uf to eliminate popping noise 
around the squelch threshold* but the other parts values are not criti- 
cal.— Bobert C, Lee WBOUBL, North Liberty I A. 







i 



■ ■ . 






* 9V O 




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Hfr 



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KEt 



Dx - 60 
KE' N 



CIV SIDETONE FOR THE DX-60: Here's a simple circuit which will 
work with any receiver and create a sidetone when you are keying 
the DX-60* Transformer T1 is an audio transformer The unijunction 
transistor used as an oscillator may be any type; a 2N4871 or RS 
276-2029 are good choices, Battery drain is practically nii t so a 
power switch is not needed, and you can change the pitch of the 
sidetone by changing the value of R — Terry Simonds WB4FXD, 
Edgartown MA. 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 115 



W2KSD/1 

NEVER SAY DIE 

ed/tor/a/ by Wayne Green 



from page 6 

nology, I'll let you know what's 
going on. In computers, the big 
push is for lap micros — the size 
of a ream of paper, but a lot 
lighter. TTiis editorial is be- 
ing written on a Tandy 100 lap 
computer. 

The first system on the mar- 
ket along this line was the Sony 
Typecorder, But after almost a 
two-year lead on the field, Sony 
dropped the ball. An old CB 
manufacturing firm in Japan 
went the next step, producing 
the Tandy 100. This came out 
last spring, made by Kyocera. 

Oddly enough, I described 
this computer in rather good de- 
tail when I gave a talk at the At- 
lanta Hamfestlval in 1976. Later 
that year, I went over the idea 
with HL Mishi, the editor of i/O 
magazine in Japan. He, I am 
told t worked with Kyocera on its 
development. My part has prob- 
ably been forgotten by now t but 
then, I'm used to that. It was my 
idea for splitting channels onto 
videotape which brought the 
first breakthrough by Arnpex 
back in 1948. I'm sure that my 
idea has been long forgotten 
but it was the one thing they 
needed to get started with video- 
tape. At the time, I was working 
as a television engineer for 
WPiX in New York, I attended a 
TV seminar and talked with the 
engineers at Ampex. They ex- 
plained that they were only able 
to get part of the needed band- 
width on tape, so I suggested 
heterodyning the frequencies 
down to where they could be put 
on tape and then putting the fre- 
quencies back together again 
later. They tried it and soon after 
we had 2" videotape from Am- 
pex, No one even said thanks. 

The lap computer is going to 
be a very big business, with op- 
portunities for small firms to de- 
velop accessories and software 
for them— thousands of firms. 
But the next step is one which 
should be duck soup for 
hams— getting rid of the umbil- 
icai cord so these small comput- 
ers can access a nearby corn- 

1T6 73 Magazine * January, 19&4 



puter system and use its stor- 
age, disks, and so on. 

The next step, as I have writ- 
ten before, is a communications 
system which will allow all the 
desktop and lap computers to 
almost instantly communicate 
with each other. Something 
along the line of our repeater 
systems, which would receive 
messages, check them for er- 
rors and roger them t then pass 
them along to the addressee, 
complete with a return roger of 
the message receipt, is so obvi- 
ous that it will have to happen. 

In a few years, any of us who 
want to will be able to communi- 
cate with anyone anywhere 
from anywhere. It won't make 
any difference If I am walking 
along the street, shopping in 
Singapore, or in New Hampshire 
on a ski slope— 111 be able to 
type or talk a message and have 
it delivered in a second or two 
anywhere to anyone. 

This is going to change busi- 
ness beyond recognition. It is 
going to have a profound effect 
on education. We can't even im- 
agine what it will do for personal 
relationships. Oh, busy people 
will have to have filters built into 
the system. When my business 
was small I was available by 
phone at any time of the day or 
night. Today I'd be driven crazy 
with stockbrokers wanting to 
help me with my "portfolio' 1 and 
investment counselors wanting 
to help me with my estate— not 
to mention people with invest- 
ment Ideas for my money and so 
on. 

This communications de- 
mand is going to call for hun- 
dreds of thousands or even 
millions of technicians, engi- 
neers, and scientists to devel- 
op, manufacture, sell, install, 
operate, and service the sys- 
tems it will take to do all this. It's 
mind-boggling in concept. Well 
be using fiber optics, lasers, 
microwaves, satellites, and any- 
thing else we can invent to 
speed things up and make them 
less expensive. Amateurs are in 
a beautiful spot to get In on this 
bonanza. We can develop the 



communications system to do 
these things on our ham bands 
and then get started with small 
businesses, taking advantage 
of what we've developed. Or. we 
can bicker over the Morse code f 
get into piieups fighting for DX, 
and jam nets. I'm not sure these 
activities are any more benefi- 
cial to the world— or to amateur 
radio— than sitting back with 
two six packs of 807s and watch- 
ing football on television. 

The potential is there, My 
magazines can help you take ad- 
vantage of that potential. In- 
deed, it is as a direct result of 
the pressures at Dayton, where 
hundreds of hams pleaded for a 
good Commodore magazine, 
that we've launched RUN. The 
first issue Is due out in 
December and it looks as if it 
will sell well over 100,000 copies 
right off the bat. 

I have a bunch more maga^ 
zines in various stages of get* 
ting started just in case you 

don't smoke and are interested 
in getting invoived in high-tech 
publishing. Some are in com- 
puters, some aren't. 

Speaking of new magazines, 
while in Munich for the huge 
systems show (24 big buildings 
full of computer exhibits), we 
had a launching party for PC 
Weft, a German version of our 
sister magazine, PC World, Then 
on to Tokyo for the Data Show 
and the launching of a PC maga- 
zine there. A day later In Singa- 
pore, at a third computer show, 
It was Computerworfd Ash get- 
ting started. And finally, after 
flying around the world and 
covering 32,000 miles in ten 
days, Comdex in Amsterdam 
and the launching of Microftnfo, 
a Dutch micro magazine— an- 
other associated publication of 
ours. Whew, what a trip! 

With sunspots diminishing 
for several more years, DX is go- 
ing to be harder to work and our 
higher bands are going to be of 
less interest. This seems like the 
ideal time for us to get cracking 
on new technologies — to experi- 
ment with new modes of com- 
munications and pioneer them. 

Will we see automatic identi- 
fication of rigs this year? It's cer- 
tainly within our current level of 
technology to do this, complete 
with a reader on every receiver 
which will instantly read out the 
call of the received station— or 
even search for a desired station 
prefix. 

With the development of pack- 



et communications, we may 
start having automatic message 
handling. We could have done 
that thirty years ago when I first 
started working with digital 
communications on the ham 
bands, but our national organi- 
zation has done little to encour- 
age such changes— and much 
to discourage them. 

I'll be continuing to get on 
20m as much as I can — and 2m 
from the various cities I visit. 
Sure, 111 be at Dayton this year. I 
don't know which other ham- 
fests 111 make as yet I've got- 
ten to a lot of shows in the 
last year— consumer electronics 
shows in Tokyo, Seoul, Taipei, 
Hong Kong, and Vegas— com- 
puter shows in Anaheim, Tokyo, 
Taipei, Singapore, Munich, 
Amsterdam, Atlanta. Boston, 
New York, and so on. This year 
I'll be hitting more hamfests— 
hope to see you, 

INTERNATIONAL 
CORRESPONDENTS 

First, I'd like to thank the hun- 
dreds of readers who have called 
or written to say that this feature 
is a favorite. We have 52 coun- 
tries with correspondents and 
need more. 111 do what I can to 
find "em as I travel but you can 
help, too, by mentioning it over 
the air to some of the more inter- 
esting DX operators you get to 
know. 

Some of the columnists have 
a tough job getting the informa- 
tion through— such as from Po- 
land, for example. We realty ap- 
preciate the job they're doing. 

We have a truly international 
hobby and this column helps to 
bring us all together. We're inter- 
ested in news of expeditions, 
special operations, certificates, 
how visitors can get permission 
to operate, how easy or difficult 
ft is to get a license for locals, 
and so on. 

With its international column, 
73 has become the first interna- 
tional ham magazine. 

PRICE INCREASE 

With a substantial increase in 
the international distribution of 
73— increased by 35,000 co- 
pies — we've had to increase the 
cover price from $2,495 to $2.50 
so as not to drive foreign news- 
stands right out of their minds. 
We had enough trouble in Amer- 
ica—worth every minute of it, by 
the way. 

Speaking of DX t have you 
chosen a DX operator to send a 
subscription to? 



BARTER 'N'BUY J 



73 CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



HATES 



Individual (non-commercial) 
Commercial , . . 



■ > t ■ *■■• «> * ■ • ».* i * * . » ii * ♦ !■ _> ■ ■ * « 4 a l sihe par worn 
50c per word 

Prepayment by cftecK or money order is required with your ad. No discounts or 
commissions a*e available. Please make your payment lo 73. Rates lor muiiipie 
insertions are available on request 

ADVERTISING COPY 

Advertising must pertain to amateur radio products or services. No special 
layouts or positions are possible, AH advertising copy must be submitted type* 
written {double-spaced) antf musl include full name and address Copy limited to 
100 words, maximum. Count only words m text. Address, free. 

73 cannot verify advertising claims and cannot be held responsible for claims 
made by the advertiser. Liability wilt be limited to making any necessary cor rec- 
kon in ma next available issue. 73 reserves the right to refect any copy deemed 
unsuitable. 

DEADLINES 

Copy must be received in Peterborough by the 5th of the second month pre- 
ceding ihe cover date. H copy is received after the deadline, it will be scheduled 
10 run me following month, unless specifically prohibited by the advertiser 

MATERIALS 

Send to Advertising Department. 73. Elm Street Peterborough NH 03458 



WVOMINCUTAH RANCH LAND, 10 
acres. $60 down, i607month. FREE infor- 
mal ion, maps, photographs. Trade equity 
for ham gear, home computer, test equip- 
ment, etc. Ownef— Mike Gaul h her K6ICS. 
9560-B— Gallatin Rd.. Downey CA 902*0. 
BNB001 



05L MANAGER ALBUM™. Beautiful 
leather-grained vinyl ring binder for dis- 
playing 240 of your prized QSL cards. 
30-day guarantee, Si 8. 95 pod or send 
stamp for flyer Walter Beaton WOeoVX, 
37B0 Cecilia Ave, Cleveland OH 44109. 
BNB009 




SATELLITES 



Aihipqt Satellite Reference uibitfi 



J4d 



Feb 



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I 
2 

3 

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7 
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10 
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DEALERS IN SURPLUS test instruments, 
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WANTED: I ale test equipment (KP ... TEK, 
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WANTED: Early telegraph Instruments for 
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COLOR COMPUTER owners— call (212V 
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FOURTH ANNUAL Ohio Slate Contention 
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"Cincinnati ARRL *&4/' February 25 and 
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Write: Cincinnati AflftL B4, POB 11300, 
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Invited. BNBG24 

KENWOOD 7fi25 2-meier transceiver, syn- 
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CABLE, CONNECTORS, Fittings, 50 8 75 
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MILIARY RADIO GEAR turns me on— I 
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RTTY FDM DEMODULATORS FDM RTTY 
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ATLAS RADIO REPAJR— Specializing m 
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last, experienced, reasonable. Payne 
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RTTY FOR THE Ti99Ma, Mini-memory re- 
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**Se* Usr Qt Advertisers on page 1 14 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 117 



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WOODALL & ASSOCIATES 
P.O. BOX 281 

Plainf ield, IN 46168 W ww 
(317) 271-2565 (Non-Sat) 



107 



McnterCOfd 



rot* 
Tired Receivers 





Lunar s line of HF actuated in-line receiving pream- 
plifiers cap spark up that otherwise dead band 
Missing tnose weak ones 7 Become an elephant with 
new ears Models available from 28220 MHz 
bands Simpiy insert Detween your transceiver and 
antenna apply 12 V0C and enjoy. Standard SO-239 
connector on RF ports - BNC availa&te Typical per- 
inrrnance at 144 MHz: 1.4 dB nf 10 dB gain Low 
noise performance from Lunar - simply, (he best. 

; It WNL4R 2775 kurt2 streei Sul1e n 
emctronics 



Sgn Diego, Co 92HO 
06rV)29g-97dO* Tetex18T747 



this publication 
is available in 
microform 



IjL 



University Microfilms International 



300 North Zeeb Road 

Dept P R 

Ann Arbor Ml 48106 

USA 



Ifl Bedford Row 
Depl P R 

London. WC1R4EJ 
England 




New CMOS DTMF Chip Kit 

TeJtone H s TRK-957 Kil makes it easier and 
less expensive to breadboard a low -power, 
central office quality DTMF detection system. 
Ail you need \s a power source from 5 to 12 
VDC The sensitivity, wide dynamic range, 
noise immunity, and low-power consumption 
make the TRK-957 ideal for telephone 

switching, computer and remote control 
applications The TRK-957 DTMF Kit is only 
$24.75 To order call: 



(800) 227-3800, ext. 1130. 



^224 



118 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



^ 



TH 



ANNOUNCING 73 CLASSIFIEDS 

BARTER 4 N' BUY 

Beginning with the December issue, 73 will accept 
classified advertising. Individual and non-commercial 
rales— 1 5* pef word; commercial rales— 5Qe per word, 
prepaid by check or money order Ads must perl am tp 
amateur radio products or services, and must be sub- 
mitted typewritten, doubles paced 100 words maxi 
mum Include full name and address in ad teJephone 
number optional. Copy must be received in Peter- 
borough oy tfie 5th of the second month preceding 
cover date. Example: December issue ad must be in 
our hands by October 5th. Ads received after dead J me 
will be run In the next issue, Direct all material and In- 
quiries to: 



; BARTER k N p BUY j] 

I 73 ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT j| 
| Elm Street, Peterborough, ]! 
; New Hampshire 03458. ' 

Telephone: (603) 924-71 38 J 




N8BKR Introduces the 
E Field Displacement Antenna 



A 16 Ft. 
80 Meter 
Vertical 
Antenna 

• Out performs ant 60 ft ' t 

udve vertit a\ on transmit 
and receive 
■ Covers 3.5 tn4 MHZ 
with heller than IS to 

L SWR 

• Nfi tunrr ni'i>ded 

• Mimey back guarantee 



S«'iid S AS i for more information tot 

MOLER ANTENNA CORP. 

2623 Morri* bn? - Girard, OH 44420 
1216) 530 2059 



rFree T( 




Thousands of hard-to-fmd 
products for building, testing, and repairing 
electronics. Everything is easy to order by 
phone or mail, ready for immediate delivery. 

Contact East— Dept. 0235 

7 Cypress Drive, Burlington, MA 01603 

In a hurry *° receive your catalog? 

Call {617} 272-5051 - T40 



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the problem. 

Please send a description 
of the problem and your 
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73 



Amateur Ratio's 
Technical Journal 



Subscription Dept. 
PO Box 931 
Farmingdale, NY 11737 



YOU EARNED YOUR CALL! 

NOW DISPLAY IT PROUDLY 
IN A TOP QUALITY 

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Allow 4 weeks for deljvery Fl residents add saJes 3a* 



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Modernize any model ofthe original FMQ1 
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• Use 10 MHz now: be ready tor the others. 

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For other great Yaesu modifications 
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* CtftCBlT BOARD BALE W 

RS-333C Serial Lin* Monitor 

LED indicators throw Activity #nd polarity af thtt ? 
matt common si'-jnuLn. D3-i5 m*W «n4 feinal* ccn- 
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£TU#p«et 2" ■ 3* Mftunti in leti^s with - 

RS*?J2C cable. Kit mclBdftft All parts* <2i ren ion* 
ind tips foi MB* COHttrru: qiulity, dcublt 
*ld«d fiueiglas b»l4 wi-fc plat#d ;i tini**. 

Attvnfeled and t**t*d |4LM-i * r „ t . . . . 2 » . » * 

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■J afilj '5Lff-Ili»' *.„.,.»_.... t,»4 



tmtmt Bvppljr Baaed 

Pta>jde* *5, ~12 *nd -11 vvlca at I aajp far your 
tv*m radio ptojact. Uses "7B»M it t ies positive 
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Esoteric Cnojn«*rfnq IftCotpouted 
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29 




RADIO 
DIRECTION FINDER 

The SuperDF 



Inexpensive kit and assembled units for use 
with Hand-Held. Mobile, or Base Station. 
100 to 260 MH/ or 200 to 550 MHz with 
one antenna, Non^ambiguous. No 
overloading. Use "ifh unmodified HT, 
scanner, or transceiver. No attenuator or 
"S" meter needed. Can DF signals belo* 
the noise. Averages out local reflections 
while mobtlHn-iTHUion. Used bv FCC 

- Army. State of California, Coast Guard 
Aux. Prices start at S125. For details 
send S ASF to: BMG Engineering. 9935 
East Garibaldi, Temple Citr. Cal, 91780. 




*rSe« Lt&t ot Advertisers on page f 74 



UHF POWER AMP 

AM-6155/GRT (ITT 3212) 225 400 Mtiz RF amp. 
^^^^ 50 W output from 4-1 OW 

input using Eimac 
X651Z silver-plated 
cavity \n remo^abfe 
drawer flequines 115/ 
230 VAC & 20 VOC 
7x19 ! /?x18- 76 Ids. 

Sh Used-riot tested, excellent cofirjmon S149.50 

fl-392 RECEIVER, 5 32 Mhz m* ~ - - 

CW in 32 bands, mechanical digital 

tuning 2-4-8 Khz DandwiOth; 100 Khz 

calibrator. 25 tubes; requires 24 VDC 

5 amps. liVix14V«x11*i 60 lbs. sh. 

Used-reparable, $135. Chkd.. S200 

Manual, partial repro: $15. LS 166 

speaker. Si 0.95. 24 VDC 6 AMP 

Supply, for R-392 — no connector, used 

TEKTRONIX 516 DUAL TRACE SCOPE, DC 15 
Mft? response with 6 M CftT. Sensitivity 0.05-20 v/oiv 
and Sweep 0,2 usec-2 sec/riiv catibrated: Square- 
wave Calibrator 05100 volts. Requires 115 VAC 
&} Hz, 13yzx9 5 /a21'/r. 50 lbs, sh Uwfr 
reparaole $165. Checked S225. 

Prices FO.rL Uma, 0. • VISA, MASTERCARD Accepted. 
Allow for Snipping * Send for New FREE CATALOG 83 
Address Dept 73 * Phone: 419/227-6573 



lDIO SALES *"?? 

101A E EUREKA • Sox 1105 - LIMA, OHIO - 45S0? 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 110 




S25 









pyiw 





EIIWC yOQDtttXB/Sin with SK300 and SK1336 . 

Sh300 and SK1306 Only. 

(These are ull new not used, ) Limited Siralv. 



$1200.00 
$ 350.00 



KliU ELECTRONICS JNC. WF flWFIER PC BOtf^S WD (f UflCISTOR KfT5 T 

Model PA2-7tB ff rawer ircut &Qtts ai W to Ij^Hj output A**ms 13.$vdc ar incnos. 

m99 with uaiu PC Boarc; Only 111,99 
PtJEEi PAJOUMB flF DOher irput lOdtCS at 1^ to iM* (MEut VOOttS 13,5vdC at ]0«, 

389*99 wi*n ctotq PC Baanl Crily *B.% 



GENEVA CALCULATOR HATCH 

This attractive watch has the following modes 

Normal Time Setting, 

Calendar Setting, 

Daily Alarm Time Setting, 

Weekly Alarm Time Setting, 

Chronograph , 

Calculator* 





Featured in Slack Plastic 



$18,99 



or Featured In Stainless Steel 



$29.99 



SILICON DIODES 

HR751 

MR510 

HEP 170 

1N32G9 

BVX2 1/200 

L«2138A 

DS85-G4C 

1N3269 

275241 

7-5754 

RCD-15 

SMFR20K 

UJ4148 



1 OOvdc 
lOOOvdc 
lOOOvdc 

1 OOvdc 

2 OOvdc 
600vdc 
4 OOvdc 
fcGOvdc 
30Ovdc 
3Q0vdc 
15KVDC 
20KVDC 

signal 



6Amps 

3Amps 

2 Amps 

15 Amps 

2 5 Amp a 

60Amps 

SOAmps 

1 60 Amp s 

2 SOAmps 

400Amps 

20ma, 

20tna. 



I0/$5.00 

10/$3.75 

20/$2.0Q 

$2*00 

$2.00 

$5.00 

$10*00 

$15,00 

S20.DG 

S30.00 

$3,00 

$4*00 

30/$ 1.00 



100/$ 38. 00 
I no/ $24 ,00 
L0O/$U.Q0 
10/ $15.00 
10/ $15.00 
10/ $40,00 
10/ $80.00 
10/$ 120, 00 
10/$ 175. 00 
10/S250.00 
10/ $20,00 
10/ $30.00 
100/ $3.00 



FEED THRU SOLDER RF CAFACTORS 

470pf +-20* 

5/$ 1,00 or 100/515.00 or 
1000/$100,00 

lOOOpf/.OOluf +-10I 

4/$ 1.00 or 1 00/520. 00 or 
1000/$ 150.00 



FAIRCHILD 4116 16K DYNAMIC RAMS 200ns. Fart tf 16K75 
25 For $25.00 or 100 For $90.00 or 1000 For $750.00 



E PROMS 
2708 1024x1 
2716 2048x8 
27L32/25L32 



$2.00 each 
$4.00 each 
510,00 each 



HEWLETT PACKARD MICROWAVE DIODES 



IN 57 11 
IN 5712 
IK 62 63 
5082-2835 
5082-2805 



(5082-2800) 
(5082-2810) 
(HSCH-1001) 

Quad Matched 



Schottky Barrier Diodes 

if 



" 



ii 



ii 



ii 



'i 



it 



ii 



■■ 



f 



it 



ii 



per set 



$1.00 or 10 
$1,50 or 10 
$ ,75 or 10 
$1.50 or 10 
$5.00 or 10 



for $ 8,50 
for $10,00 
for $ 5,00 
for $10,00 
for $40.00 



For Information call: (602) 242-3037 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



(fH^z electronic* 



■All parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with compara&Je pans 
it we are out of stock of an Hem " 



E 



120 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



e 



"MIXERS" 



WATKINS JOHNSON WJ-M6 Double Balanced Mixer 



LO and RF 0.2 to 300MHz 
Conversion Loss (SSB) 

Noise Figure (SSB) 

Conversion Compression 



IF DC to 300MHz 
6.5dB Max. 1 to 50MHz 
8.5dB Max. .2 to 300MHz 
same as above 
8.5dB Max. 50 to 300MHz 
.3dB Typ. 



$21.00 

WITH DATA SHEET 



NEC (NIPPON ELECTRIC CO. LTD. NE57835/2SC2150 Microwave Transistor 



NF Min F=2GHz 
F=3GHz 
F=4GHz 



dB 2.4 Typ. 
dB 3.4 Typ. 
dB 4.3 Typ. 



MAG F=2GHz 


dB 12 Typ, 


F=3GHz 


dB 9 Typ. 


F=4GHz 


dB 6. 5 Typ. 



$5.30 



Ft Gain Bandwidth Product at Vce=8v, Ic=10ma. GHz 4 Min. 6 Typ. 
Vcbo 25v Vceo llv Vebo 3v Ic 50ma. Pt. 250mw 

UNELCO RF Power and Linear Amplifier Capacitors 

■ ■*- . 

These are the famous capacitors used by all the RF Power and Linear Amplifier 
manufacturers, and described in the RF Data Book. 



5pf 

5.1pf 
6.8pf 
7pf 
8.2pf 



10pf 
12pf 
13pf 
14pf 

15pf 



18pf 
22pf 

25pf 
27pf 
27.5pf 



30pf 

32pf 



34pf 
40pf 



43pf 
51pf 
60pf 
80nf 
82pf 



lOOpf 
HOpf 
120pf 
130pf 
140pf 



200pf 1 to 
220pf 11 to 
470pf 51 up 
500pf 
lOOOpf 



lOpcs . 

5 Opes . 

pes . 



SI. 00 
$ .90 
$ .80 



ea 
ea 
ea 



NIPPON ELECTRIC COMPANY TUNNEL DIODES 



Peak Pt. Current ma. 

Valley Pt. Current ma. 
Peak Pt. Voltage mv. 
Projected Peak Pt. Voltage mv 
Series Res. Ohms 
Terminal Cap. pf. 
Valley Pt. Voltage mv. 



Ip 

Iv 

Vp 

Vpp Vf 

rS 

Ct 

VV 



MODEL 1S2199 
9min. lOTyp. Umax. 
1.2Typ. 1.5max. 
95Typ. 120max. 
=Ip 480min. 550Typ. 630max 
2,5Typ. 4max. 
1.7Typ. 2max. 
370Typ. 



1S2200 * 7 - 50 
9min. lOTyp. Umax. 
1.2Typ. 1.5max. 
75Typ. 90max. 
440min. 520Typ. 600max. 
2Typ. 3max. 
5Typ. 8max. 
350Typ. 



FAIRCHILD / DUMONT Oscilloscope Probes Model 4290B 

Input Impedance 10 meg., Input Capacity 6.5 to 12pf., Division Ratio (Volts/Div Factor) 

10:1, Cable Length 4Ft. , Frequency Range Over 100MHz. 

These Probes will work on all Tektronix, Hewlett Packard, and other Oscilloscopes. 

PRICE $45.00 



MOTOROLA RF DATA BOOK 



^^™^^^™^^™ 



Lists all Motorola RF Transistors / RF Power Amplifiers, Varactor Diodes and much much 
more. 



PRICE $7.50 



For information call: (602) 242-3037 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 



qJVI^Hjz electronics 



"All parts may be new or 
surplus, and pans may be 
subs! it uted with comparable parts 
if we a*e out of stock at an (tern " 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 121 



RF TRANSISTORS, MICROWAVE DIODES 



1 

■ 



"kpe 



FWCE 



Toll Free Number 

800-528-0180 

(For orders only) 



TYPE 



PRICE 



TYPE 



PHICE 



TYPE 



PRICE 



2N1561 


$ 25-00 


23C1678 $ 


2.00 


W113* $ 16.90 


USC1B21-3 


5125.00 


2JH562 


25,00 


2SCI729 


20.00 


16579 


7,95 


USC1821^10 


225.00 


2N1692 


25.00 


23C17S0 


1.50 


H9588 


7.50 


MSC2001 


40.00 


2N2957 


1.55 


2oLi'yoy 


4.00 


149622 


7.95 


W9C2223-X0 


200,00 


2N2S57JJNTX 


4,10 


29C1946 


36.00 


KcJUik- J 


9.95 


\iSC3000 


50.00 


2N2857,JA!frXV 


4.10 


2SC1946A 


40.00 


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11.95 


USC3001 


50.00 


2N2876 


13.50 


25C1970 


2.50 


IB625 


17.95 


K9CT3001 


50.00 


2N2947 


18,35 


2SC1974 


4.00 


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18,00 


M9C82O01 


40.00 


2948 


13.00 


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5.50 


H&740 


29.90 


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40.00 


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15.50 


asra237 


32.00 


16741 


29.90 


M9CS20!20 


40.00 


2X3375 


17.10 


22*^695 


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1G755 


19.50 


USC82030 


40.00 


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2N3G32 


1.55 
15.50 


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25.00 


1G64B 


37.00 


M9C83001 


50,00 


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10. 00 


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16.90 


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100.00 


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11.00 


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5.00 


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20.00 


HF4150 


14.40 


2N3818 


5.00 


A2R3R 


6.00 


HS087 


5.25 


IC5126 


PCR 


2M38S6 


1.30 


AF102 


2.50 


mmm 


25.00 


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93.00 


aoaauHi 


2.20 


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2.50 


ttOSflO 


10.00 


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95,00 


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2.50 


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2N3927 


17.25 


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2.50 


lill 553 


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2.50 


3N306O 


25.00 


BFR90 


1.00 


1*11614 


10.00 


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POR 


244012 


11.00 


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1.65 


W1943/2N4072 


1.80 


NE21B89 


POR 


2N4CM1 


14.00 


iBfKx? 


50 


waem 


5.00 


NE57835 


5.70 


2X4072 


1.80 


3FT12 


2.50 


M0373A 


17.10 


NE73436 


2.50 


2?«oeo 


4.53 


BFilSA 


2.50 


mi tin 


10,00 


tsar 




2N4 127 


21.00 


BFW17 


2.50 


MBOOO 


1.15 


P^fs^- : 


PGR 


2*94427 


1.30 


BFW92 


1.50 


wrono 


4& ■■ OW 


PT3190 


PCE 


2W428 


1 35 


BFX44 


2.50 


kMBGU 


25.00 


PT3194 


pat 


50 


11.80 


BFS18 


2,50 


WF102 


,45 


PT31S5 


PCR 


22*4967 


3.45 


9QQ55 


2.50 


lt^SU3l 


1.01 


W3537 


7.80 


a«959 


2.30 


arxs4 


2.50 


«W2023-1.5 


42.50 


PT4166F 


POR 


2N5C90 


13,80 


BfflSE 


2.50 


MRF206 


16,10 


PT4l7fiD 


POR 


296106 


3-45 


BFX86 


2.50 


MKF212 


16.10 


PT41B6B 


POR 


aeioe 


1.70 


BH89 


1,00 


Min23 


13.25 


PT42D9 


POR 


2N510D 


3.45 


BFY11 


2.5Q 


\WT221 


15,50 


PT4209C/5645 


PGfc 


2*6177 


21.62 


BF5T1S 


2,50 


WF231 


10,92 


PT4556 


24.60 


2>S179 


1.04 


BEY19 


2.50 


MBF232 


12. n7 


PT4570 


7.50 


2N5216 


56.00 


BFV39 


2,50 


WRF233 


12.65 


PT4577 


POR 


2N3563 


3.45 


BFreO 


1,00 


WB237 


3.15 


PT4590 


POR 


2N5589 


9.77 


BLXB7 


15.24 


IBFS3B 


13.80 


PT4612 


PCR 


2N5590 


10.92 


BLSBSC3 


15.24 


WF23B 


17.25 


PT462S 


PCR 


2N5501 


13.80 


BLSS3C3 


22,21 


KBF245 


35.65 


PT4640 


PCR 


2.\ Jf>J ^ 


IS, 80 


BlATiTA 


8.94 


lfflF247 


35,65 


PT4642 


POR 


J . 1 ■ ;* : i 


li: 


BLYSSC3 


13. OS 


MRF3D4 


43,45 


PT5632 


4.70 


2145642 


U.03 


BLV94C 


21.30 


MRttlO0 


33.81 


PttlAB 


POR 


2N5643 


15.50 


BLY351 


10.00 


MRF314 


28,52 


PTm29 


POR 


2N5645 


SO 


BLY5G8C/CF 


30.00 


MHF315 


28.86 


FTT6709 


POR 


2N5646 


20.70 


C458-617 


25,00 


MHF31K 


POR 


1^^720 


POR 


2NS651 


11.05 


G4005 


20.00 


HiiKir; 


63, m 


PTS51Q 


POR 


2NS691 


1H.0O 


CD1899 


20,00 


MHF420 


20.00 


PT8524 


PCR 


2N5764 


27-00 


QE18S 


18.00 


MRF421 


36.80 


P1S609 


POR 


2N5836 


■ 15 


OB545 


25.00 


M1U''-!22A 


41.40 


PT8633 


PGR 


2N5842/WVII607 


8.45 


CTG3005 


ino.no 


HHEVJ27 


17.25 


PT8639 


POR 


2N&849 


2Q*00 


Itexcel G&As RT 




WRF42H 


46.00 


PTB65e 


POR 


2N5913 


3.25 


DXL35Q1A-P100F 


49.30 


MRF433 


07 


PTB679 


POR 


2N5910 


i\00 


Fujitsu GaAs FET 




MRF449/A 


1 3 , 65 


PTB708 


P0« 


2NS922 


10, 00 


FSX52W 


;>H,OD 


MRJ : H50/A 


14,37 


ET8709 


POH 


af^aaa 


25.00 


£af0290A 


2,50 


53/A 


IS . 40 


P1B727 


29.00 


2N591 1 


23. 00 


HEP76 


4.95 


MHIMM/A 


20,12 


PTB731 


PDR 


2K5SH: 


■10.00 


H3SPS3002 


11.40 


MRJ^SS/A 


16.00 


PTS742 


19.10 


2N694 i 


10.:i r > 


HEPS3003 


30,00 


MRP498 


20,70 


PT87B7 


POR 


2N5915 


11.50 


HEPS3005 


10.00 


MRF463 


25.00 


PTO7SS 


16.50 


2N5646 


14,40 


KEPS3006 


19,90 


MIU-172 


1 00 


[TJ7H4 


32.70 


2N6080 


10,36 


KEPS3007 


25.00 


MHF475 


3,10 


nP7R0 


5*5.00 


2N6081 


12.07 


HEPS3010 


11.34 


1IRF476 


2.00 


PT31962 


POR 


B082 


12.65 


Hewlett Packard 




MRF477 


14,95 


P131963 


PCR 


2N6083 


13.25 


HFET2204 


112.00 


URF492 


23.00 


PT31083 


PGR 


2N6084 


15.00 


3582IE 


38.00 


UBF502 


1.04 


PTX16680 


POK 


2N6094 


11.00 


35S26B 


32.00 


MRF503 


600 


RCA 




fiHOtWIl 


12.00 


35826E 


32,00 


MRf504 


7.00 


Ji y lQ°f 


5.00 


2N609S 


10 


3SB31Z-H31 


30.00 


«RF509 


5.00 


. 


1£ 


2N6Gtf7 


20.70 


3583LE 


30,00 


MRF511 


10,69 




4.62 


2N6105 


21.00 


35832E 


so.oo 


MRF515 


2.00 




10.00 


2H6136 


21.85 


35833E 


50.00 


MHF517 


2,00 


"* t 9flQ 


20.00 


2NBI66 


40.24 


35853E 


71,50 


UBFS69 


2,05 


-t ; "-• 


2.80 


2NB201 


50.00 


358S 


75.00 


MRFS05 


20.00 


30292 


13.05 


2NS3CM 


1.50 


35866E 


M.00 


jffireia 


25.00 


40294 


2.50 


2NB459 


18,00 


HXIR3101 


7.00 


MR?628 


8.65 


40341 


21 


2NS567 


10.06 


HSOS3102 


6,75 


ICwm29 


Ji 'r^l 


40608 


-48 


2M9680 


60,00 


HXTR5104 


30.00 


WP644 


27.60 


10094 


1.00 


2SC709 


3.00 


HX3BB104 


68.00 


wre#6 


2d, 90 


40077 


10, OO 


23C7S6A 


7.50 


HJOB6105 


31.00 


URfHl6 


15.00 


B2800A 


bO.OO 


2SL*7K1 


*0 


HX1H61Q6 


33.00 


URFB23 


20.00 


HE375-1 


25,00 


2SC1QIS 


1.00 


J310 


.70 


HRF901 (3) Lead 


1,00 


RE37S9 


25,00 


2SC1042 


12.00 


TRS 




IRF901 (4) U*d 


2,00 


RF110 


25.00 


2ano7o 


2.5Q 


JGEOGO 


10.00 


wno4 


2.30 


^0-12 


25.00 


23C123S 


2.50 


JUAJOl 


25.00 


IAF911 


3.00 


S3006 


5,00 


28025] 


12,00 


JOKM5 


25.00 


MRF96] 


2.30 


S3031 


5.00 


2SD306 


2.90 


*i • r "..i l.rrr 




MRF80M 


2.10 


9CA3^?^ 


00 


23C1307 


5.SO 


JQ131 


8.50 


WS261F 


POR 


SCA3523 


5.00 


^ 


2.80 


MU32 


11.95 


1SC1720-12 


225.rt0 


PRICE CK RBQLTST = POR 



^ii parts may b-e new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we are out of stock of an item." 

For information call: (602) 242-3037 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 

JM ^z electronic* 



122 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



GaAs, TUNNEL DIODES, ETC. 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICE 



MA47100 


$ 3.05 


MRF503 


$ 6.00 


PT4186B 


$ POR 


MA47202 


30,80 


MRF504 


7.00 


FT4209 


POR 


MA47771 


POR 


MRF509 


5.00 


PT4209C 


POR 


MA47852 


POR 


MRF511 


8,65 


PT4566 


POR 


MA49558 


POR 


MRF605 


20-00 


PT4570 


POR 


MBA 021 


POR 


MRF629 


3,47 


PT4571 


POR 


MBD101 


L.00 


MRF644 


23.00 


PT4571A 


POR 


MD0513 


POR 


MRF816 


15.00 


PT4577 


POR 


MHW117I 


42.50 


MRF823 


20.00 


PT4590 


POR 


MHW1182 


48.60 


MRF901 


3.00 


PT4612 


POR 


MHW4171 


49.35 


MRF8004 


2.10 


PT4628 


POR 


MHW4I72 


51.90 


MS261F 


POR 


PT4640 


POR 


MHW4342 


68,75 


MT4150 Fair. 


POR 


PT4642 


POR 


MLP102 


25,00 


MT5126 Fair. 


POR 


PT5632 


POR 


MM1500 


32,32 


MT5481 Fair. 


POR 


PT5749 


POR 


MM1550 


POR 


HT5482 Fair. 


POR 


PT6612 


POR 


MM1552 


50-00 


MT5483 Fair. 


POR 


PT6626 


FOR 


MM1553 


50,00 


MT5596 Fair, 


POR 


PT6709 


POR 


MM1614 


10.00 


MT5764 Fair, 


POR 


PT6720 


POR 


MM2608 


5.00 


MT8762 Fair. 


POR 


PT8510 


POR 


MM3375A 


11.50 


MV109 


.77 


PT8524 


POR 


MM4429 


10,00 


MV1401 


8.75 


PT8609 


POR 


MM8000 


1.15 


MV1624 


1.42 


PT8633 


FOR 


MM8006 


2.30 


MV1805 


15.00 


PT8639 


FOR 


M0277L 


POR 


MV1S08 


10.00 


PT8659 


POR 


M0283L 


POR 


MV1S17B 


10-00 


PT8679 


POR 


M03757 


POR 


MV1863B 


10.00 


FT 8 7 08 


POR 


MP102 


POR 


MV1864A 


10-00 


PT8709 


POR 


MPN3202 


10.00 


MV1864B 


10.00 


PT8727 


POR 


MPM3401 


.52 


MV1864D 


10.00 


PT8731 


POR 


MPN3412 


1.00 


MV1868D 


10.00 


PT8742 


POR 


MPSU31 


KOI 


KV2101 


.90 


PT8787 


POR 


MRA2Q23-1.5 TRW 


42.50 


MV211I 


-90 


PT9790 


41.70 


MRF212/208 


16.10 


HV2115 


1.55 


PT31962 


POR 


MRF223 


13.25 


MV2201 


.53 


PT31963 


POR 


MRF224 


15*50 


MV2203 


-53 


PT31983 


POR 


MRF237 


3.15 


MV2209 


2,00 


PTX6680 


POR 


MRF238 


12.65 


MV2215 


2,00 


RAY- 3 


24.99 


MRF243 


25.00 


MWA110 


7.45 


40081 


POR 


MRF245 


34.50 


KWA120 


7.80 


40281 


POR 


MRF247 


34.50 


MWA130 


8.25 


40282 


POR 


MRF304 


43-45 


MW A2 1 


7.80 


40290 


POR 


MRF315 


23,00 


MWA220 


8.25 


RF110 


25.00 


MRF420 


20.00 


MWA230 


8.65 


SCA3522 


FOR 


MRF421 


36,80 


MWA31Q 


8.25 


SCA3523 


POR 


MRF422 


41.40 


MWA320 


8. 65 


SD1065 


POR 


MRF427 


16.10 


MWA330 


9.50 


SS43 


POR 


MRF428 


46.00 


NEC57835 


5.30 


TP1014 


POR 


MRF450/A 


13,80 


ON 38 2 


5.00 


TP1028 


POR 


MRF453/A 


17,25 


FFT5I5-2Q-3 


POR 


TRW- 3 


POR 


MRF454/A 


19.90 


PRT8637 


POR 


UTO504 Avatitek 


70.00 


MRF455/A 


16,00 


PSCQ2-160 


POR 


UT0511 Avatitek 


75,00 


MRF458 


19-90 


PT3190 


POR 


V15 


4.00 


MRF463 


25,00 


PT3194 


POR 


V33B 


4.00 


MRF472 


1-00 


PT3195 


POR 


V100B 


4.00 


MRF475 


2.90 


PT3537 


POR 


VABS01EC 


25.00 


MRF477 


11.50 


PT4166E 


POR 


VAB804EC 


25,00 


MRF502 


1.04 


PT4176D 


POR 


VAS21AN20 


25.00 



For information call; (602) 242-3037 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 



"All parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we are out of stock of an item/' 



JM^z electronjc$ 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 









73 Magazine • January, 1984 123 



1 



COAXIAL RELAt SWITCHES SPOT 



Electronic Specialty Co. /ftavr-n Electronics 
i'urt # 25N28 Part # SU-Ol 

26Vdc Type K Connector, DC to 1 Gil/. 



FSN 5985-556-9683 



549.00 







NC 



COM 



NO 



**#C A I j • » .'1 Iff NO 



in J»f a # ) 



*r* I4VTN eiFCTto«!Cs ia 



«4 jSa 



Amphenol 

Part # 316-IQ102-8 

115Vac Type &NC DC to 3 £]llz, 



$29.99 



FXR 

Part # 300- U 182 

I ZQVac Typi.' bnc nu to 4 <;hz, 
?SN 5985-543-1225 



FXR 

Part fl 300- ] U73 
l20Vac Type BNC Same 
FSN 5985-5A>l850 

$39-99 






i 



HNC To Banana Plug Coax Cable RG-53 36 Inch or HNC to N Coax Cahlr R^-58 Ifj Inch. 



$7.99 or 2 For 313.99 or 10 For 350,00 



SB, 99 or 2 For $15,99 or 10 For $60.00 





SOLID STATE RELAYS 



P&fl Model ECTJDB72 
PRICE EACH $5.00 

Digisig, Inc. Model ECS-215 
PRICE EACH 37.50 

Grigs by /Bar too Model GS7400 
PRICE EACH 57,50 



5vdc turn on 



120vac contact at 7 amps or 20amo*J on a 
10'*x IQ* 1 * .124 aluminum! He/itsink with 
silicon greast;. 

240vac contact lAamps or 4 Damps on a 
IQ^x I0"x . 124 aluminum. Heatatnk with 
silicon grease. 

240vac contact at 1 >amps or i Damps on a 
i0"x 10 f1 x -124 a list in tint. Heats ink with 
silicon grease. 

MOTE: *** Items may be substituted with oth^r brands or equivalent model numbers. *** 



5vdt turn on 



3vdt. turn on 



cfM^fc 



For information call: (602) 242-3037 



elect ronjcfc 



Alt pans may be new or 
surplus, and pans may be 
substituted with comparable porta 
if we are out oi stock or an item 



Toll FfM Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



124 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



RECALL PHONE MEMORY TELEPHONE WITH 24 NUMBER AUTO DIALER 

The Recall Phone Telephone employs Che latest state of iirt 
communications technology. 1c is a combination telephone 
and automatic dialer that uses premium-quality, sol id -state 
circuitry to assure high- re 1 lability performance tit personal 
or business applications* 5A9.99 



/ 




*t 















ARON ALPHA RAPID BONDING GLUE 

Super Glue 0CE-486 high strength 
rapid bonding adhesive. Alpha 
Cyanoacrylate. Set-Time ZO to 40 
sec. , 0. 7fi.oz* (20gm. ) 

$2*00 




TOUCH TONE PAD 

This pad contains all the electronics to 
produce standard touch-tone tones. New 
with data. 




$9.99 or 10/589,99 



MITSUMI UHF/VHF VARACTQR TUNER MODEL UVE1A 

Perfect for those unscramble r projects. 
New with data. 




S19.99 or I0/SI49.99 



INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 



MC1372P 

HC1358P 

MCI 3 SOP 

MC1330AIF 

MC 1 3 I OP 

MC1496P 

LM565N 

LM380N14 

LM18S9N 

NE564N 

NE561N 



Color TV Video Modulator Circuit, 

IF Amp. v Limit er,FM Detector, Audio Driver, Electronic Attenuator 

IF Amplifier 

Low Level Video Detector 

FN Stereo Demodulator 

Balanced Modulator/Demodulator 

Phase Locked Loop 

2Watt Audio Power Amplifier 

TV Video Modulator 

Phase Locked Loop 

Phase Locked Loop 



1 to 10 


Hup 


4.42 


S2.95 


5. GO 


4.00 


1.50 


1.25 


1.50 


1.15 


4.29 


3.30 


1.50 


1.25 


2.50 


2.00 


1.56 


1.25 


5.00 


4.00 


10.00 


8,00 


10.00 


8-00 



FERRANTI ELECTRONICS AM RADIO RECEIVER MODEL ZN414 INTEGRATED CIBCUIT. 
Features: 

1-2 to 1.6 volt operating range. f Less than O.Sma current consumption* l50KHz to 3HHz 
Frequency range, , Easy to assemble,!)® alignment necessary. Effective and variable AGC action., 
Will drive an earphone direct. Excellent audio quality. /Typical power gain of 72dB.*IO-18 
package. With data. 32.99 or 1Q For $24.99 



Nt CAD RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 

AA Battery Pack of 6 These are Factory 
New, $5,00 

SUB C Pack of 10 2.5Amp/Hr. 510.00 

Gates Rechargeable Battery Packs 



12vdc at 2.5Amp/fir. 
12vdc at 5Amp/Er. 



S 11 . 99 
$15.99 




aM**^ electronics 



"All parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable pans 
if we are out of stock of an item " 



MOTOROLA MRF599 RF TRANSISTOR 

hfe 3Qnin 90typ 200nrjx. 

ft 3000rrtiz 

gain 8db min 9.5typ at 87Gntiz 

13db typ at 512rtiz 
output power , Swans at 12.5vdc 
at 87QThz. 

$2.05 or 10/$15.00 



For information calf: (602) 242-3037 

Toll Free Number 
800-5284180 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine * January, 1984 125 



"SOCKETS AND CHIMNEYS" 



EIMAC TUBE SOCKETS AMD CHIMNEYS 



SKUG 

SK3O0A 

SK4G0 

SK406 

SK416 

SK500 

SK600 

SK6G2 

SK606 

SK607 

SK610 

SK620 

SK&26 

SK630 

SK616B 

SK640 

SK646 

SK70O 

SK711A 

SK7A0 

SK770 

SK800A 

SK306 

SKttJO 

SK900 

SKI 420 
SKI 490 



Socket 

Socket Tor 4CX5000A,R ,J , 4CX10,OOOD, 4CXL5»000A,J 

Socket For 4-125A ) 250A,400A ) 40QC > 4FR125A>400A,4-50QA J 5-500A 

Chimney For 4-25OA,4GQA,400C l 4PR4QOA 

Chimney For 3^4002 

Socket For 4-100GA/4FR1OQ0A/B 

Socket For 4CX250B, BC ,FG,R,4CX35GA,F,FJ 

Socket For 4CX250B .BC^FG.R, 4CX350A,F,FJ 

Chimney For 4CX250B,BC >FG,R,4CX350A f F,FJ 

Socket For 4CX600J f JA 

Socket For 4CX600J ,JA 

Socket For 4CX600J , JA 

Chimney For 4CX600J.JA 

Socket For 4CX600J ,JA 

Chimney For 4CX600J,JA 

Socket For 4CX60GJ ,.IA 

Chimney For 4CX600J,JA 

Socket For 4CX300A,Y,4CX125C,F 

Socket For 4CX3O0A, Y ,4CX125C t F 

Socket For 4CX300A,Y ,4CXl2-iC,F 

Socket For 4CX30QA.Y ,4CX1 25C ,F 

Socket For 4CK1000A , 4CX1 500R 

Chimney For 4CX1GQGA, 4CX 150015 

Socket For 4CX1000A,4CX1 500B 

Socket For 4X500A 

Chimney For 4X500A 

Socket For 5CX3O0OA 

Socket For 4CV800QA 



SF0R 
5520.00 
260.00 

74.00 
36.00 

390.00 
51.00 
73.00 
IK 00 

60.00 

60. on 

66,00 

10.00 

66.00 

34 . 00 

36.00 

71,00 

225,00 

225*00 

86.00 

86,00 

225,00 

40,00 

225.00 

300.00- 

57.00 

650.00 

535.00 



JOHNSON TUBE SOCKETS AND CHIMNEYS 



124-111/SK606 

122-0275-001 
124-0113-00 
124-116/SK630A 
124-1 15-2/SK620A 



Chimney For 4CX2 50B,BC,FG ,R, 4CX350A,F f FJ 

Speket For 3-50OZ, 4-123A, 250A, 400A, 4- 500 A, 5- 

Capacitor Ring 

Socket For 4CX250B,BC,FG,R, /iCX:J50A,F,FJ 

Socket For 4CX25QB ,BC,FG*R, /4CX350A ,F ,FJ 

813 Tube Socket 



500A 



S 10,00 
(pair) 15. 00 
15.00 
55.00 
55,00 
20.00 



CHIP CAPACITORS 




■ 8pf 


lOpf 


i P f 


12pf 


l.lpf 


ISpf 


1.4pf 


ISpf 


L.Spf 


20pf 


LBpf 


22pf 


2.2pf 


24pf 


2.7pf 


27pf 


3.3pf 


33pf 


3.6pf 


39pf 


3.9pf 


47pf 


4,7pf 


blpf 


5.6pf 


56pf 


6.8pf 


6Spf 


8.2pf 


8Zpf 



lOOpf* 

HOpf 

120pf 

13Upf 
150pf 

leopf 

I80pf 
200pf 
220pf* 

240pf 
270pf 
300pf 
330pf 
360pf 
390pf 



PRICES; 



I to 10 - 

II to 50 ■ 
51 to 100 



90* 



101 to 
1001 & 



1000 
UP 



,60C 
.35c 



470pf 
510pf 

560pf 

620pf 

680pf 

820pf 

lOOOpf/.OOluf* 

lSOOpf/.0018uf 

2700pf/.0027uf 

10,000pf/.01uf 

12,OO0pf/.01Zuf 

15,QO0pf/.O15uf 

18,000pf/.018uf 

IS A SPECIAL PRICE: 10 for $7.50 

100 for $65-00 
1000 for $350,00 



riUSE CAPS (Plate) 


S1K00 


HRl, 4 


HR2 t 3, 6 | 7 


13.00 


HR5, 8 


14.00 


HR9 


17.00 


HR10 


20,00 



WATKIN5 JOHNSON WJ-V907 : Voltage Controlled Microwave Oscillator 



$110.00 



Frequency range 3.6 to 4.2GHz, Power ouput, Min. lOdBm typical , 8d8m Guaranteed. 
Spurious output suppression Harmonic (nf )i min. 20dB typical, Tn-Band Non-Harmonic j ruin. 
60dE typical, Residual FM, pk to pk, Max. 5KHz, pushing factor, Max. 8KHz/V, Pulling figure 
(1.5:1 VSWR), Max, 60MHz 3 Tuning voltage range +1 to +15volts. Tuning current, Max. -Q.lmA* 

modulation sensitivity range, Max. 120 to 30MHz/V, Input capacitance, Max, lOOpf, Oscillator 
Bias +15 +-0.05 volts 55mA, Max. 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-01 80 

(For orders only) 



"All parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
it we are out ot stock of an Item." 



qJW g IJz electronics 

For information call; (602) 2423037 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



126 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



TYPE 



TUBES 



PRICE 



TYPE 



PRICE 



TVPE 



PRICE 



2C39/7289 


5 34.00 


H82/4600A 


$500.00 


KL7815AL 


S 60.00 


2E26 


7.95 


4600A 


500.00 


7843 


107.00 


2K28 


200.00 


4624 


310.00 


7854 


130.00 


3-500Z 


102.00 


4657 


84 . 00 


ML7855KAL 


125.00 


3-10G0Z/8164 


400.00 


4662 


100.00 


7984 


14,95 


3BZ8/866A 


9.50 


4665 


500 . 00 


8072 


84.00 


3CX400U7/8961 


255.00 


4687 


P.O.R. 


8106 


5.00 


3CX100DA7 78283 


526,00 


5675 


42.00 


8117A 


225.00 


3CX3000F 1/8239 


567.00 


5721 


250.00 


8121 


110,00 


3CW30000H7 


1700.00 


5768 


125.00 


8122 


110.00 


3XZ500A3 


473.00 


5819 


119.00 


8134 


470.00 


3X3000F1 


567.00 


5836 


232.50 


8156 


12,00 


4-65A/8165 


69.00 


5837 


232,50 


8233 


60-00 


4-125A/4021 


79.00 


5861 


140.00 


8236 


35.00 


4-250A/5D22 


98,00 


5867A 


185.00 


8295/PL172 


500.00 


4~4QGA/843ti 


98.00 


5868/AX9902 


270.00 


8458 


35-00 


4-400B/7527 


110.00 


5876/A 


42.00 


8462 


130.00 


4^400C/6775 


110.00 


5881/6L6 


8.00 


8505A 


95.00 


4-1000A/8166 


444.00 


5893 


60-00 


8533W 


136.00 


4CX250B/7203 


54.00 


5894/A 


54.00 


8560/A 


75.00 


4CX250FG/862I 


75.00 


5894B/8737 


54.00 


8560AS 


100.00 


4CX250K/8245 


125.00 


5946 


395.00 


8608 


38.00 


4CX250R/7580W 


90.00 


6083/AZ9909 


95.00 


8624 


100. 00 


4CX300A/S167 


170,00 


6146/6146A 


8.50 


8637 


70.00 


4CX350A/832I 


110.00 


6146B/8298 


10.50 


8643 


83.00 


4CX350F/8322 


115.00 


6146W/7212 


17.95 


8647 


168.00 


4CX350FJ/8904 


140.00 


6156 


110.00 


8683 


95.00 


4CX600J/8809 


835.00 


6159 


1.1.85 


8877 


465.00 


4CX100OA/8158 


242.50* 


6159B 


23.50 


8908 


13.00 


4CX1000A/8168 


485.00 


6161 


325,00 


8950 


13-00 


4CX1500B/8660 


555.00 


6280 


42.50 


8930 


137,00 


4CX5000A/8170 


1100,00 


6291 


180.00 


6L6 Metal 


25.00 


4CX1O0G0D/8171 


1255.00 


6293 


24.00 


6L6GC 


5. 03 


4CX1S000A/8281 


1500.00 


6326 


P.O.R. 


6CA7/EL34 


5.38 


4CW800F 


710.00 


6360/A 


5,75 


6CL6 


3.50 


4032 


240.00 


6399 


540.00 


6DJ8 


2.50 


4E27A/5-125B 


240.00 


655QA 


10.00 


6DQ5 


6.58 


4PR60A 


200.00 


6883B/8032A/8552 


10.00 


6GF5 


5.85 


4PR60B 


345.00 


6897 


160.00 


6GJ5A 


6.20 


4PR65A/8187 


175.00 


6907 


79.00 


6GK6 


6.00 


4PR1000A/8189 


59Q.O0 


6922/6DJ8 


5.00 


6HB5 


6.00 


4X15QA/7034 


60.00 


6939 


22 . 00 


6HF5 


8.73 


4X150D/7609 


95.00 


7094 


250,00 


6JG6A 


6.28 


4X250B 


45.00 


7117 


38.50 


6JH6 


6.00 


4X250F 


45 . 00 


7203 


P.O.R. 


6JN6 


6.00 


4X500A 


412.00 


7211 


100,00 


6JS6C 


7.25 


5CX1500A 


660.00 


7213 


300.00* 


6KN6 


5.05 


KT88 


27.50 


7214 


300.00* 


6K06 


8.25 


416B 


45.00 


7271 


135.00 


6LF6 


7.00 


416C 


62.50 


7289/2C39 


34.00 


6LQ6 G.E. 


7.00 


572B/T160L 


49.95 


7325 


P.O.R. 


6LQ6/6MJ6 Sylvania 


9.00 


592/3- 200A3 


211.00 


7360 


13.50 


6ME6 


8,90 


807 


o.50 


7377 


85.00 


12AT7 


3,50 


SUA 


15.00 


7408 


2.50 


12AX7 


3.00 


12* 


29.00 


7609 


95.00 


12BY7 


5.00 


813 


50.00 


7735 


36.00 


12JB6A 


6.50 



NOTE 



= USED TUBE 



NOTE P.O.R. = PRICE ON REQUEST 



"ALL PARTS MAY BE NEW, USED, OR SURPLUS. PARTS MAY BE SUBSTITUTED WITH COMPARABLE PARTS IF WE 
ARE OUT OF STOCK OF AN ITEM. 



NOTICE: ALL PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 



For information call: (602) 242-3037 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 



"All parts may be new or 
syrpius. and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
■f we are out ol stock of an item." 



^t G t\x elect roi\ic$ 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 127 



"FILTERS" 

COLLINS Mechanical Filter #526-9724-010 MODEL R55Z32F 

455KHZ at 3.2KH2 wide. May be otlier nodeis but equivalent. May be used or new, $15,99 

ATLAS Crystal Filters 

5.595-2.7/8/ISB, 5.595-2.7/LSB 

8 pole 2.7KHz wide Upper sideband, Irrpedenoe BOGohms 15pf iJi/SOQohms Opf out. 19,99 

5.595-2.7/B/U, 5.595-2.7/USB 

8 pole 2*l¥hz wide Upper sideband* Inpedence 800ohms 15pf In/800ohms Opf out. 19.99 

5. 595-. 500/4, 5. 595-. 500/4 /CW 

4 pole 500 cycles wide CW. Impedance SOQohms 15pf In/800ohms Opf out. 19,99 

9 . OUSB/CW 

6 pole 2,7KHs wide at 6dB. Impedance 680ofrns 7pf In/300ohms 8pf out. CW™1599Hz 19*99 

K0KUSA1 ELECTRIC CO, Mechanical Filter W1F-155-ZL/ZU-21H 

455KH2 at Center Frequency of 453. 5KC. Carrier Frequency of 455KHz 2.36KC Bandwidth. 
Upper sidebar*}, (ZU) 19.99 



Lower sideband. f2L) 



« » * # * 



••*»**«•*•*»»••*** 



•«*•«•••«•***#«««•••••• ##**•**•••*•*♦•• 



19,99 



CRYSTAL FILTERS 



NIKKO 

TEW 

SDK 

TYOO/CD 
MOTOROLA 

PTI 
PTI 
PTI 

gcmtec3i 

FTLTECR 



FX-07800C 

KEC-1Q3-2 

SCH-113A 

TF-3111250 

001019880 

48S4863B01 

5350C 

5426C 

1479 

A10300 

ERXF-15700 

2131 



7.3MHz 

10.6935MHz 

11.2735MHZ 

CF 3179. 3KHz 

10.7MHz 2pole lSKHz bandwidth 

11.7MHz 2pole IBKHz bandwidth 

12mhz 2pole 15KHz bandwidth 

21.4MHz 2pole lSKHz bandwidth 

10.7MHz Spole bandwidth 7.5KHz at 3dB, 5KHz at 6dB 

45MHz 2pole lSKHz bandwidth 

20-Qfflz 36KHz wide 

CF 7, 825MHz 



$10 , 00 

10.00 

10 . 00 

19,99 

5.00 

5.00 

5.00 

5.00 

20,00 

6.00 

10.00 

10.00 



*»*•#***««******«••*********«*#-**«••*•**«* 



*»******••»•*«* 



***••••**• 



CERAMIC FILTERS 

a:*:el 4F449 

CTEVTIE TO-01A 

TCP4-12D36A 

HJRATA BFB45SB 

BFB455L 
CFM455E 
CFM455D 
CFH455E 
CFU455B 
CFU455C 
CFU455G 
CFU455H 
CFU455I 
CFW455D 
CFW455H 
SFB455D 
SFD455D 
SFE10.7M& 
SFE10.7M5 
SFG10»7MA 
IP-B4/CFU455I 
LF-B6/CFU455H 
IF-B8 
IF-C18 

CF455A/&FU455K 
EFC-L455K 



12.6KC Bandpass Filter 3dB bandwidth l.GKHz fron U.8-13.4KHz 

455KHz-i-2KHz bandwidth 4-7% at 3dB 

45GKHz^-l£Hz bandwidth 6dB min 12khz, 60dB piax 36KHz 

455KHz 

455KH2 

455KHz 4-5,5KHz at 3dB , -!-8KHz at 6dB , 4-16KHZ at 50dB 

455KHZ -WKHz at 3dB , 4-l0KHz at 6dB , 4-20KHZ at 50dB 

455KHz H-5.5KHZ at 3dB f -I-8KHZ at 6dB , 4-16KHz at 60dB 

455KHz 4-2KHz bandwidth -i-15KI!z at 6dB, -J-30KHZ at 4 0dB 

455KHz -T-2KH2 bandwidth -1-12. 5KHz at 6dB , +-24KHz at 40dB 

455KHz -r-lKHz bandwidth 4-4*5KHz at 6dB , 4-lOKHz at 40dB 

455KHZ 4-lKHz bandwidth +-3KHz at 6dB , +-9KHz at 40dB 

455KHZ -+-1KHZ bandwidth 4-2KHZ at 6dB , +-6KHZ at 40dB 

455KHZ 4-lOKHz at 6dB , 4^20KHz at 40dB 

455KHz +-3KHz at 6d3 f 4-9KHz at 40dB 

455KHZ 

455KHz 4-2EHz , 3dB bandwidth 4,5KHz -I-IKHZ 



NIPPCN 



TOKIN 

mrausHiRA 



10.7MHz 280KHz 4-SOKHz at 3dB 

10,7ffiz 230KHZ 4-SOKHz at 3dB 

10.7MHz 

455KHz +-1KHZ 

455KHZ 4-lKHz 

455KHZ 

455KHZ 

455KHZ +-2KHz 

455KHZ 



650KHZ at 20dB 
570KRZ at 20dB 



■•*»*»#*##**#####*#*•###»*♦#♦+#**#**#*»»*»#*»*«*«**• 



10.00 
5.00 

10,00 
2 . SO 
3.50 
6 * 65 
6.65 
8.00 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 
2,90 
2.90 
2.90 
2,50 
5.00 
2.50 
2.50 

10.00 
2.90 
2.90 

2,90 

10.00 

5,00 

7.00 



* # # * # 



SPECTRA PHYSICS INC. Model 088 HeNe LASER TUBES 

PCWER OUTPUT 1.6T-W. BEAM DIA. .75MH BEAM DIR. 2.7MR 
68K OHM 1WATT BALLAST 1000VDC -t-lOOVDC At 3.7MA 

RQTRQN MUFFIN FANS Model MARK4/riU2Al 

LIS VAC 14WATTS 50/60CPS IMPEDENCE PK7TECTEO-F 

105cm at 60CPS THESE ARE NEW 

Toil Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 



SKV STARTING VOLTAGE DC 

$59.99 



88Cra at 50CPS 



JVI^z electronic* 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



$ 7.99 

"AH parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we are out of stock of an item H 



For information call: (602) 242*3037 



128 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



HEWLETT PACKARD SIGNAL GENERATORS 



506A 

oQdB 
oOSC 

jssiq 

608E 
&03F 

612A 
i.UA 






: ia tWrii in 6 K- _. . \uticsui level oojustaDle C 
id Jv Into 50 CMS. Bui tt- in crystal COlIbroior.JiOQ -lOCt 
•QCuicjtion. s 



Sow as ODOve but nas freQuenc* ::^tro{ feature to -alio* 
accretion ejltfi HP B7DBA Syacnronuer^ 

10HU: to <*3fl«Hi J ,0-luY-_lv into 50 QFicis,Jlfl,Cw,or pulse bqc- 
glotion, calibrated attenuator, 

lOTlHr to *aQRHz f D.lrtH).5v into 50 oms,»-y\5I occurs:*, 
U-in crystal calibrator. 4H-CW or pulse output* 

Improves versLon of popular Gfl&LdP to IV output. lncr> 
siabUtivJow residuai Ffl. 

1H2 to *o5flH: jn 5 oands *-:; freauen. urac* witn 

Dull!- in crystal ca 1 1 Or aior . Can be used with HP &708A 

Output continuously aoiusiablf from ,luv to 



rtfitnronifer. 
SV into SO Q 



on mi , 

450 l j 50WHz ^luV-U.SV into 50 -iims,cal j bratetj output, 

■\\\\\-.]\}im\i£ Kim many features including calibrated output 
uni all modulation characteristics. 



: ._ 

S SQtLOl 
S 37> 
S1450.GQ 

sugo.dq 

s 750.00 



Direct readlna and direct control from 1.8 td ti.2&tt2. The 
HiPifilafl features +-1.5CJE calibrated output accuracy from 
-?p7dlffl to -dBm.Fnc output is dir«i iiv q| id rated in rnicro- 
M-ali -iith continuous monitoring, Sirnnle ooeratj ■ 

fr^out?nC> a lad accuracy Is *-lX and stability exceeds 0.005"- 

aianae in ambient temperature* Calibrated attenuator ts 
hi in in »--l.idB over entire output bar- i ohm impedance unit 
has Internal pulse modulation *ltn reo rem- | r om Ml 

HZ to ^KHz, variable pulsewitfWl to lOusecscnd variable ( i 
delay «5 to JOOusec). External HCduiatino incuts incrtas vr 
satiSitv, s 575.00 



tfiese necusets am onto m fax jj to a H DU j a > amer e&iiirt 

Perfect f c-r A i > ? itijias , or Just the Teieorcre 

the? ^ciorv »e* In Sendee Braes. Liinitefl Saolv Qn\v $©.95 





masler ciiarae 



^— * elect roqic* 



"All parts may be new or 

surplus, and parts may be 
substituted wilh comparable parts 
If we are out ol stock of an Item." 



&18B 
6204 



Sone as above Cut later nodel . * 600.00 

-" inge.- ol iBroied output ana selection of 
pwlse-Ri or souare wave wortulQiion. -jOD.od 

sojc as above but later apdel. iWJOO.OD 

7 10 Uteiz ronge,«itfi cohDroteo output ami selection of 
ouise-fF :uore wove ■adulation. * ^ 

Sane as above but later model, .00.00 

XO to l>jHz P IQih output potter hi in calLbratea out rut and 
Pvtse-sauare wove Of FN moaulaUOh* WDO.QU 

Synchronizer used *Rh 606b,6G8F Jhe synchronizer s a 
. ck freauency stabilizer #buh provides crystal - 
cscUlator freauency stabinly to 4J0NHZ in ttie fern sigrxi] 
gene rotor. Phase locking el iminnies micrn ' , drift 

resulting In exce treauencv stdBUlt^ 'ne S7GSA includes 

a vernier which can rune the re-re rente osciliator over a ronrte 
Of *-Q.2!ijE Dermmiiw frenuency settobllnv to 2 parts in 10 
to the seventh. Provides a very stable si anal that satisfies 
monv critical applications, ,„ Hm 

(With HP 60&B or 6D6F1 * 5 L .n ml 

(Without! * ^50. ao 



EHI 
NF-i05F 



I LCIROMLTRICS EftC-10 RFT/EHI RECEIVER 

Low frequency analyzer covering 20HJ to BOKHz 'reauency 

range f Extendable to 5D0 km.- r wideband mode. 



Intensity tecer. 



Empire Devices Field i tensity. P 

HdS HF-lQ5/ffr*NF-105/TX.NF-: : . NF-105/TJ ..Nf -105 

Covers !4Khz to lOQOHHz. 



12500. i in 



12100.00 



ALL EQUIPHENT CARRY A K) OAY GUARANTEE. 
EQUlPflEMt JS MOT CALIBRATED. 



c** vm sf* a*** 



WSTftuCTIOtiS 

o* pv'c^ »*•■ An TBJurni muff be pKmto procwdy or it wrff ro* »r> *4-i- «s 

DEllYEAY Ot^K I V* normal jr sfuppe} *nmft «0 *^>«rt *M^ 'K*tpi O* C*flT&m*r s ontv ll a part r<H lo Bv 
tMCfc? r Or't£ '*>■ ;y*tom*' nrxrtrtiea Our ngrm»> »n>pp.f4 nvir^j; (t r.»fnrC!MtMfc*ff uPS5»pi*KJ"»5 or 
lt» Arte *»igm g' f^e &*z*aQb Op test CQu»pin*inf t I ti *' 5^ r p OB i* pp*"5 peon 

FOMElON ORDERS Ml foret^n -yrSera musl tw ^r#p*,a w>m CHtiUK't check or ifioner order trm&t tttf m U f» 
Fundt W* tf« »0rr t thut C O.D a nol i«c lib<* lotv4hfri COvi^T-rt l'<2 LeACH of Cwarr »*• fWt in flcccputtt 
«arfn ol jMr'TVnl *ithvr ^vrtft«T fnfQ«TiAU&fi rfe ivi> <■*>* Oh 1 »Gu»*1 

«OUWS O. ->p»» inr u SalurflAf fl:30ar^ IdiOa pm 

INSURANCE: rifMl mcltrfl* 2Sc tw •icr« addit'D^il' fiOOODow HOC 00 Ufiitea Parge* pnlv 

OUPEH FORmS: N«* qwC^r 1arm 5 are iclyOHJ *ith »ic*i (BtCMS <0- »dji doft^rs.ence Addition* lorm* *r* 

POSTAGE: Mi rvmurr shipping ana handling m lh« US. Cir**a* ina M*ft*00H I? Suan otflei countThea is 45 CM 
On loraiQn ordara >nciuOe 20^= shippinnj and nanaimg 
PREPAID ORDERS: Order muBt tw accorrpanmd by i ChacH 
PRICES; Pi icei attt sub-eel So chalflfl WHn-p^l ■HsiHr» 

RESTOCK CHAflOE T parli are relumed 1D MHZ EUClroniCI dU« IP CUSlgmor error, customer will Lie hvlrJ 
raiponsibia rot an «^ra raes, * ill be charged a 15^ laitoc^ng rna. wilri tna femainder In'tirttfU rjnry AH rasufnt 
mufi nave approval 

BALES TAX: AniDna muii edd 5V* sales Ian unli-it * inflnad An«ni ra*alB lai card is currenlly cm tua *llti 
MHZ Electronic!. All ardfti^plicMtDy p*fsofia aula id* of Arizona, but dallyerad lo oef sana -n Arlio-ni am uut 
|*ct to in* 5% teles ra« 

SHORTAQE OR OAMAOE: AB dairfta for srigriagaa pr damage* tiutE b» rTiade *ithii Sdayi alter receipt o» 
parcel C^ntis mm) mdude our i^gico rWrt** end in» da;* af purctiew Cvitotnatt wriicfi do not nalily ui 
laiinirv tma urn* oeiriod wM t» natd reepons-tce tor ma eniir* oro>r ai we erltl confer me ortjer tompteia 

OUR BDO NUMfiER IS STUiCTl* POR ORDERS OHLf 
NO lNFOnVATiO% WILL BE O'VEN T.t0O53»0ta0 



TERMS OOMEST1C Prepaid. C OO os C*«S»1 CwO 

* 0«£ iGN Praoawr on*, u S 'jfidt-mtf^,- oMav o* caahwr * cnccA &nfy 
COD Ac^avias** trt i*i*p?nsr» □- - = ^mrit^+t! r+ow at(om<i *.n p* p r .^agjh i*ionav 
efwee w« an aorr> p y t ** cannot accaal paraonH tn*cM m* COP* 
COM FIRMING ORDERS At nouMUmHv mat co^r-'^i'c on}*n «xj* be t*nt 
piacefl ifto**>$+t>} po^c,, T*zes5:!a p : e* i:oi''.'ffliftrjor;*' CiCtUTlit COMFlAMtaiO PcHOry 
It p*opJ*tni C 9up^c«l> aft*pments Dccu.r dkw to a" ora«« *^i;r- .» r*ot proper^ fnarhadl 
h#*d taaponaitMa *w *nv cHarDas «ncun«d: p*«s a IS 1 ** »*»iOC* c nargc oa wiumad parrs 
CREOU CAR OS w£ ACCtPt a&ASttACAIfP VrlA AMD AUHHCAN EVPRH3 
DATA Sheet & iv-c # t f. a .- r== i^evia m woe* on sauces *e oo supply If*" *rtn :n* order 



ffc*v*t 



* t* 




For information call: (602) 242 3037 



j^a 



2111 W. CAMELBACK ROAD 
PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85015 

Toll Fr*i Numbtr 
BOO 528 0180 
(For ordtrs onty) 



- 



See Lrsr of Aovetusets on page TT4 



73 Magazine • January, 1964 129 





l 



' *— 1. 



J 



'* " 



? year rajggjfr 



A year of 73 



$17.97 



Amateur Radio's 
Technical Journal 



A Wayne Green Publication 



73 keeps you up to date on whaf s happening 
in the ham world. For only $17.97, 73 gives 
you a year of: 



•CONSTRUCTION FROJECT5- 

73 publishes more easy-to-build 
projects than any oiher ham 
magazine 

•73 INTERNATiONAL-Cet re- 
ports from 73 correspondents 
around Che globe Amateur radio 
is a worldwide pastime and 73 is 
your source for international 
news 

•NEW PRODUCTS -73 gives 
you reports on state-of-the-ait 
amateurradio equipment In 
1982 alone. 73 introduced 137 
pieces of newly-available ham 
gear! 

•REVIEWS — Fromkeyersto 
transceivers to tuners , you'll save 
money with 73 T s first-hand equip- 
ment evaluations. 



•DXINC-Cet the best DX col- 
umn there is. 73 columnist Chad 
Harris VP2ML provides tips for 
newcomers, profiles of the hams 
behind those famous call signs, 
and constant DXpedition up- 
dates. Don l miss it! 

•NEVER SAY DIE-W2N5D's 
controversial editorials have 
livened up the ham scene for 
more than 22 years Is he right or 
wrong* "Never Say Die" lets you 
be the fudge. 

•HAM HELP -Thousands of 

readers have had their problems 
solved through a query published 
in 73s "Ham Help" column. 
Need a hard-to-find part, 
schematic, or owners manual? 
Ham information of any kind? Lei 
73 helpl 



Get the information you need for better 
hamming. 

Get into the spirit of 731 



I would like a year of 73 for $17.97. 

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□ Check/M.O. D MC □ VISA D AE □ Bill Me $17.97 for 12 issues. 

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Canada & Mrxiro. $20.97 I year only, US fund* drawn on US bank. 
Foreign Surface, £37.97. 1 year only, US funds drawn on US bank. 
Foreign Airmail please Inquire. Please allow 6-8 weeks for dettvery 



341 FB 



73: Amateur Radio's Technical journal • Box 931 • Farmingdale, NY 11737 



130 73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 




Mooe- hP6v Comptetetv automatic oancJswurM.ny 
SOttwtNjgh 1 ptu* 30 meit^t Outperforms aN 4- and 
5 tja-^ti tap verocaisef cornparabtesaze Thousandi 
•n us« vworkjwtd* airc« December "B1 ' 160 meter 
opuo i frrtdfrtM now retmo? u mis for remaining WARC 
bands Gonung uon Heigm 26 It 7 S meters 9uv*ng 
not roqu*wd •> mat 





pershack" 




^1* * f J* * 




From QRP to SSB, 
Heath leads the way with 
high tech products that 
perform, 

• SS-9000 microprocessor-based, 
solid-state Deluxe HF Trans- 
ceiver with nine band operation, 

• HD-8999 UftraPro^ CW micro- 
controlled keyboard. Send fetter 
perfect code at up to 99 WPM. 

• HW-5400 Synthesized HF SSEV 
CW Transceiver. Our lowest cost, 
high tech transceiver 

• HL-2200 2kW Linear Amplifier 
The lowest cost-per-watt in 2k 
linears, 

• Plus dozens of other high tech 
amateur products and 
accessories. 

• New HFT-9 QRP Antenna Tuner 
gives operators an exact trans* 
match, when every watt counts in 
a tow-power OSO. An enjoyable, 
kit with our famous guarantee: 
'We wont let you fail" 




Model ?MCv Trorr^jone 
gain vertical tot 2 meters having tfre same gam as 
double- S* type* but tne patentee* tmrwtacmv 
pnasjng section allows the radiator to remain unbroken 
by >«*«jJator* for maximum strength m high winds Mo 
ciaUi pitimbe'* defcghr construction and adjustable 
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73 Magazine • January, 1984 131 




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132 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



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See List of Advertisers on page t J4 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 133 




international) 



from page 80 

1914 km on 1296 MHz and 1663 km on 10 
GHz! 

Last summer that worldwide-known 
GHz DXer bettered a fantastic world rec- 
ord of 1166 km or> 10 GHz from Sagunto. 
Spain, to Italy, On July 2nd, Nicola joined 
IGSC and WKBL in Ceuta, With them was 
Bernardo EA5RK. Nicola's car hauled a 
trailer with gear for 144 MHz, HF, and the 
GHz transceivers. 

They met many hams from Ceuta, 
EA9LT, EA9GH, EA9KF, EA9LV. and 
EA9GH, who gave their assistance, pro- 
viding permission to Install the setup and 
the antennas on the Ceuta lighthouse, 400 
feet above sea level. 

* July 4— Nicola starts with two GSOs on 
144 MHz MS r contacting I4BXN and 
F6FHI. 

• July 5— There is an E-sporadic aper- 
ture: Nicola contacts on 144 MHz several 
YUs and Is with signals far in excess of S9. 
These are the first EA9-YU QSOs In histo 
ry. At 15Q7Z, a contact is established on 



1296 MHz with IBTUSia. The QRB is 1914 
km, a world record. 

• July 6— At i052 H an ES contact with 
9H1CG, a new one on 144 between EA9 
and 9H Then dozens of ES contacts with 
Italy and Yugoslavia. The signals are ter- 
rific: The S-meter is pinning up to full 
scale. At 1804, another new one with 
G4IJE; then, at 1B45, GI4TAP (first QSO 
EA9-GI); at 1847, EI2CA, and at 1917. 
GW8FKB (two new ones with EA9), 

• July 7 — A one-hour opening on 1296 
and many QSOs with Sicily. 1BHOC/IT9 
displays In Ceuta a signal of S9+20, 
Giuseppe has gone portable from Rome to 
Sicily )ust to try the contacts 

Then the magic moments: At 1600, the 
contact is established with fair signals 
with IW0SClfnT9, France, with a QRB of 
1621 km) After seven minutes, again the 
record with IBNLK/IT9, The entire Roma 
Microwave Gang was In Sicily to attend 
the IflSNY enterprise. 

Three hours after the record Is filed, a 
new contact with IGIMLK/IE9, Isle of Usll- 
ca, brings the record to 1663 km, almost 
500 km more than the 19&2 record from 





ITALIAN CALL AREAS 


I1JK1JW1* 


Liguria and Plemonte (N,W- Italy) 


12, IK2, IW2 


Lombardia (H. Italy) 


1X1, IW1 


Valle d'Aosta (N.W. Italy)- 


13, IK3 S IW3 


Veneto (M,E. Italy) 


IN3, IW3 


Trentino Alto Adige (NE. Italy) 


IV3, IW3 


Friuli Venezia Giulla (IM,E, Italy) 


14, IK4, IW4 


Emilia (N, Italy) 


15, IK5, IW5 


Toscana iC. Italy) 


16, lK6 r IW6 


Marche and Abruzzi (C,E. Italy) 


17, IK?. IW7 


Puglia(S.E. Italy) 


IS, IKS, IvVS 


MoMse(S.E. Italy) 


IB, IKS, iwe 


Baslllcata, Calabria, Campania (S. Italy) 


IT9, IW9 


Sicily (5. Italy) 


10, IKffl, PWffl 


LaziolC. W.Italy) 


IQ. IK0, (WG 


Umbria (Q Italy) 


ISA, IW0U 


Sardinia (W. Etaly) 


" The IW prefi> 


[ is for special no-code license, 144 MHz and up, 



Sag unto to Rome. The day is not ended, 
as IWQBHN is contacted on 10 GHz: 1603 
km, not a record but great OX! 
*9 and 10 July— The team is now in Mo- 
rocco and gets several new contacts from 
that country on 144 and 432 MHz. But the 
most Interesting QSO is the contact with 
I0HOC/IT9 on 1296: two hours of conversa- 
tion with steady signals of S9 + 40 dB, full 
scale! Nicola then tries FM: S9 + 40 
again! 
Too many bureaucratic difficulties in 



Morocco, so I0SNY and his friends leave 
for Perugia, the nice, historical., small City 
where he lives, in central Italy. 

Boys, let's see what he will do next sum- 
mer! 

ITALIAN ISLANDS AWARD (II A) 

The Italian Islands Award is issued by 
ARI (Associazione Radioamatori ItalianI) 
to all radio amateurs and SWLs world- 
wide. The award can be obtained on the 
following frequencies and with the follow- 



ITALIAN ISLANDS AWARD 



List of the Islands and points, (To save space, 
bands are indicated. There is a different poi 
bands (VHF, UHF, up 3 GHz). The complete 
the ARI Award Manager with an SASE. 

Isole Liguri — IA4 

Palmaria 2 

Tino 3 

Tinetto 4 

Gallinara 3 

Bergeggi 2 

Arc i pel a go Ponziano — IB0 

Ponza 1 

Gavi 2 

Belle 5 

Cappellc 5 

Formiche 5 

Le Gal ere 5 

Mezzogiorno 5 

PaJmarola 3 

Piatti 5 

S, Stefano 2 

Ventotene 1 

Zannone 2 



only the points achieved on the HF 

nt scale for the contacts on other 
point table can be requested from 



Arc! pel ago Napoletano 


— ica 


ischia 


i 


Proclda 


1 


Ll Galll 


4 


Nlsida 


4 


Vivara 


1 


Capri 


1 


Isola di Ustica— IE9 




Us t ica 


1 


Banco Apello 


2 


Co lorn bar a 


2 


Medico 


2 


Isole Pelagie— IG9 




Lamped us a 


2 


Lampione 


3 


Llnosa 


3 


Isola Conigh 


5 



I sola dl Pantelleria — IH9 
Pantelieria 1 

Arclpetago Toscano— IA5 
Elba 1 

Corbella 2 

Gemini 2 

Meioria 2 



Ogliera 


2 


Ortano 


2 


Pa I ma ro! a 


1 


Remaiolo 


2 


Scoglietto 


2 


Sedia Paolina 


2 


Scoglio Africa 


3 


Topi 


2 


Triglia 


2 


Gorgon a 


1 


Montecristo 


3 


Pianosa 


2 


Cerboii 


2 


Falconcino 


2 


Santa Lucia 


2 


Gapraia 


1 


Giannutri 


2 


Gigito 


1 


Argentaroia 


3 


Formica Burano 


2 


Formic he 


2 


Isola Rossa 


2 


Isolotto 


3 


Sparvlero 


2 


Arcipelago dalle Eolie- 


-ID9 


Lipari 


1 


Alicudi 


1 


Filicudi 


1 


Canna 


5 


Montenassarl 


3 


Panarea 


3 


Basiluzzo 


3 


Battara 


3 


Dattilo 


5 


Formic he 


3 


Li sea Bianca 


3 


LI sea Nera 


3 


Panarelli 


3 


Spinazzola 


3 


Sallna 


1 


Stromboli 


1 


Strombolicchio 


2 


Vulcano 


1 



PofceMi 

Favtgnana 

Formica 

Galeotta 

Maraone 

Preveto 

Levanzo 

Marettimo 



5 

1 
2 
5 
2 
5 
1 
1 



Arcipelago Cheradi — U7 
San Paolo 2 

San Pietro 2 



Arcipelago dalle Egadr— IF9 
Asineili 5 



(sole Tremiti— IL7 




San Domino 


1 


San Nicola 


1 


Caprara 


2 


Cretaccio 


2 


Pianosa 


4 


Arcipelago delta Maddalena— IM0 


Maddalena 


1 


Barrettini 


2 


Biscie 


2 


Budelli 


2 


Can a 


4 


Caprera 


1 


Cavalli 


3 


Corcalli 


2 


La Presa 


2 


Monaci 


2 


Pi ana 


2 


Porraggla 


2 


Porco 


2 


Ratino 


2 


Razzoli 


2 


Santa Maria 


2 


Santo Stefano 


2 


Spargl 


2 


S pa rg lotto 


4 


Asmara 


2 


Cappuecini 


4 


Delia Bocca 


4 


Figarolo 


4 


Foradada 


4 


Delli Nibani 


4 


Poveri 


4 


Isolotto Rossa 


4 


Le C a mere 


4 


Le Soft I 


4 


Maddalena Algherc 


4 


Mann or at a 


4 


Moiara 


2 



Molarotto 


5 


Mortorio 


5 


Mortoriotto 


5 


Pagiiosa 


4 


Pecora 


4 


Pedrami 


4 


Piana di Aighero 


4 


Porri 


4 


Proratola 


4 


Rossa 


4 


Rossa dl Bosa 


4 


Ruja 


4 


Scoglio Businco 


5 


Corona Niedda 


5 


Scoglio Forani 


5 


Scoglio Paganetto 


5 


Tawoiara 


2 



Arcipelago Cagtiarl — I 

Cavoli 4 

Corno 4 

II Toro 2 

La Vacca 2 

Mai di Ventre 2 

Meli 4 

Oghastra 4 

Piana S. Pietro 4 

Quirra 4 

Ratti 4 

Rossa Teulada 4 

San Macario 4 

San Pietro 1 

Sant'Antioco 1 

Serpentara 4 

Tuaredda 4 

Varigllonl 4 

tsole di Oristano — I M0 

Scoglio La Ghinghetla 5 

Scoglio Mangiabarche 5 
Scoglio Pan dl 

Zucchero 5 



Sardegna— ISO 

Slclly-ITS 

Minor Islands 
Prefix 13 
Prefix !V3 
Prefix 17 
Prefix IS 
(Sicilian) 
Prefix 1T9 



1 
1 

1 
1 
3 

1 

4 



134 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



ing modes: Frequencies: HF, VHF. UHF. 
microwaves above 3 GHz. Modes. SSB, 
CW. mixed. RTTY. 

To obtain the award, ihe ama- 
teurs/SWLs must work/hear Italian is- 
lands to obtain the following score: 
OX— 10 points; EU— 20 points: Italy— 40 
points. 

Contacts are valid starting from Janu- 
ary 1. 1970. 

Pom 1 5 must be calculated following Ihe 
If st {see box) Different islands of ihe 
same archipelago can be contacted, and 
the points achieved added tip. The same 
island of the same arc hi pet ago can be 
worked on different bands and modes. 
I.e., Hve different contacts with the same 
island but on five different bands count 5 
x points assigned to lhai island. 

Honor ftoit— This endorsement Is 
achieved with a minimum of GO points, 

58u a— To obtain this award, 10 con- 
tacia must be made with islands or 
groups of islands on 5 HF bands. 

The IIA must be requested from the ARI 
Award Manager, Via Scarlatti 31 , 20124 
Mitano. Italy It Is not necessary to send 
OSL cards; a list log formed is sulttcient 
The OSL cards mu si be in the possession 
of the applicant and should be sent if re- 
quested by the Award Manager. 

Fee: Any application must be sen I with 
US » 00 Or 30 IRCs 




KOREA 

J, Michael Wengerr Hf.SK 7 

do ABC News 

CPO Bex 2961 

Qamd 

Korea 

Amateur radio operators in Korea were 
surprised recently to receive letters from 
Ihe "Korean Radio Operators Associa- 
tion.'" a group of professional radio opera- 
tors, requesting (hem to maii tees 1o the 
organization and to make their stations 
available for inspection Apparently, the 
Korean Ministry of Communications 
fMOQ. which is responsible for issuance 
of ail commercial and amateur radio li- 
censes and for inspection of aiJ classes of 
radio transmitting stations, has decided 
thai the annual inspection required for all 
amateur stations for license renewal will 
be conducted by the professional organi- 
zation and not by KARL (Korean Amateur 
Radio League). KARL had all but an- 
nounced that they would soon be taking 
over inspection of amateur stations from 
the MOC. The reason for turning over the 
inspection responsibility to an outside or- 
ganization was given as the excessive 
workload" imposed by the growing num- 
ber of new ham stations in Korea 

This decision from Ihe MOC was yet an- 
other blow to KARL, which aiready was 
smarting from suspicion and criticism 
from Its members following a procure- 
ment scandal. Early (his year, a general 
affairs director of KARL was relieved of 
his official duties when It was learned that 
his position was used to oain exclusive 
import rights for Japanese-made trans- 
ceivers for a certain Korean import com- 
pany whose president was a close friend 
Of Ihe KARL president. National Assem 
blyrnan Lee Min Sup, Lee was not directly 
implicated in the matter, but the incident 
has yet to be resolved to the satisfaction 
of KARL members as Lee repeatedly over 
ruled attempts by individual members lo 
bring up the matter for discussion ai the 
KARL annual meeting iast April. 



Other matters for which KARL is under 
attack by its members include high fees 
charged for membership compared to 
that of other countries Membership rn ihe 
League is compulsory for all amateur ra- 
dio operators in Korea and annual dues 
must be paid up in advance (US$30} before 
the KARL president's seal may be applied 
to applications for annual renewal of the 
station licenses. The annual inspection 
fee comes to another $22 (average} This, 
coupled with high customs duty and local 
taxes, makes amateur radio in Korea a 
pastime for rich people 

Attempts by KARL to get mobiie/por ta- 
ble operation reinstated have failed, A 
League source, who prefers to remain 
anonymous, blames Korea's security 
agencies for blocking ihe approval, 

Although the total number of amateurs 
in Korea is on the increase, the number of 
active hams, especially on (he HF bands, 
is not increasing proportionately. Korea 
has a Radiotelephone Class license I no- 
code Novice) which permits phone opera- 
tion on 60, 40. 15 r and 10 meters pius VHF 
and is relatively easy to get. As a result, 
many Koreans soon lose interest, self 
their rigs, and buy microcomputers, a phe- 
nomenon observed in neighboring Japan 
which also has a box-top, no-code license 

HL9 operation by United Nations Com- 
mand-affiliated personnel continues, but 
attempts to get on the new Phase ill bird 
are thwarted by tne unavailability of 430 
MHz. More on tne HL9s and the American 
Radio Club m Korea next month. 73 from 
the Land of the Morning Cairn. 




LIBERIA 

Brother "Don"' Dona rd. Sreffes, CSC 

EL2AUWB3HFY 

Brothers of the Holy Cross 

St. Patrick High School 

Monrovia 

Republic of Liberia 

What Is a developing country— in ama- 
teur radio? 

This question is under consideration by 
a committee of ihe Region I Division Con- 
ference of Tne International Amateur Ra 
0io Union. When this question has been 
decided they will study a proposal "To es- 
tablish a means of funding, and guide- 
lines for effective operation for the Promo- 
tion of Amateur Radio in the Developing 
Countries." 

Here is another quote: " . . ■ for example, 
m Liberia there are 67 licensed amateurs 
of which 26 are members of the Liberia n 
Radio Amateur Association (LRAAj Of 
the 67. only 10 are indigenous Libenans 

Here m Monrovia, we have just finished 
a course in amateur radio, Out of a hun- 
dred and twenty students who registered 
for the course, twenty-si* came in to sil 
for ihe examination. Of these, four passed 
the General test and four passed Ihe Nov- 
ice test. 



We are a developing country. There is 
no lack ol interest, and the data given 
above is enough evidence of that. The da- 
ta given above might also be an indication 
of Ihe handicaps under which we and the 
students must work, it takes a lot of cour- 
age for a high school student or an adult 
to study amateur radio without a textbook 
or a code oscillator. 

We are very much encouraged by the 
fad thai the Region I Conference is aware 
of our problems and is actively engaged rn 
an effort to soive them. They propose to 
set up a resource center that will make 
available an hinds of instructional materi- 
als. They will stock printed materials thai 
are either donated or that are obtainable 
free of charge and will appropriate an on 
going fund to purchase Instructional ma 
terials and lo pay shipping charges. They 
are even exploring the possibility of pro- 
viding instructors if they are not otherwise 
available 

This is an ambitious idea but it can 



MEXICO'S NATIONAL 
EMERGENCY NET 

DIRECTOR 

National Emergency Coordinator 

Special Events Coordinator 

VHF Coordinator 

Public Relations Coordinator 

Treasurer 

Secretary 

Region * 1 
North Baja Calif. 

Sinaloa 

South Bat a Calif. 

So nora 

Region #2 

Chihuahua 

Durango 

Region 13 

Coahuila 

Nuevo Leon 

Tama uli pas 

San Luis Polos i 

Zacatecas 

Region HA 

Jalisco 

Aguascalientes 

Michoacan 

Guanajuato 

Nayaril 

Region #5 

Mexico City 

Hi da loo 

Mextco Slate 

Ouerelaro 

Region #6 

Chiapas 

Morales 

Guerrero 

Oaxaca 

Region #7 

Puebla 

Traxcala 

Tabasco 

Veracruz 

Region it 

Campeche 

Ouintana Roo 

Yucatan 





EMERGENCY FREQUENCIES OF THE 






MEXICAN NATIONAL EMERGENCY NET 




Phone 


3,680 MHz 


Code 


3.690 MHz 




7,020 MHz 




7,060 MHz 




14,040 MHz 




t4.l20MHz 




21,060 MHz 




21,180 MHz 




50,040 MHz 




50,040 MHz 




144,500 MHz 




144,500 MHz 



worn, and it ft is handled in ihe manner in 
which amateurs traditionally handle their 
undertakings, it will indeed do whai it is 
supposed to do. It will succeed, 

One can only guess what is happening 
in other developing countries, but here In 
Liberia there is real promise of progress. 
We have, at the present time, five places, 
all of them school locations run by mis- 
sionaries, where there is one fin some 
cases more) dedicated person ready to 
conduct classes in amateur radio even un 
dor existing conditions. If we can apply to 
the Region I committee, or to anyone else 
for that matter, for esseniial teaching ma- 
terials, it would increase very much the ef- 
fectiveness of our work, 




MEXICO 

Mark K Toutjian XE1MKT 
Apartado Postal 42-04$ 
06470 Mexico. D.F, 

MEXICO'S NATIONAL 
EMERGENCY NETWORK 

One of ihe many activities that has 
been developed over the years here in 
Mexico, as in many countries, is the coop- 
eration among many ham radio operators 
during catastrophes, natural disasters, 
and airplane accidents, as well as work on 
problems with mobiles (aulo and mari- 
time). In 1943, a communications net 
known by the name of The Emergency 
Chain of Ham RadJo Operators of the 
Southeast was established In order to pro- 
vide auxiliary services along the coast of 
the Gulf of Mexico, principally in the Slate 
of Veracruz It was formally accepted in 
1949 due to the aid of many national 
hams 

Later on. in 1960, a group ot ham opera 
tors who were members of the Mexican 
Radio Experimenters League undertook 
the labor of forming a nationwide emer- 
gency network that would also be tied In 
with emergency networks in other coun- 
tries. Frequencies were then established 
(see box for current frequencies being 
used). This National Emergency Network 
was fully organized finally by 1963. One of 
today's most leading authorities or repre- 
sentatives ol the network is Pa Wo A. 
Mooser XE1SR who serves as president ol 
the Mexican Radio Experimenters League 
at the present- 
Organizational Structure 

In order for this National Emergency 
Network to function well, 't is obvious that 
an administrative staff is very necessary 
<see box). This is composed of its director 
and six additional positions in order to co- 
ordinate things fully. Under this admmis 
trative at aft. the country is divided into 
eight different regions or zones, each with 
rts own Regional Coordinator. Within 
each region or zone there are various 
states, each with lis own State Coordina- 
tor. These coordinators have in mind the 
development of special programs for 
members of the net so as to be able to 
function efficiently under most emergen- 
cy situations. (This is very similar to emer- 
gency networks in other countries f The 
structure may be of use to some of you 
who ptan on organizing an emergency net- 
work m your own country where ham ac- 
tivities are starting to boom. 

Certificates Available 
Irom ihe Network 

Mexico's National Emergency Network 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 135 



encourages new membership and more 
cooperation by means of authorizing 
three different certificates, yearly. This is 
done by calculating Individual attendance 
figures during each year First, one has to 
be a member of the net This organized 
transmission takes place daily at 2100 
GMT on 3.690 MHz and on the 2nd and 4th 
Sundays of each month at 1000 <3MT on 
7.060 MHz. (Tr*6 frequency chart shows 
frequencies to use when disaster strikes; 
they are used frequently for get-to- 
gethers.) 

1) The first certificate is available for 
having attended 50 sessions with the net 
during the year {once a weeK). 

2) The second oertif icate Is available for 
having attended 150 times during the year 
(three times a week), 

3) The third and last certificate Is avail- 
able for having been on frequency and re- 
ported your call 300 times during one year 
{six times a week). 

The National Emergency Network can 
and has already presented different mem- 
bers with special certificates upon having 
participated In and resulting In outstand- 
ing performances during emergencies, 
catastrophes, or In special situations re- 
quiring aid. 

You are possibly asking yourself; "How 
can I be a member?" 

Membership 

In order to become a member, you must 
have attended at least 24 sessions, of the 
net during a year {at least once every two 
weeks). This certificate Is valid for one 
year and is renewable upon attending an- 
other 24 sessions as mentioned above. 

As was mentioned, many activities are 
planned by the National Emergency Net 
each year, and here I could mention that 
the different radio dubs throughout the 
country work in harmony with the net and 
also plan special events such as expedi- 
tions and other activities for the advance- 
ment of ham technology. 

Special Note to Regional and Stale 
Coordinators In Mexico 

Upon planning your future activities, I 
would appreciate it very much if you 
would send me an outline of such events 
and other pertinent information that may 
be of interest to 73 readers I GraciasE 





The fiea market at Bad Bentheim. 



THE NETHERLANDS 

henk Meerman PQ&DDV 
Zandvoorterweg S3 
2111 GRAefdenhout 
The Netnerfands 

FIFTEENTH DNAT 

From the 26th to the 28th of August of 
this year, the DNAT was held. The DNAT 
means Deutsch-Niederlandische Ama- 
teurfunklage (the German-Dutch Amateur 
Radio Days). 

These days are organized by two Dutch 
amateur radio unions and one German, 
namely the VERON, the VRZA t and the 
DARC. 

This annual Dutch-German meeting 
was held this year for the 15th time, in (he 
beautiful city of Bad Bentheim, which is 
located near Almelo (The Netherlands), 
just a few kilometers over the Dutch bor- 
der in Germany, Every year the Dutch and 
German hams and their families come 
from miies around to meet one another In 
Bentheim. 

This year also the DNAT was a great 
success and hundreds of hams were pres 

136 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



ent Also yours truly was there with his YL 
to see what was on the program this year, 

My first pleasure was to fill up the tank 
of my car with much cheaper German gas, 
The difference is about thirty cents a liter! 
My second pleasure was to find a good 
camping spot near Bentheim, The thought 
of taking a hotel during these days you 
can forget, because all the hotels are fully 
booKed. Anyway, I was glad that I took my 
tent along because we had extremely high 
temperatures for our kind of climate and 
for this time of the year. 

We arrived at Bentheim on Friday eve- 
ning, and because I was a bit tired of my 
work and I have to drive from the west side 
of my country to the east side, we had a 
few drinks and went to sleep. 

The next morning my YL, friends, and I 
checked in at the DNAT office, located In 
the DARG {German Amateur Radio Club) 
building, We paid our registration fee and 
received badges with the DNAT sign. By 
paying the fee> entrance to all activities 
was free. We even had free entrance to the 
Senthelmer Casino and we could visit the 
Amateur Radio Museum. We aiso drove 
out of town and went to the castle of Ben- 
theim. Afterwards we had a look at the 
flea market; you never know what bar- 
gains might be found. 

So we took a very close look at ali the 
stands. The place was so crowded that I 
and my friends kept in contact via our 
NTs — otherwise we woutd have lost each 
other, Since we ail came in one car, the 
thought of losing one other was not a 
pleasant idea! 

There was much to see, from pieces of 
junk to complete HF lines with reasonable 
pricetags. I bought some spare tubes for 
some receivers; the price of one tube was 
one mark. What can you buy for one mark 
these days? 

After the flea market full of "sonde- 
rangebot," as the Germans call It, we had 
a look in the large school building where a 
number of German dealers had their 
stands. All the big names in ham equip- 
ment were present, and often these deal- 
ers had special DNAT prices We bought 
some antenna stuff. 

In the evening we went to a large ham- 
fest In the garden of the castle of Ben 
theim, where we could dance to the mu- 
sic of a combo. On Sunday morning we 
packed up our things and went home 
again, It all was a great success, and I 
promised myself and my YL that we'll be 
there again ne*t year. 

NEW RULE 

A new rule In Dutch amateur radio li- 
cense conditions requires that all hams 
make a complete Inventory of ail the 



transmitters they own. This list has to be 
in the station's logbook and must include 
serial numbers, date of selling or pur- 
chase, type of equipment, power output, 
and name and address from whom the rig 
was bought and to whom the rig was sold. 
So, In the future, all Dutch hams wIN need 
an accountant to keep papers in order. 
(Hi). 




NEW ZEALAND 

De$ Chapman ZL2 VR 
459 Kennedy Road 
Napter 
New Zealand 

This month I shall explain about the 
birth of the Amateur Radio Emergency 
Corps of the New Zealand Association of 
Radio Transmitters 

THE t931 EARTHQUAKE 

"There can be, at this time, no more top- 
ical or important subject than the calami- 
tous earthquake that has almost razed to 
the ground the towns of Napier and Hast- 
ings. The day of February 3rd, 1 931 ; wll I re- 
main for long a day of grief and consterna- 
tion for the country as a whole, even as for 
years the date 79 A.D.' was significant for 
the annihilation of the cities of Hercula- 
neum and Pompeii by Vesuvius." 

So went the editorial from Break-in for 
the month of February, 1931. It goes on to 
extol the feats of two local Hawkes Say 
amateur radio enthusiasts from Napier 
and Hastings who were able to transmit 
messages to the outside world of the trag- 
edy of that day. ZL2GE {George Tyler) and 
ZL2BE (Jim Mills) provided the only com- 
munications links with places outside the 
earthquake-affected area in those early 
few hours after the first shocks at 10 50 
that morning. 

There were some other radio stations 
on board ships in the harbor which were 
able to call for help, too, but the amateur 
stations were operating From the centers 
of the two stricken cities. Both stations 
were battery operated and had contact 
with other amateur stations. Early in the 
emergency, the New Zealand Post and 
Telegraph Department requisitioned the 
amateur stations at Napier and Hastings 
as well as an amateur station in Welling- 
ton so that there were communications 
links available for emergency traffic in the 



first 24 hours after the calamity and until 
the telegraph and telephone lines were re- 
paired and normal communications were 
restored. 

THE RADIO EMERGENCY CORPS 

That very briefly indicates the happen- 
ings of the 1931 February day when the 
earthquake struck. As a direct result of 
the success of the earthquake amateur ra- 
dio communications network, the New 
Zealand Association of Radio Transmit- 
ters formed the Radio Emergency Corps 
In March, 1932. 

Previously, about 1930, as a result of 
suggestions at a Headquarters meeting, a 
form of communications network was set 
up under the name of the Guard System 
and introduced In March, 1931. Guard sta- 
tions were res te red two nights each week 
to operate a traffic net between HQ and 
the Branches of NZART. Rosters were 
published in Break m and the NZART 
Journal, and the Guard System operated 
from 6:30 pm to 10:00 pm P Monday to Fri- 
day, and 6:00 pm to 11:00 pm, Saturday 
and Sunday. 

It was intended that in times of an emer- 
gency, ail Guard Stations would stand by 
for the Control Guard Station in the Dis- 
trict affected by the emergency and han- 
dle any traffic as required. This Guard Sys- 
tem gave the members practice in han- 
dling messages on the air and established 
a link between HQ and the Branches. The 
system was most successful, and many 
messages were transmitted and received 
every week on a scheduled basis. Howev- 
er k in due course, the New Zealand Post 
and Telegraph Department, the regulatory 
body m New Zealand, decided this 
message service was contrary to the radio 
regulations governing the amateur ser- 
vice here (no third-party traffic allowed), 
so NZART discontinued the Guard 
System. 

About the same time as the Guard Sys- 
tem was being formulated, a Christchurch 
group of amateurs under Norm Laugeson 
ZL3AS assisted by Hugh Simpson ZL3CF, 
Jack Eliiott ZL3CC. and Les Hurrell ZL3BG 
had set up a group in that area able to go 
into action in an emergency at short no- 
tice should the necessity arise. But be- 
cause the Christchurch group was part of 
the Radio Society of Christchurch and the 
Third District Transmitters Association, 
the two clubs catering to the local bud- 
ding radio enlhusists of the 30s, they were 
not pari of the NZART message-handling 
system, although moat of the group were 
members of the NZART. The Third District 
RTA in due course merged with the 
NZART to form the Christchurch Branch. 

With the termination of the Guard Sys- 
tem, Norm Laugeson, then a Vice-Presi- 
dent of NZART. put forward a proposal to 
HQ for an emergency radio communica- 
tions scheme, and in February, 1932> the 
proposal was adopted by the Executive of 
NZART, and amateur stations were asked 
to form themselves into local Sections of 
the Radio Emergency Corps, each self* 
contained but affiliated to the national 
body of emergency stations at Headquar- 
ters. Thus, the Radio Emergency Corps 
was formed, 

The response from amateurs through- 
out the country was tremendous. A const!* 
tution was produced, and by March, 1932, 
nine Sections had been formed and a Na- 
tional REC Field Day was held to test the 
emergency network; £7 amateur stations 
and approximately 50 operators partici- 
pated in that first successful Field Day. 

The Field Day organization consisted of 
at least three stations, a Guard Reiay Sta- 
tion (Base Station today), a Zone Station 
(Field Headquarters today), and an Out- 
post Station (or stations)— the same title 
today. Stations were to organize and ex- 



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73 Magazine • January, 1984 137 



change messages during ttie exercise, up 
and down the network. The Guard Relay 
Slat ions handled the messages between 
each District and distributed the mes- 
sages for their own District to the Zone 
Stations, which retransmitted them to the 
Outpost Stations Zone and Outpost Sta- 
tions were operated at a portable loca 
tion. on battery power 

The pace of the organization of the Ra- 
dio Emergency Corps continued lo quick- 
en, and in June, 1932, negotiations were 
completed with the New Zealand Post and 
Telegraph Depart mem for the allocation 
of special callsigns and wavelengths, for 
the Emergency Service to uae during prac- 
tices and emergencies. As this step had fi- 
nally cemented the setting up of the REC 
ol NZART, Headquarters, through an edi- 
torial in Break-In. paid iribute to the untir- 
ing efforts of Norn Laugeson ZL3AS and 
Willy Ashbfidge ZL2GP of Wellington, in 
Emulating and founding the REC. 
Headquarters expressed the gratitude of 
all ZL amateur operators and the com- 
munity at large for all the work these two 
men, and others closely associated with 
mem, had done to set up an organization 
that was to become well known in the 
future. 

Wally Aghhrldge, a professional com- 
munications man In Ihe New Zealand Ar- 
my and the officer In charge of the Guard 
System, was appointed Ihe flrat Com- 
manding Officer of the REC. The collabo- 
ration between Wally Ashbfldge and 
Norm Laugeson. professionally a detec- 
tive in me NZ Police, Is obvious today 
when one observes that mere Is very little 
difference between the basic organiza- 
tion of the present day emergency net 
worfe systems and that which they formu- 
lated over 50 years ago. Truly a great trib- 
ute to the organizational abilities of these 
two men and then- assistants. 

The honor of the first operation went to 
the Crin si church group which went into 
action in January, 1932, in response to a 
request from Wally Ashbridge to provide 
some radio communications for search 
parties at an afptne tragedy In the South- 
ern Alps They made ready a group of four 
Chrlstchurch amateurs, complete with 
transmitters, receivers, and suitable ra- 
tions tor one week In the field, within one 
hour of the request being received- They 
were to set up a communications net be- 
tween the search parties in the Alps and 
the Telegraph office at Bealy, the head- 
quarters for the search, some ?5 miles dis- 
tant Although the missing trampers 
bodies were found before the J earn was 
able to set up the communications net. it 
ably demonstrated the way REC was go- 
ing to work in emergencies. 

In July. 1932, the new REC held another 
Field Day with the newly allotted callsrgns 
and wavelengths. In ail 11 Sections oper- 
ated with the HL E" calls very similar to 
those we use today, but only two-letter 
ones for obvious reasons. The present 
three-fetter callsigns were introduced In 
the early 50s. At this 1932 Field Day. the 
frequencies used were between 100 and 
105 meters, and these were found to he 
useful but not successful in some areas 
The Field Day was a great success, and 
Wally Ashbridge declared that all Sec- 
tions were fit to operate on emergency du- 
nes any time Ihe need should arise. All 
Sections agreed that the exercise had 
been a successful one, but some felt thai 
a frequency change could improve the 
communications between some of the Ba- 
sic Stations. 

By February, 19&J, a new constitution 
and organization plan was approved by 
Headquarters and duly circulated to all 
members, The 1933 format and organiza- 
tion Is still basically the same as given in 

138 73 Magazine • January, 1984 



our modernized A REC Manual in use to- 
day 

Over the years, the AREC has partici- 
pated in many searches and rescues, se- 
vere f I codings on both North and South Is- 
lands, air crashes, earthquakes, land sub- 
si dances, and marine searches The Ama- 
teur Radio Emergency Corps of today is 
still the same as our founders intend- 
ed — to provide emergency com muni ca- 
nons during limes of national calamity or 
tragedy, and to provide readily organized 
mobile transmitting and receiving sta- 
tions, equipment, and operators lo func- 
tion at short notice should they be re- 
quired—except that the equipment we 
use today has changed drastically from 
that used In former times. 

Today, when Search and Rescue Head- 
quarters requires it. we are able to put 
teams into operation with portable and 
base stations to assist with all manner of 
emergency and rescue operations, wheth- 
er it be m the city, the bush, mountainous 
terrain, or at sea 

In contrasi with the 193Z Field Day sta 
iiSUcs mentioned previously, and 51 years 
later, the 1983 Field Day statistics were: 
59 Sections operated 266 Field Day sta 
tions, manned by 491 operators, on 80, 40, 
and 2 meters, and sent and received over 
12,000 messages during the 6 hour period 
of the exercise. 

AWARDS 

Last month I made mention of a special 
award to commemorate the 10€lh birth- 
day of Hastings City Here are details. 

The City of Hastings Centennial Award 
is open to all amateurs worldwide on all 
bands and ait modes: the period of the 
award will be from 0001 hours GMT Feb- 
ruary 1 + 1984, until 2400 hours GMT, Febru- 
ary 29 1964 tone month onryl Applicants 
for the award must complete two-way con- 
tacts with Hastings stations or members 
Ol the Hastings Branch number 13 of 
NZART as follows: overseas stations — 3 
contacts, any band, any mode; ZL sta- 
tions— 5 contacts, any band, any mode. 

No QSL cards are required- just send a 
detailed usi of the contacts, verified by 
another amateur operator, to the Awards 
Manager, PO 8okGQ9, Hastings, New Zea- 
land, with US$2,00 or IRC equivalent, to re- 
ceive the handsome colored certificate. 

Hastings Is a city of about 50,000 popu- 
lation situated in the province of Hawkes 
Bay on the east coast of New Zealand's 
North Island, The area is favored with a 
good climate and is surrounded by some 
ol the mosi fertile land m the country. 
Hastings is the center of a great and ex- 
panding food- and meat-processing in- 
dustry and one of the most prolific fruil- 
and grape-growing districts in New Zea- 
land: It justly earns the name. 'The Fruit 
Bowl of New Zealand ." 

Hastings was constituted a town dis- 
trict in 1833, and In 1886 achieved borough 
status. The earthquake of 1931, followed 
by raging fires, caused great toes ot life 
and reduced the town to ruins. The man- 
ner In which the city was rebuilt Is a trib- 
ute to the citizens of that day. In 1956. the 
borough was proclaimed a city. The motto 
on the City Arms signifies the harmony be- 
tween city and countryside. 

So to all certificate hunters and readers 
of 73, D*5t Of Luck with this special award 
Remember, it is available only for con- 
tacts during the month of February, 1984. 

Sy my calculations, this column should 
be appearing In the January issue of 73, so 
t take this opportunity of wishing all read- 
ers belated Christmas greetings and the 
very beat of luck for the coming year For 
those of you in the northern hemisphere, 
you are In the depth of your winter season 
at this festive lime while we, down under, 
are enjoying mid-summer temperatures 



and our summer holidays, as well as the 
festive season. 

In New Zealand, most large manufac- 
turing businesses curtail their operations 
at Christmas lime, closing from about De- 
cember 23rd until around January 15th. 
except for maintenance staff, so we here 
all have our summer holidays at ihai time 
The schools close for their summer vaca- 
tion about December 15th and do no! re- 
sume until February 1st, the equivalent of 
the US/Can adian July/August school holi- 
day closing, 

I hope everyone had a Happy Christmas 
and a joyous Mew Year and that Father 
Christmas oroughi you something worth- 
while for the shacK this year! 




PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

Siegi Fraymadt P29HSF 

POBqx 165 

Rabaut 

Papua New Guinea 

Lae is the capital of the Morobe Prov- 
ince, one of Ihe twenty provinces of Papua 
New Guinea. The Morobe Province is lo- 
cated in the northeastern part of New 
Guinea. Lae, (he administrative center of 
the province and also the industrial me- 
tropolis of the entire country, is situated 
on the Huon Gulf. 11 is the gateway lo the 
Marfcham Valley The population ol Lae is 
appro* i ma I el y 65,000, In Lae we have the 
country's foremost technological institu- 
tion, the Papua New Guinea University ol 
Technology. commonly known as 
Unitech. 

The amateur population of Lae is seven, 
four of whom are on the staff ot Unitech 
{three in the Electrical Engineering De- 
part men I) P29BA, P29LC. P29MC. and 
P29NL are Unitech staff. Husband and 
wife team P29JH and P29NWJ. John and 
Betty, are with ihe P and T Training Col- 
lege and are active from Lae. George 
P29MCB makes up the seventh member of 
Lae s amateur population; all are expatri- 
ates 

Unitech attracts students from ail prov- 
inces of Papua New Guinea — mdeed, 
from a number of South Pacific countries 
What better forum for promoting and ad- 
vertising amateur radio and thus increas- 
ing the number of PNG nationals who are 
amateurs? In November. 1982. P29BR. 
P29LC. P29MC. and P29NL put their heads 
together and decided to offer radio ama- 
teur classes to interested students. To 
publicize amateur radio, a lunthttrne 
demonstration was organized wilh P29BR 
bringing his rig along and demonstrating 
it. The exercise also was written up In the 
campus newspaper, the Reporter. The re- 
sponse was tremendous, and more than 
100 students enrolled for amateur radio 
classes Thus the Unitech Amateur Radio 
Club (UARC) was formed and It has the 
callsiQn P29HT The club is affiliated with 
Ihe Papua New Guinea Amateur Radio 
Society 

P29fiti< P2SLC, P29MC, and P29NL give 
freely of their spare lime and provide three 
hours o* tuition per week m CW r theory, 
and regulations Practical protects, such 
as building Morse-code oscillators, are m 
eluded. P298H records CW tapes for the 
weekly classes and on one occasion he 
decided to take the prepared tapes home. 
The following morning Bill discovered 
that his house had been burgled during 
the night but that ihe only things missing 
were the plastic bag containing the tapes, 



a pair of jeans, and a packet of cheese a 
very selective thief, and one who will be 
bewildered by I fie strange sounds on the 
tapes ! 

The turnover of young hopefuls in the 
amateur radio classes is large: not many 
have the staying power , but generally 20 
students attend and it is hoped thai a 
number of those w«u attempt the Novice 
examinations the next time they are given 

Last year. Bill P29BR went on a visit to 
the United States and while there ap- 
proached Ihe ARRL regarding the possi- 
bility of donations of equipment and/or 
publications to help the students at the 
Unitech Amateur Radio Club; the oral re- 
sponse was positive. Bill also visited the 
Asia Foundation, and the Area Director 
for the Pacific islands there offered 
assistance with postage expenses for 
sending materia!. An official reply was 
subsequently received from the ARRL 
which expresses unwillingness to deal di- 
rectly with the Unitech Amateur Radio 
Club and appeared willing to have dona- 
tions handled only through ihe Papua 
New Guinea Amateur Radio Society 
There can be no questioning the ability of 
ihe staff and their supervision at the Urn 
tech Amateur Radio Club. There also can 
not be any doubt lhat future PNG am a 
reurs are more likely lo come from Unitech 
lhan anywhere else in the country. Why 
then this reluctance on the part of the 
ARRL to deal with UARC directly? 

It is hoped that several of the students 
will be successful in ihe next Novice ex- 
ams and that a number of PNG nationals 
will be on the air after that. Another con- 
sideration is the application fee which 
has to be paid sn weeks prior to the exam 
In the event of any students finding the 
fee beyond their means the UARC is witl- 
ing to come to the rescue out of club 
funds. We wish ine UARC every success 
in their undertaking* 

On July 14. i$B3. the Post and Telecom* 
munication Corporation m PNG sent out 
letters to an amateur radio station li- 
censees introducing the new frequencies 
available as from thai date. Full-call oper- 
ators have the authorization to operate on 
all the new frequency bands. Limited ama- 
teur radio stations are permitted to oper- 
ate on ell new frequency bands above 30 
MHz„ and for Novice amateur radio sta- 
tions there is no change in operating fre- 
quencies. 




POLAND 

Jerzy Siymczah 
7B-20Q Biatogard 
Buozka 2/3 
Poland 

POLISH ETHER 
CARRIES SOUND AGAIN 

On January 1, 1963, martial law In Po- 
land was suspended. Polish hams ex- 
pected to begin their usual activity. But no 
gain without pam. Renewing licenses was 
faced with official difficulties, and the 
commencement of reissuing them did not 
take piece in January as it ha^ been an- 
nounced 

At the beginning of 1963. letters of ap- 
plication—printed forms submitted by pe- 
titioners Jo District Verification Boards— 
were st ill being brought up to date. At the 
end of January. 1250 applications were 
confirmed, and on April 1 over 1700- The 
Presidium of PR A A (Polish Radio Ama- 
teurs Association) was Informed that 











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73 Magazine ■ January, 1984 139 





licenses of club radio stations would be 
handed over to them In April and those of 
individual radio stations at the turn of the 
second and third quarters of this year 
Better late than never, 

Negotiations with authorities, brought 
changes of these provisions, For the sake 
of the annual International competition, 
the SP DX Contest, it was promised that li- 
censes would be delivered in March, 1983. 
And really, 460 Individual and 70 club li- 
censes were given. Well, it's a long lane 
that has no turning. Pofes are in Ihe ether 
again, 

A problem is how well this process will 
continue. At the sixth PRAA director's 
meeting last ^prii, the president of the as- 
sociation urged patience and calm but en- 
couraged hams to continue to press for 
more action, through regular channels. 
He predicted that radio amateur activity 
would reach a normal level in a few 
months. 

The president has also expressed re- 
gret at the new limitations placed on Pol- 
ish hams and for the State Radio Sur- 
veillance. 

II was hoped that by the end of 1983, the 
action of bringing licenses up to date 
would have been completed. How many 
Polish hams will be able to use their calls 
in 1984 when the National Congress of 
PRAA takes place, nobody knows. But 
some of them are presently in the ether, 
so enter upon a conversation with them! 






SWEDEN 

Rune Wande SMQGOP 
Frejavagen 10 

S-1 55 00 Nykvam 
Sweden 

SVALBARD EXPEDITION 

A Swedish group of four made a second 
expedition in the summer of 1983 to the 
Svaibard Islands in the Arctic Ocean. The 
group members do this entirely of person- 
al interest on their own vacation time, Two 
members of the group were ham opera- 
tors, Kjell 3M2AZH and Sigvard 5M2EJE. 

The purpose of this expedition was to 
study the flora and fossils. Svaibard has 
an interesting history and has a geologi- 
cal structure of scientific importance. 
From the ham-radio point of view, the first 
trip in 1&82 was no success. The radio 
equipment got damaged by water during 
trans port at ton between islands in high 
winds. 

The islands of Svaibard (prefix JWJ be- 
long to Norway. They are about 1,100 kilo- 
meters (700 miles) from the North Pole. 
The summer temperature reaches refrig- 
erator level, The Islands have no perma- 
nent residents, but boats stop there when 
the harbors are free of ice. Svaibard has 
been the base for many Arctic expedi- 
tions. The Norwegians began mining coal 
therein the 1890s. 

KJell and Sigvard were active from Svai- 
bard using their home calls WW between 
July 20 and August 4, 1983, In case you 
were lucky enough to work them, use their 
Cattbook addresses tor the OSL 

The equipment for the expedition was 
sent in advance on a ship for coal trans- 
portation. The group itself flew out of 
Tromsoe (Norway) to their base In Long- 
yearbyen on Svaibard. The radio equip- 
ment consisted of a Kenwood TS-120V, 
the iow-power version of this well-known 
transceiver, and a Heathkit HW-8 for back 
up. For power, they used two batteries 




Jean HS1ANV/QN8JA (left) and Hans tiSlBG secure the supporting trus$ an the 
20/1 5-meter ffuthsize) beam. Note the gamma match, using aluminum piping, piastic 
hose, and an inner core of copper tubing for the driven elements. 



rated at 60 Ah which they charged by a 
gasoline generator, The antennas for 7 
and 14 MHz were verticals, and a dipole 
was used for 3.5 MHz. 

The propagation that far north is very 
poor on the low bands during the summer 
season. This is due to two months of day- 
light and sunshine 24 hours a day. They 
managed to contact northern Norway and 
northern Sweden on 40 meters, however, 
although 20 meters was the best band. A 
tew good openings towards the US and 
South America stirred up some pileups. 



Anyway, hamming was not the main pur- 
pose for this expedition, so the QSO rate 
was low. Because of the frequent change 
of location and transport between islands 
In a rubber boat, operating time was lim- 
ited. But wherever hams go and for what- 
ever reason, they surely bring ham radio 
with them. Kjell and Sigvard and the two 
other members of this expedition must 
have had a unique vacation to remember! 

NRAU MEETING IN STOCKHOLM 
The Nordic Radio Amateur Union was 




/ 



formed in 1935 with the purpose of work- 
ing for common Nordic Interests for the 
radio amateurs. Through the NRAU there 
Is a valuable dialogue between the 
leagues in the Nordic countries. Meetings 
are held annually. The next one is taking 
place in Stockholm on January 14-15, 
1984. The NflAU runs a very low-bud gel 
operation, and to make It possible for rep- 
resentatives from distant Iceland (TF) and 
Faroe Islands (OY) to attend, the other 
larger leagues try to sponsor them. 

Contributions from the Nordic Council, 
an organization founded in 1952 by the 

Nordic parliaments for Improvement for 
Nordic cooperation, have been applied 
for. Unfortunately, no financial support 
has been received in previous years. Let 
us hope that they are more obliging this 
time- 
One major subject for discussion at the 
NRAU meeting is the common Nordic li- 
cense. This has been worked on for years, 
but still only regular reciprocal rules ap- 
ply. Crossing borders between Nordic 
countries does not require a passport, and 
you have to be observant even to see the 
customs house, but still do not even bring 
the 2-meter hand -held over the border un- 
less you have a valid guest license. Hope- 
fully, this situation will be solved eventu- 
ally so that it win be as easy to operate 
from different Nordic countries as it is be- 
tween the USA and Canada. 




THAILAND 

Tony Wattham HS1AMH 
c/o Bangkok Post 
U Cnuliang Building 

Bangkok W500 
Thailand 



The antenna is nearly ready for the HSQHS Seanet-contest operation. 



countries have their national ra- 
dio society, and In Thailand the "magic" 
acronym Is RAST, standing for the Radio 
Amateur Society of Thailand, which has 
been representing amateur radio activity 
in Thailand since its founding in Novem- 
ber. 1963. 

In addition to holdl ng regu lar club meet- 
ings on the first Sunday of each month, to 
which all visiting radio amateurs are 
heartily welcomed, it has organized many 
other activities and has represented Thai- 
land In the field of amateur radio on nu- 
merous occasions. 

Highlights have been the Southeast 
Asia Network conventions In 1977 and 
again last year. Also, club representatives 
have endeavored to attend every major in- 
ternational conference on amateur radio, 
such as the World Administrative Radio 
Conference held in Geneva, IARU regional 
meetings such as the Manila conference 
in April, 1982 f and the World Communica- 
tions Year conference in Tokyo In Septem- 
ber, and the World Amateur Radio Interna- 
tional Conference. 

Club meetings regularly vote on routine 
IARU motions, and full international rep- 
resentation is maintained through the 
club secretary. The address for all corre- 
spondence (as well as for the QSL bureau) 
is PO Box 20Q8 f GPO, Bangkok 10501, 
Thailand. 

A most encouraging aspect of amateur 
radio In Thailand has been the recent up- 
surge In interest among Thais In the hob- 
by and its related aspects. Up until 1971, 
which coincided with the American pres- 
ence in Vietnam, the society regulated 
membership to a maximum of SO. This 
was largely so that it could he in a posi- 



140 73 Magazine • January, 1984 




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73 Magazine • January, 1984 141 



tion to control the activities of what was 
at that time a hobby mostly pursued by 
American servicemen based temporarily 
in Thai \ and. But with the gradual with- 
drawal of American forces, the complex- 
ion of the club began lo change. More 
Thais joined, and now the society has 
about 600 registered members, of which 
90 percent are Thai— a tar cry from the 
late 1960s when the hobby had caught the 
imagination of tew Thais. 

This upsurge can be attributed to sever- 
al factors, not the least being enthusiasm 
shown by the Post and Telegraph Depart 
mem and personally by the department's 
director-general. Police Mai or General 
Such art P. Sakhoi, who addressed one 
vefy-wel Intended RAST meeting In 19S1. 

If would also be appropriate to credit 
the society's former president, the late 
Brigadier-General Kamchai Chotikul 
HSt WR, for his lifelong dedication to the 
hobby He also did much to popularize 
amateur radio and to increase club mem- 
bership. All club members, as well as hrs 
many friends in amateur radio circles, 
were deeply saddened at his death in 
June. 1982 

The society has. of course, continued 
on its course of promoting the hobby and 
doing its best to popularize amateur radio 
and its sei deduce hona I aspect m this eta 
of rapid technological advances, espe- 
cially in the field of communications. As 
an example of this, the clut> has embarked 
on a course of teaching computer applica- 
tions in amateur radio, since the Integra- 
tion of microcomputing and amateur ra- 
dio is inevitable and they are compatible. 

The society also has conducted other 
educational courses, including Morse 
code, and especially m teaching the elec- 
tronic principles and operating proce- 
dures required for the Thai equivalent of a 
Technician's license for two-meter opera- 
lion 

The Thai PTT has shown great enthusi 
asm for amateur radio, especially in the 
light of constraints relating to national se 
curity apparently imposed from outside 
the Communications Ministry. The de- 
partment has also shown cooperation In 
authorizing special-event stations on the 
HF amateur bands for such occasions as 
major contests and lor I he Southeast Asia 
Network Convention in November, 1982. 

RAST was thus able to operate an HF 
station for the Sea net contest in August 
this year as well as to take part In the All 
Asia DX Contest (CW section) that same 
month. Arrangements also were made for 
the CO WW phone and CW contests In Oc- 
tober and November. 

In operating these contests, the club 
was most grateful to the Asian Institute of 
Technology on Ihe outskirts of Bangkok 
which has endorsed our applications lo 



Qualified for 


Test for 


Test lor 


Test 


on 


Morse Code 


license 


technical 


operating 


regulations 


send and 


Class 


knowledge 


knowledge 






receive (wpm) 


8 


75 


05 


85 




12 


A 


65 


65 


65 




6 


C 


50 


65 


65 




HIA 


Upgrade Irom 












AtoB 


75 


— 


- 




12 


Upgrade from 












Clo A 


65 


- 


- 




6 


Upgrade from 












C to B 


75 


— 


- 




12 



Class 


Piurooef 


PC of Total 


■ 


26,944 


551 


C 


20.254 


42-2 


A 


822 


17 


Total 


48,020 






Table 1. Percent-correct and wpm scones needed to quality tor frcenses. by class and 
subjects, 



PC Increase 1962-19&3 

5,1 

16(1) 
37.0 
40 

Note: The A license has been in existence for only 2 years, and the major reason 
for ttie low increase in class C licenses has been due to license holders upgrad- 
ing to higher license classes. Also note a bad sign: The total increase of 4 per- 
cent was down over the previous year's increase Of 6 6 pet cent 

Table 2. Distribution of tots? number of licenses, by class, and percent increases. 



operate on campus and which kindly of- 
fered the use of its premises for these 
club events. In this way, experienced ama- 
teur radio operators have been able to 
demonstrate several aspects of the hobby 
to those without firsthand experience. 

For example, for both contests. club 
members constructed their own futt-stzed 
yagi beam antennas for the 10-, 15/ and 
20-meter bands using entirely locally- 
available aluminum piping and other hard- 
ware. The antennas were up and in the air 
and getting 5 and 9 plus reports all within 
Ihe space of two afternoons of work by a 
learn of five hams: HS1AHT, who super- 
vised the project, and HS1ALP, HS18G. 
HS1ANV, and HS1AMH (yours truly). 

The dub also issues a much-coveted 
award, the Slam Award, This Is granted to 
amateur radio stations and SWLs who 
have submitted evidence (endorsed log 
extracts) of contacts with Thai amateur 
radio stations in at least six of the nine 
call areas as well as the HSffl prefix which 
signifies a special-event operation. Alter 
natively, evidence of contacts with 10 dif- 
ferent HS stations also qualifies for the 
award. Applicants should enclose 
US$5.00 or the equivalent In IRCs to cover 
the return postage of Ihe award. 

The situation regarding operating on 
HF on a routine Oasis has not changed 
since my September, 1983, column, but 
those who are looking for Zone 26 or That 
land on 10. 15, 20, 40, or 80 meters should 
listen for a pi leu p for the call HS0BS, Ihe 
special -event station, during a major con- 
test. 



WEST GERMANY 

Mttchelt & Wolfson DJQON 

Furtweg 18d 

D-8Q44 Lohftot 

Federal Republic of Germany 

With the hullabaloo concerning the 
FCC proposal for a code-free li cense. I felt 
thai II would be appropriate to illustrate 
how such a license has been approached 
here In Germany. Before going into the 
code free license specifically, let's get a 
general overview Into the German licens- 
ing structure first. 

There are only three license classes in 
Germany, A, B, and C. The B license Is 
your all-purpose ticket, giving you full priv- 
ileges on all bands with a maximum peak 
power of 760 Watts on 80 meters through 
1.2 GHz, and with reduced power on 160 
meters, the WARC bands, and the UHF 
bands 2.3 GHz and above. 

The A license la similar to the present 
Technician-class license in the States, 
with full VHF/UHF privileges, and with CW 
from 3520-3600 and 21090-21150, plus 
full 10-meier phone privileges. Maximum 
peak power la 150 Watts for bands up to 
\2 GHz. This class of license can be rec- 
ognized by calistgns beginning with DH. 



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The third class of license is the class C, 
the cede-free License, This class of li- 
cense carries all VHF/UHF privileges from 
2 meters and up, with a maximum peak 
power of 75 Walls. 

As for the exam itself, the biggest sur- 
prise is that there is actually only one ex- 
am for all three license classes! Trie dif- 
ference between the three license classes 
lies in the score receded on the exam, 
combined with the code speed tested. It is 
quite possible for en applicant for a class 
C license to pass the exam with a score 
qualifying him for a B license, with only 
the CW exam lacking. Judging by ihe 
number of technics 1 1 y-mc lined individuals 
with class C licenses. I would assume that 
this situation occurs quite often. 

Table 1 illustrates the four pans Of Ihe 
German amateuM-adto examination along 
with the score fjn percent) needed to quali- 
fy Ihe applicant lor a specific license 
class- Note that the class C license re- 
quires the applicant to score only 50 per- 
cent on the technical portion, which cer- 
tainly makes this license class relatively 
easy to obtain 

Now come the big questions: What is 
ihe split between the three license class- 
es and what is the impact of the class C 
license? 

As of January I, 19S3. there were 48,020 
licensed amateurs in the Federal Repub- 
lic of Germany, The spilt and increase 
over January 1, 1982, is shown Jn Table 2 

Now for a bit of editorializing: I have to 
admit that I accepted the concept of a 
code-free license with trepidation Having 
operated in the USA for nine years before 
moving to Germany six years ago, I could 
not bring myself to accept that the class C 
operators were anything more than a 
bunch of lids. 

Having now had time to let it sink In. 
plus having been active in club activities. I 
have come to think otherwise When I look 
around at my fellow club members, I see 
that a number of truly invaluable people 
are class C holders. There's the club 
newsletter editor, Ihe member teaching a 
Basic course, others Interested In build- 
ing equipment for the club station, etc. 
Many of the other members are ex-G li- 
censees, such as our club president and 
the one before him. In looking outside our 
little group, I also see class C licensees 
active in repeater groups, writing techni- 
cal articles for amateur magazines, etc. 

When ycu go up to one ot the present or 
previous class C license holders and ask 
specifically if they would have bothered to 
have learned CW to gel their licenses, the 
answer could be a 'yes/' or "no." or a 
"maybe/' but in general ihey feel thai il 
would have been an unnecessary hin- 
drance, it really is too difficult to spetu 
late on this pomi, but Id hale to think 
about losing many invaluable fellow ama- 
teurs just due to the Morse code, 

As for the lids on 2 meters with a Cali- 
fornia-size amateur population wMh very 
few repeaters to operate on. the incidence 
of turkeys is amazingly row when put into 
perspective Remembering what it was 
like in California makes me appreciate the 
true professionalism many German class 
C holders exhibit. 

Will it work in the States? In my opinion, 
only you can make it work. If you will ac- 
cept a code-free licensee as one of your 
own and try to understand that he Of she 
may be able to contribute to your club in 
some way. you will find that the Morse 
code does not really make one a better 
person. Quite the contrary, many of the 
young people now interested in comput- 
ers or electronics would make crest ama- 
teurs Do you reaily want to Ha^ to force 
them air to learn the code' 7 In Germany, we 
don I and il works? 



142 73 Magazine • January, 19S4 



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aao 

SSfi 

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3&O0 

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ft 2S 
10 12 00 
1 SO 

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TTL 



74SOO 

7447 

7475 

7490 

74T96 






40 
65 
50 
50 



It 35 






1 j- 

4059 
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CMOS 



flflff 



50 

50 

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$1 75 



SPECIAL 



11C90 

7207A 

7Z16D 

7ID 

5314 

5375AB/G 

7001 



S1500 
$ T.25 
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S 550 
$21 00 
S12 50 
S 2 9S 
S 2 95 
S 6 50 



Ratittor Ats I 

Assortment ot Popular values ■ i 
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StMitahts 

Mini toggle SPTJl 51 00 

Red Push buttons NO 3 11 00 



Earphones 
leads flnfim Qood to* vnKi lone 
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Cryitali 

3 579545 MHZ S1 50 

10 00000 MHZ S5.00 

5?4&flOQ MHZ J5.00 



AC Adapt* r* 

Oood lor noch* nicad 
tridrt)i'if.,*il 1 10 VAC pfug 
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ft S vdc ftr 70 mA in M 

1ft *K J lftOmA S3 SO 

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FERRITE BEADS 

YV" . r.Ti, Jf»U «fKfH * t|.{1 DO 

& Hflie Hi U.n Bf 4«ll ^11 00 



Slug Tuo*d Coil* 
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AC Outlet 
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2fiPin .112 00 

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5 1 V Zener 20/11 00 

!Nr3t4 Type 50/ Si 00 

?KV2Amp I SI 00 

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25 AMP 
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$1,50 each 

Mini-Bridge 50V 
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CAPACITORS 

TAMTALUH 

DcpM E{K: i I 

1.5 uF 25V 3/S100 
1.8 uF 25V 3,'S1 00 
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tOOOlJ ifiv **aa j- 1 SO 

Mfflyt.WA.l: 190 

i»uf T6v Ani< S-11 00 

l0i*Ft5w Ha-3*i ton OC 



pis* cemanc 

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i i*v I* II H 

00' 70H« 

'*■.> 70 Jt DO 



DC OC Conirarlfr 

>5 mlIl iri{.i,.,i fjr,ni '. v. 1 "SOma 

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25« 20 Turn • • .•.. i -i H M 
IK ?Q Turn Trim **or 1 50 



Ceramic tF F ■ t >■ ■— -^_ 
Min-i rt i f\ OU* T kHz 

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it 



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Stable Prjlypropylenp 
M 



Audio 
Preiciler 

Make high resolution audio 
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instrument tuning. PL tones, etc 
Mull i pi ifls audio UP m frequency 
selectable *10 or x 100 gives 01 
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meg input i and built-m filtering 
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PS? wirod S39.9S 




600 MHz 
PRESCALER 



Extend the range of your 
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with ait counters Less than 
150 mv sensitivity specify- 
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Wired tested 
Kit PS- IB 



PS- IB 159.95 

$44 95 



30 Watl 2 mtr PWR AMP 

Simple Cfass C power amp features 8 limes power gam 1 W in 
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incredible value, complete *ith all parts less case and T-R relay 
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TR*1. RF sensed T-R relay kit 6.95 



MRF-23fi trans rata r as used in Pa i 
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RF actuated relay senses RF 

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For RF sensed T-R relay 

TR-1 Kit S6 + 95 



Power Supply Kil 

Complete tnpii* regulated power 
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Complete kit PS-3LT S6.9S 



Cnralal Microphone 
Small i domain . thick 
crystal mike carindoc t-75 



Co* i Connector 

Chassis mount 

BNC type 11.00 



Mini RQ-V74 Coax 
10 M for f 1 00 



t v&H Brnmrj Cllpa 

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k ^uMW* GrOitimrH 10 tor tl 00 



OP AMP Spacial 
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& ^n T r p« gold contacts *or 
m A 1003 car ckKh module 
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M'n. Re<3 Jumbo Red H»Qh intensify Red Illuminator Red • / * t 

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Tunabto range 



78MG 

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7905 



1125 
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1.50 

11 15 

11.00 



Rtgyieiort 



7©1? 
781 S 
7905 
7912 

79^5 



It 00 
11 00 
1125 
11 25 
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Shrink Tubing Nub* 
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Opio Isolators - 4N23 type 

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^ 



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CDS PIMM alb 

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^See itsf of Advertisers on page f 14 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 143 



. 



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J** v aZHi ri . W- '*■•' ' 'm. Kl t- 




amlronics 



144 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



T451 UHFFM EXCITER 2 to 3 Watts on 450 
ham band or adjacent freq. Kit only S7S. 

VHF&UHFLINEAR AMPLIFIERS* Useon 
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A1 6 RFTIGHT BOX Deepdrawn alum, case 
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Designed especially for repeaters. $20. 



^33 



ACCESSORIES 




COR KITS With Audio mixer, speaker ampli- 
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CWID KITS 158 bits, field programmable, 
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DTMF DECODER/CONTROLLER KITS. 
Control 2 separate on/off functions with 
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U se with main or aux receiver or with Auto- 
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AUTOPATCH KITS. Provide repeater a uto- 
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Only $90. Requires DTMF Module, 



„ 



.' I ''■- I ■:■ * -.'•". I 




J* £> A 





HELICAL RESONATOR FILTERS available 

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HRF-144for 143-150 MHz $38 
HRF-220 for 213-233 MHz $38 
HRF-432 for 420*450 MHz $48 



NEW LOW-NOISE PREAMPS RECEIVING CONVERTERS TRANSMIT CONVERTERS 



New (ow noise microwave transistors make 
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Madete LNA( J, 

P3Q, end P432 

shown 



Mode* 

LNA2S 
LNA 50 
LNA 1 44 
LNA 220 
LNA 432 
LNA 600 



Tunabie 
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2O40 
40-70 
I2f>180 
160-250 
380-470 
470-960 



OSdS 
9 dB 
t OdB 
1.0 dB 
1.0 dB 
1.2dB 



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iSdB 
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P30K r VHF Kit less case 
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P432K UHF Kit less case 
P432W, UHF Wired/Tested 



SIB 
$33 
$21 
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P432 also available in broadband version to 
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Model 


Tuning Range 
143-150 MHz 


Price 


HRA-144 


$49 


HRA-220 


213-233 MHz 


$49 


HRA-432 


420-450 MHz 


$59 


HRA-{ ) 


150174MHz 


S69 


HRA-{ ) 


450-470 MHz 


$79 




Models to cover every practical rf & if range to 
listen to SSB, FM. ATV P etc. NF = 2 dB or less. 



VHF MODELS 

Kit with Case $49 
Less Case $39 
Wired S69 



Antenna 
Input Range 

28-32 

50-52 

50-54 
144-346 
M5-147 
144-1444 
146-143 
144-148 
220-222 
220-224 
222-226 
220224 
222-224 



Receiver 
Output 

144-T48 
2fl-30 

144-146 
28-30 
23-30 

27-274 
23-30 
50-54 
23-30 

144-148 

144*148 
50-54 
28-30 



UHF MODELS 

Kit with Case $59 
Less Case $49 
Wired $75 



432-434 
435-437 
432-436 
432*436 
43925 



28-30 
2B-30 
144 143 
50*54 
61.25 



SCANNER CONVERTERS Copy 72-76, 135- 
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on any scanner. Wired/tested Only $88. 



SAVE A BUNDLE ON 
VHF FM TRANSCEIVERS! 



FM-5 PC Board Kit - ONLY $1 78 

complete with controls, heatsink P etc. 

10 Watts, 5 Channels, for 2M or 220 MHz. 




While supply 
lasts, get $60 
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Where else can you get a complete transceiver 
lor only $176 



For SSB, CW, ATV. FM, etc, Why pay bfg 
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be linked with receive converters for transceive. 
2 Watts output vhf t 1 Watt uhf. 



For VHF, 
Model XV2 
Kit $79 
Wired $149 
(Specify band) 



Exciter 

Input Range 

23-30 

23-29 

23-30 
27-27,4 

23-30 

50-54 
144-146 

50-54 
144-146 



Antenna 
Output 

144-146 
145-146 

50-52 

144-1444 

220-222* 

220-224 

50-52 

144-140 

28-30 



For UHF P 
Model XV4 
Kit $99 
Wired $169 



2830 
23-30 
50-54 
d1 .25 
144-143 



432-434 
435^437 
432-436 
43925 
432-436* 



■Add S20 tor 2M Input 







VHF & UHF LINEAR AMPLIFIERS. Use with 
above. Power levels from 10 to 45 Watts* 
Several models, kits from $78. 



LOOK AT THESE 
ATTRACTIVE CURVES! 













if 




































































































j 






























1 








H 










-1 — 


t 




1 

H H 


<■ 


, 


•"- 


f 


IrB- 




*l° I >lti «!« »» 

**<* «tll +TU *M 4M 



Typical Selectivity Curves 

of Receivers end 

Helical Resonators. 






IMPORTANT REASONS WHY 
YOU SHOULD BUY FROM THE 
VALUE LEADER: 

7, Largest selection of vhf and uhf kits 
in the world. 

2. Exceptional quality and low prices doe 
to target volume. 

3. Fast delivery: most kits shipped same day. 

4. Complete, professional instruction 
manuals. 

5. Prompt factory service available and 
free phone consultation. 

6. In business 21 years. 

7. Sell more repeater modules than aft 
other m/rs and have for years. Can give 
quality features for much lower cost 



amironics, inc. 



Call or Write for FREE CATALOG 

(Send $1 -00 or 4 IRC 5 c for overseas mailing) J_ _ _ _ ^ 

Order by phone or mail • Add S3 S& H per order *>m 

(Electronic answering service evenings & weekends) 65-A MOUL RD. • HILTON NY 14468 

Use VISA, MASTERCARD, Check, or UPS COD. Phone: 716-392-9430 

Hamtronics is a registered trademark 



See Ltst of Adverffsers on page 1 N 



73 Magazine • January, 1984 145 



DEALER DIRECTORY 



Culver City CA 

Jibi"i Electronic*. SWi SrpuJifd* Blvd..* { uKit 
Clh CA U023U, aeG-MM)3 Tr H d» 4«3 I ^ ^an 
1 1 tgo, B27-5T32 (Rera KV) 

Fontana CA 

Complete line* tCOM. DroTron, Ten-Tee, 
Mirage, Cubic. Lunar, QAff tiHKJ ettKtZOflic 
products for rwihhin, r«,hniL-ian, apm- 
menrrr Also CH rudm UrLfiiTHi'bilt* Ftintang 
Hlwrtromcs- 562* Sirfi* v., t'onuni CA 
W335. §22-7710. 

San Jose CA 

Bat am * nfviert amateur radm aurc Vr* 
Ac used amatnir radio tab* & -iCT\i«= Wr 
fcariirt Kenwood. I COM, \/drri. \*e*u_ Ten- 
Tec, Santec & many rnorr SHavcr Radio, trie,, 
1371 *kj Bairorn Ave . S*r fen CA 9312A> 
W§-H03. 

New CatfJe DE 

Kii^urv Authorised Dealer! Yjkwuj JCOM. j ■ i 
T«r, KDK. Azckn. AEA, kuninmicv Suntnc Full 
line of accessories, X«» sale* ink in IX+Uwure Out- 
mile off 1-95, Lid* war*' Amateur Supply. Tl 
Meadow Road. \<?v* Gitf?e t>E 19720, 
38S.77M 

Bloomington IL 

Hohrt TilUm — WhHtm!*' rfttrtCt iti 1ISM> . 
In 34 '"» discoanl from ckairr pricr All pmduct* 
*v uU bit- Write or call tm prter list Alio we are 
wholesale dMtnhutun. M Amenna Specialises 
ftefenrt, and Hy Cain Hill tUdki. ¥*& OJ 
Bond PO Bo\ t-tOS. BkumiRgton IL 
hl70t-0Vi7. A&J-21H 



[D 

Rurk\ M-Mjut^iii *t+m\ ui"*i>l ham dealer Call 
HJM Firtt for AEA, A*drti, KlUC. I™T«', TM 
it-rtHji. Cu$bef4&, and mtirH HJM Eluetwqks, 
4204 Overland. &w ID 83705, M3*401S, 



Protein ll> 

Rott WB7EYZ has itir lurt' '•' Pi ■■ I- oj atnaWttl 

jp-af in the Intel itaJn V\im 4ml the - K.-*' 

prices C*ll mr fur aII vinjr fu.ni nrvd*. Hoto 
DiitrJhutine. 7s s« *-t*t r _ Vt&um ID S32W. 

Littleton MA 

Thr 11-liililf furn *»i.ur w**tng NF Frill lint* of 

ECOM fr K«-n*,»id ¥a*N l!T\ Drat* 1 . D**^ 
RccW «crcsu}rn~ £1 Tut k«-t*-ri Lanen. 

Httsder, Tcin. }U (-am f-redurfe Miraz-- 
#m[» .. AMtbtt I' S Siplw Delta pTiUMtW-.. 
\HnL it KaEtJonK^ latfiniloQ Aid* Whi-dW 
T-tlar drtn-tot-N Full htxr iff coai fitting. 
TEL— COM EhxlnuiH 1 ummtuiii^tinn*. U75 
(.rt#t Bd. <W1. 119). M«Jrl«n MA 0l4fi0, 
4hft-34W3040. 

Ann Arbor MI 

W us for products like Tim 1 rei H C Driikc. 
Dmiroii mid iiiHin tmnt Oimi Monday throug^l 
Saturday, 0fi30 to L73D W'H^i.h. WMUXO, 
l\ DiOKN, and USRF U-luntl ihr cottrriet Pm- 
chav Had i4i Suppli^ 127 I\ ElxMntr Ave.. Ann 
Arbor Mr 41104 BSH^tM. 



Hudson NH 

Look! han». SWLft, and r^KTinn'riU-r* ]mrts. 
lnHikA. ui-ai. intenni>. toWefs Call f(U CftifrteJt. 
Fo!«*ri * ELECTRONLCS CENTER, HI Lowell 
Road (HoutD 3 A), Hudson NH KJ0S1, HK3-500S. 

Albany. New York 

UPSTATE NEW YORK 

Kenwood, tCOM. Ten-Tec, Btrlden. Cliihctlft. 
Umit, HttMbf. ARHU H\ Cjio R*U MFJ, 
Mirage Vi^si and used: erjuipmersi Srn,inf ihe 
amairur (Txnnuinttv yr*ce 1*4 2 Adimintaefc 
EteetrofMCk r tnc„ 1991 Centml A^eJiue, Allmni 
tfl 12205, 456-0203 one mile ««i o| SoU 

Columbus OH 

TV biggs* and best ham More m thr Mid^wi 
fratunng Kenwood and other qualltt jn,«li>ti> 
u nh u E>rkihK Uiijiinv v U> »13 *mlA tlu- l>e*i 4ti 
lh<rtitt-d Krn^cxid ieriiiv. l ! nhertal Amateur 
fladln. Inc.. 12S0 Aida Dr.. BevniddthurK tCdt- 
umhuH (JH 43lMi*i. flriti-l2fi7. 

Stigler OK 

TIQfl -i-4A Basic T Exttnded Bw|e. A»crnbl> 
Ljiiirtuam' F^r^nram^ CW Transceive, C% Hnd- 
tin tA lam. WAS. ssT\. ritmkU* rW 
KTarrti AC5D Computer Pro^rarnii, B«m 3ll& t 
Stigtef OI£ 744&L 9r}7-2fKH- 

ScrauLooPA 

(COM: Bird. CTiahcrafT, Beekman Flukr Ijt 
<*ti. Uutilrr Aotrtifia Sprciativti. Aiirtifi. A^an- 
tt BHden. W2AVW:VS. AE V \ i!woptn_ 
HamKei. Amphenoi. Stmv. R&W QiaiSc-al. 
Ccrvef Craft. J\V Miller l?*i» a. 1RHL. 
Am*cT> VnuTr LaRue Electronic*, 1LI2 (.rand- 
View Si. Scraninn PA 1A5D9. 143-2124 

Dallas TX 

IBM V(. A;i|ilr aftenrniarki-e ptodliCb; h< "I »l »V4JSt»' 

rliiinuiji^ [>rojvd Jiitv ^ni) (Hi miiii'ii'i*- modem 
kit, *idiMTiptHiwwiiellite TV dtscodei klli, 

EPRtJM isrcJ^r^nutuT ili]|illruHtit, popillttt 
1 - 1 ■ 1 1 1 « ■ r-% |C testers, data *Eu*vt>, ujipltcutiuiL 
QOtta and nw»e thar BOOtl ptrb m rtotA 
S ifnka f JJK iuctOTi, discretti, iidr^i produ 
loofa Ple^c write for KJ| Frw 

Illeralurr LalaliP|£ In^t-prndrnt Flextronic*. 
fr4LS-0tV Airline Rd . Dalla> I \ 



Livonia Ml 

ComptetP photmDitaic «ilefnv %inatfur raJio. 
tcpeater. ^idlnr. and computer application^ 
Call Paul WLWAHO Ennm Ffaotinoitaikh 
2764)0 Schaoknh RmbI UMbi Ml 4SlrM>. 
523-1SS0. 



Baltimore \V ashtneton 

A^anTr4 *ram»«*>r*. amplifier* njcJIaltm awl 
LNAi GaaiUJ r»bie and eonnertiirv Blumler 
Tongite dealer «ith MiLM**if t*f»»rattrrv Ap- 
plied $f***allk», Is* 1010JC BM»n Dri^e. 
Br1u\ ilk MI> 20705, Waak S9SSJH2, Bah. 
T9^S3U 7 JO am to 6:00 prn. MutkUv thru 
Friday. 



DEALERS 

Your company nanie and mussaue 
can contain up to 25 words for as little 
iis $15() yearly (prepaid), m $13 (>er 
month (prepaid quarterly). Nt> men- 
tion of mail-order dumnua or area. 
code permitted, Di^ector^■ tcxi and 
payment must reach us 60 days in ad- 
vance of publication I vaniplr. 
advertising for the April "R4 i*sue must 
lx* in our hands by Feb I st \tail to 73 
Magazine, Peterborough Ml 03458 
ATTN: N T aney Ciampa. 



PROPAGATION 



J. H, Nelson 
4 Plymouth Dr. 
Whfttng NJ 08759 



EASTERN UNITED STATES TO: 1 


GMT: oq 02 iH on ca 10 l? U ia IS m 23 


ALASKA I :A 1 


7 


14 


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7 


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A = Next higher frequency band may also be useful. 
B = Difficult circuit this period. 

First letter = night waves. Second = day waves, 

G = Good, F = Fair, P = Poor. * = Chance of solar flares. 

ri = Chance of aurora. 

NOTE THAT NIGHT WAVE LETTER NOW COMES FIRST, 



B .N 



MOW 



JANUARY 

TUE WED TIHU 



FRI 



SAT 



1 

F/F 


2 

F/G 


3 

F/G 


4 

F/F 


5 |6 

F/F | G/G 


7 

G/G 


8 

F/F 


9 

F/G 


10 

F/G 


tl 12 

F/F F/G 


13 

G/G 


14 

G/G 


15 

F/F 


16 17 

F/G G/G 


18 19 

G/G F/F* 


20 

P/F* 


21 

P/F 


22 

F/F 


23 24 

F/G | G/G 


25 

G/G 


26 

F/F* 


27 

P/F* 


28 

P/F 


29 

F/F 


30 

F/F 


31 

P/F 











146 73 Magazine * January, 1984 



NEW GALAXIES OF PERFORMANCE ON VHF AND UHF 



FULL DUPLEX!! 



TELLITESM 



SCATTER!! 



YAESt: 
























^^^ 






— 


—^—— 




«4PC 


MM** 


^^■^ 


^~~^~ 




JP^ f^£j*Z~ 




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. 1 


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m* ■■■ 








■ 


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v 




^^^^ 


«* 


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^ -J #-■ 


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▼ ▼ 


C - r h 



The New Yaesu FT-726R Tribander is the world s first multiband, multimode Amateur transceiver capable of 
full duplex operation. Whether you're interested in OSCAR, moonbounce, or terrestrial repeaters, you owe 
yourself a look at this one-of-a-kind technological wonder! 

Multiband Capability 

Factory equipped for Z meter operation, the FT-726R is a three-band unit capable of operation on 10 meters, 6 meters, and/or two segments of 
the 70 cm band (430-440 or 440-450 MHz), using optional modules. The appropriate repeater shift is automatically programmed for each 
module, Other bands pending. 

Advanced Microprocessor Control 

Powered by an 8-bit Central Processing Unit, the ten-channel memory of the FT-726R stores both frequency and mode, with pushbutton transfer 
capabilrty to either of two VFO registers. The synthesized VFO tunes in 20 Hz steps on SSB/CW, with selectable steps on FM. Scanning of the 
band or memories Is provided. 

Full Duplex Option 

The optional SU-726 module provides a second, parallel IF strip, thereby allowing full duplex crossband satellite work. Either the transmit or 
receive frequency may be varied during transmission, for quick zero-beat on another station or for tracking Ooppler shift. 

High Performance Features 

Borrowing heavily from Yaesu's HF transceiver experience, the FT-726R comes equipped with a speech processor, variable receiver bandwidth, 
IF shift, all-mode squelch, receiver audio tone control,.and an IF noise blanker. When the optional XF-455MC CW filter is installed, CW Wide/ 
Narrow selection is provided. Convenient rear panel connections allow quick interface to your station audio, linear amplifier, and control lines. 

Leading the way into the space age of Ham communications, Yaesu's FT-726R is the first VHF/UHF base station 
built around modem-day requirements. If you're tired of piecing together converters, transmitter strips, and relays* 
ask your Authorized Yaesu Dealer for a demonstration of the exciting new FT-726R, the rig that will expand your DX 
horizons! 



Price And Specifications Subject To 
Change Without Notice Or Obligation 




W 



483 



The radio. 



TAIIU 



-33 



YAESU ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 6851 Walthall Way, Paramount, CA 90723 
YAESU CINCINNATI SERVICE CENTER 9070 Gold Park Drive, Hamilton, OH 4501 1 



(213) 633-4007 
(513) 874-3100 



I 




BIG performance., 
small size... 
smaller price!!! 

TR-2500 

The TR-2500 is a compact 2 meter FM 
handheld transceiver featuring an LCD 
readout, 10 channel memory, Lithium 
battery memory back-up, memory 
scan, programmable automatic band 
scan. Hi Lo power switch and built-in 
sub- tone encoder. 

TR-2500 FEATURES; 

* Extremely compact size and light 
weight 

Measures 66 (2 5/81 W x 168 (6-5/8) H 
x 40 n D« mm [inches). Weighs 

540 grams (1.2 lbs} with Ni-Cd park, 

• LCD digital frequency readout 
Show- hrqueni iesand memory 
channels, four 'Arrow*' inda ator 

• Ten channel memory 

Nine memories for simplex or ±600 
kHz offset. "MO" memory Tor non- 
standard split frequency repealers, 

* Lithium battery memory hack -up 
[Estimated 5 year Ufe\) Maintau 
memory when Nl-Cd pack Is fully 

discharged or removed. 



n OFFSET — flEV 





vL13 






Eb 



w.° c 

- 1*4 + NORM 



QN km 
B*TT 



SQUELCH 



POWER; VOL 



• HI LOW power selection 

2.5 walls or 300 mv 

• Memory scan 

Scans niiiv channels in which 
frequency data te stored 

• Programmable automatic band scan 
Upper and lower frequency limits and 
scan sups of 5-kHz and larger. 

• UP/DOWN manual scan 

• Built-in tuneable sub-tone encoder 
Tuneable Ivari isior) to desired 
CTCSS lour 

• Built-in 16 -key autopatch encoder 

• "SLIDE-LOC battery pack 

• Repeater reverse switch 

• Keyboard frequency selection 

• Extended frequency coverage 

Covers 143.900 to 148.995 MHz In 
5-kHz steps. 

• Optional power source 

Using optional MS-1 mobile or ST-2 AC 

charter/power supply, radio may be 
operated while * barging. (Automatic 
drop- in connections.) 






TR-3500 

70 CM FM Handheld 

• 440-449.995 MHz in 5-kl I ps 

• TX OFFSET switch keyboard 

programmable ±5 kHz to ±9.995 M 

• 1.5 W/300 mW Ml LOW power switch 
■ An to* squelch position on squelch 

control 

• Tone switch for TU-35B optional 
programmable (TCSS encoder 

• Other features include 10 memories 
IhhHim ballery memory bark-up, 
program in able automatic band 
scan, memory- scan, LIP/DOWN 
manual s t ,m, repeater reverse, 
16-key autopatch, keyboard frr 
quency selection, slide-lock battel 



• VB-2530 2-M 25 W RF power amp., 
w/cabtes, mtg. brkt. ITR-250G only} 

• TU-l Programmable CTCSS encoder 
[TR-250O only) 

• 1 iB Programmable 
CTCSS encoder (mounts Inside 
TR-3500 only} 

• P&-25 Extra 400 J&AH Ni-Cd battery 

• PB-25H Heavy duty 490 mAH Nl-Cd 
battery 

• DC-25 13.8 vi dapter. 

• BT-1 Battery ease for manganese/ 
alkaline AA cells 

■ SMC-25 Speaker- m if rophone 

• LH-2 Deluxe leather case 

• BH-2A Belt honk 

• RA :i m :vw A telescoping antenna 
I for TR-2500). 

- VVS-I Wr rap 

• EP-1 Earphone 

More Information un i he TR-2500 
and TR-3500 ir tilable from ail 
authorized dealers of Trio-Kenwood 
Communications. 1LL1 West Walnut 

Street Compton, California 90220. 

KENW00C 

...pacesetter tn amafeur radifl 
power supply 

Specifications and prices arv subject to change without aoltce or ohUgutlo 



Actual size 

• High impact plastic case 

• Battery status indicator 

• Two lock switches 

Prevenl accidental frequency change 
and accidental transmission. 

Standard accessories include; 

• Flexible antenna with BNC connector 

• 400 mAH Mi C/d battery park 

• A(; charger 
Optional accessories: 

• ST-2 Base station power supply 
charter (appro x i hr.) 

•MS i 13,8 vdc mobile stand/charger/